Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) as a Carrier Vehicle for Antimalarial Drugs, Modification, and Application

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Rana A. K. Al-Refai’ad
Zaid M M Almahdawi
Munife S. Ahmed Al-janabi


compounds have been tested as anti-malarial agents with and without conjugation to the external surface of the Cowpea
mosaic virus (CPMV). The particle developed as a carrier of ferrocene (Fc) due to the resistance to commercially available
antimalarial drugs. CPMV-Fc conjugate, in which 174 molecules are covalently bound to external surface carboxylates of
the viral nanoparticle (VNP), shows the greatest inhibition toward the proliferation of plasmodium falciparum compared to
free ferrocene which has no activity as an antimalarial agent. Fc also enhanced the activity of two different compounds of
4-amino chloroquinoline derivatives 3-((7chloroquinolin-4-yl) amino) propionic acid CQp and (7-chloroquinolin-4-yl) alanine
chloroquine diphosphate (CQ)-ala, after its conjugation to CPMV-CQp and CPMV-CQ-ala in 82 and 134 molecules per particle
respectively to give CPMV-CQ-p-Fc and CPMV-CQ-ala-Fc. The activity of each conjugated ferrocene has been evaluated
with and without using biological material. In the case of biological material, these compounds have been tested against both
chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 and chloroquine resistance strain Dd2 using the chloroquine as a standard antimalarial drug.
The CPMV conjugate is targeted to the food vacuole parasite of the plasmodium falciparum cell, where the pH is dropped,
drug carrier is degraded, and the drug released.

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Research Article