Anticancer Activity of Mixed Doxorubicin and Pravastatin in Nanoemulsions Against HCT 116 Colon Cancer Cells

Mayson Alkhatib, Retnowati ., Amalia F.


Combining drugs with different mechanism of action in nanocarriers is becoming a promising strategy in cancer therapy.
In the present study, the anticancer activity of the combination of doxorubicin (DOX) and pravastatin (PRV) loaded in
nanoemulsions (NEs) was evaluated in HCT 116 colon cancer cells. The NE formulas (NEa and NEb) consisted of different
weight fractions of the surfactant mixture of Eumulgin HRE 40/ Soya phosphatidylcholine/ sodium oleate at a fixed weight
ratio of 3.5:3.0:3.5, cholesterol (CHO), Tris- HCl buffer (pH 7.22), and 1-octanol. The cytotoxicity of the drug formulas,
loaded in either water or NEs, was assessed through 3-(4, 5 Dimethylthiazole- 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide
(MTT) assay, while the mechanism of cell death was determined by observing the morphological changes of treated cells
under light microscope and identifying apoptosis by using the ApopNexin FITC kit and DAPI nuclear staining. It has been
found that reducing the concentration of DOX from 15 to 7.5µM by formulating it with 7.5µM of PRV in NEa (NEa (1
DOX:1 PRV)) has preserved its cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cancer cells. The present study proved that the combination
of the PRV and DOX loaded in NEa formulations improved the therapeutic potential of both of PRV and DOX as anticancer


Combination chemotherapy, Nanoemulsions, Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis, antitumor activity

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