Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) as a carrier vehicle for antimalarial drugs, modification and application

Rana A. K. Al-Refai’a


Globally more than 45% of the population is under the risk of malaria infection. In this presented work, three different compounds have been tested as anti-malarial agents with and without conjugation to the external surface of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). The particle developed as a carrier of ferrocene (Fc) due to the resistance to commercially available antimalarial drugs. CPMV-Fc conjugate, in which 174 molecules are covalently bound to external surface carboxylates of the viral nanoparticle (VNP), shows the greatest inhibition toward proliferation of plasmodium falciparum compared to free ferrocene which has no activity as antimalarial agent. Fc also enhanced the activity of two different compounds of 4-aminochloroqunoline derivatives 3-((7chloroquinolin-4-yl) amino) propionic acid CQp and (7-chloroquinolin-4-yl) alanine CQ-ala, after its conjugation to CPMV-CQp and CPMV-CQ-ala in 82 and 134 molecules per particle respectively to give CPMV-CQ-p-Fc and CPMV-CQ-ala-Fc. The activity of each conjugated ferrocene has been evaluated with and without using biological material. In the case of biological material these compounds have been tested against both chloroquine sensitive strain 3D7 and chloroquine resistance strain Dd2 using the chloroquine as a standard antimalarial drug. The CPMV conjugate is targeted to the food vacuole parasite of the plasmodium falciparum cell, where the pH is dropped, drug carrier is degraded and the drug released.


Viral nanoparticle, ferrocene, chloroquine

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