1. Synthesis and Characterization of Orotic Acid Loaded Chitosan Inclusion Complex
Abdelkader Hassani1 , Abul K. Azad2 , Hamid H. Enezei3 , Siti A. Hussain4 , ABM Helal Uddin5*
The current study aims to improve drug release properties of orotic acid loaded with chitosan inclusion complex (OA/CS).
The OA/CS inclusion complex was synthesized using the freeze-drying technique. The characterization of inclusion OA/ CS was carried out using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), zeta sizer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the size of OA/CS ranged between 58 nm and 200 nm, and the zeta potential was 30 mV. Thus, this study indicates that OA/CS has a promising future to develop a carrier for drug delivery systems further
2. Stability Test of Glycosaminoglycan and Achasin in Snail (Achatina fullica) Slime and Its Gel Formulation
Lia Agustina, Fenita Shoviantari*, Dimas Aditya
Snail slime (Achatina fullica) contains glycosaminoglycan, which can accelerate wound healing and achasin, which has antibacterial activity. The Objectives of the study to determine the stability of the protein in snail mucus in three different storage conditions. The snail slime stability test was carried out in two ways, namely the determination of protein content by the Lowry method and seeing the stability of the achasin and glycosaminoglycan proteins by the sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) method. In addition, the formulation of snail slime gel was made with a variety of gelling agents, namely Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) and Carbomer. Protein concentration showed a decrease in protein concentration, but the SDS-PAGE result showed that the decrease was not inactive protein (glycosaminoglycan and achasin). Further study should be conducted to evaluate stability in long time with different excipient and also the effectiveness of formulation in accelerate wound healing. According to the result, we are observed, the snail slime was successfully formulated into a gel with HMPC and carbopol as a gelling agent.
3. Enhancement of Solubility and Dissolution Rate of Poorly Soluble Drug Nifedipine by Solid SMEDDS
Sabitri Bindhani1*, Utkalika Mohapatra1 , Snehamayee Mohapatra1 , Rajat K. Kar2
Nifedipine is a dihydropyridine calci channel blocking agent belongs to biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class-II mainly applied in the treatment of hypertension and angina-pectoris. The objective of this work is to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of nifedipine by formulating into a solid-self micro emulsifying drug delivery system (solid smedds).
Methods: Oil, Surfactant, and cosurfactant were selected by solubility screening study. For the determination of the best emulsion region, a pseudo ternary diagram was prepared. Based on solubility castor oil, tween 80 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was selected in which SCOSmix (a mixture of surfactant and cosurfactant) was 1:1. Thermodynamic stability study was performed for the determination of stable smedds formulation. These formulations were evaluated for self emulsification time, drug content analysis, robustness to dilution test, particle size analysis, and in vitro diffusion study. The optimized formulation
was selected for formulating into solid-smedds by using aerosil 200 at a different ratio. SCF9L (0.65:1) was selected due to its good flow property. Then it was evaluated for particle size analysis, drug content study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction study (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Scanning Electron Microscopy study (SEM) analysis, and in vitro dissolution study. Results: DSC and XRD result shows that the drug within the formulation was in the amorphous state. From the SEM analysis, the texture of powder showed a uniform granular structure, and there was no incompatibility between drugs. Excipients was observed from ftir study. From the in vitro dissolution study, it improved the dissolution rate of nifedipine, which was 98.68% of drug release, where pure drug release only 6.75%.
5. Synthesis, Antimicrobial Evolution, Defibrillation Threshold Studies, Docking Studies, Silico Admet Analysis and PER-Metabolism Study of Some New Dihydropyrmidine Derivatives
Sahar B. Al-Juboori
Dihydropyrimidinone and dihydropyrimidine derivatives are reported to possess broad biological activities. Many synthetic samples have been studied as antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer agents. We decided to synthesize novel compounds of new pyrimidine derivatives. The present work involves the synthesis of new dihydropyridine derivatives. The starting vanillin, compound (1) was used as the key intermediate to prepare the 5-acetyl-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-6-methyl pyrimidine-2(1H)-one(2),Ethyl 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (3), 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)- 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro quinazoline-2(1H)-one (4), respectively, through the reaction with urea and acetylacetone or ethyl acetoacetate or cyclohexanone but 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro quinazoline-2(1H)-thione (5) reacted with thiourea and cyclohexanone. FTIR,1 H-NMRand13C-NMR spectroscopy characterized all the synthesized compounds. The synthesized derivatives were
screened for their in vitro, antibacterial activity against two gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus and two gram-negative bacteria: Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi and the results showed that most of them have good antibacterial activity. While their antifungal activity against three fungi species: (Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizopus), revealed that compounds (1-5) displayed the most potent antifungal activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the synthesized compounds (1-5) were conducted, using a molecular structure with optimized geometry. Highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies and structures are demonstrated. The antimicrobial activity indicates that compounds 3 and 4 are the most active than the compounds 2 and 5. Molecular docking revealed that compounds (4) and (5), with cyclohexyl groups are important to block the active centers of glucose -6-phosphate synthase in the bacteria and fungi.
6. Phytochemical and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Leaves Extract by MCF-7 Cell Line and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay
Abul Kalam Azad1 , ABM Helal Uddin2*
This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) leaves crude extract. It has been reported to show various bioactivities. The phytochemical screening of the extract has been carried qualitatively. The cytotoxic effect was determined through in vitro MTT assay of MCF-7 cell line, and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The presence or absence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, terpene, steroid, phenol, and flavonoid in the extract was determined through the qualitative tests. The extract showed cell viability of 100% (1.95–3.9 μL/mL), 96% (1.95 μL/mL), ≈ 95% (3.9–15.62 μL/ mL) and 88% (250 μL/mL) while the mortality of brine shrimp nauplii was from 5% to 10% (7.8 – 125 μL/mL) respectively. For both assays, DMSO of 1 & 0.1% were used as vehicle controls, while the potassium dichromate as the positive control for the brine shrimp only. These results proved the leaves extract to be non-toxic.
7. Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Elettaria Cardamomum Extracts on the Growth of Some Gingivitis Inducing Bacteria in Culture Media
Ali M. Ghazi* , Ahmed J. Na’ma, Qassim H. Kshash, Nafae S. Jasim
The our work was carried out with an objective to appraisal the antibacterial action of cardamom extracted by four different solvents and prepared in a number of concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL) toward three different pathogenic bacteria responsible mainly for induce gingivitis infection and comparison their action with the action of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin (5µg), Ampicillin (30µg) in culture media. The results of phytochemical profiles for different extracts of cardamom showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, and terpenes in all used extracts while flavonoids were present in all extracts except watery extract. Saponins were present only in the ethanolic extract, while phenols were found to be present only in ethanolic and chloroformic extracts. The antibacterial screening of the different extracts of cardamom and standard antibiotics showed various degrees of zones of inhibition in the culture media depending largely upon the type of plant extract, the concentration of extract in addition to the type of tested bacterial. Almost all the cardamom extracts were found to have significant activity (p <0.05) against all tested bacteria com the pared with a negative control. The highest antibacterial potential was observed for the ethanolic cardamom extract, whereas other cardamom extracts showed closed results in general. At the same time, the current study was recorded that inhibition zones diameter against tested bacteria raised significantly (p < 0.05) as the extract concentration raised. The MIC values of watery, ethanolic, chloroformic, and acetonic extracts of cardamom ranged from 0.624 to 1.248 mg/mL, 0.078 to 0.312mg/mL, 0.624 to 1.248 and 0.312 to 0.624 mg/mL against tested bacteria respectively. While the MBC values ranged from 1.248 to 10 mg/mL, 0.624 to 2.5 mg/mL, 2.5mg/mL to 5 mg/mL and 2.5mg/mL respectively.
8. Development of a Novel Method for Quantitative Determination of Indomethacin
Nehad K. Abed, Ali Rasool M. Albakaa*, Dina Saleem M. Ameen, Zainab A. Jabbar, Amany S. Younis
A new green analytical chemistry method using a Ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy is proposed to measure Indomethacin (as cuprous complex); Designate, sophisticated, and proved for determination pure mode of indomethacin, and at dosage forms respective. The present study was prepared quantitatively of the Indomethacin complex, and the molar ratio between the cuprous and indomethacin (1:1) is measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy, the maximum absorbance peak of cuprous complex was measured at (319 nm) in wavelength range (190‐900 nm), at range of the concentration (10–60µg.mL-1) the linear calibration curve was painted and show regression equation (Y = 0.0036X – 0.0054) and correlation Coefficient (R2 = 0.9999). This study was validated and applied to the estimation of indomethacin in tablets from one company in Iraqi markets, when the wavelength and the analysis conditions were determined, no interference was found. It was concluded that the advanced method was accurate, sensitive, precise, and repeatable.
9. Evaluation of Synergistic Effect of Cytosine-PhosphodiesterbondGuanosin-Oligodeoxynucleotide 7909, and Protamine on Transfection Process Mediated by Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles
Ghassaq T. Al-Ubaidi1 , Ahmed A. Abbas2 , Ali A. Taha3 , Qasim S. Sharhan1 , Israa W. Ahmed1 , Ilham A. Jasim1
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) still the only authenticated vaccine against tuberculosis. Due to its drawbacks, a need for a new formula has emerged. The implication of “Nanovaccinology” is one of the possible alternatives. The non-viral vectors have a low transfection ability. In the context, this work aims to add two adjuvants to a calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNPs) functionalized with early secreted antigenic target 6-kilo dalton ( ESAT-6) cloned pcDNA3.1(+) plasmid. ESAT-6 gene is specific to mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and encodes a T-cell antigen. The adjuvants in practice are Herring protamine and cytosine-phosphodiester bond-guanosine-oligodeoxynucleotide 7909 ( CpG-ODN 7909). Each has a different strategy in enhancing immune response; protamine is particulate adjuvant while CpG is an immunopotentiator substance. Nano complex was transfected into THP-1 monocytic cell line after its activation to a macrophage via 100nM PMA. Cellular immune response, interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor –alfa (TNF-ɑ) also ESAT-6 protein production were assayed via the Sandwich ELISA technique. Results revealed that CPNPs offer only partial protection to the adsorbed plasmid against enzymatic degradation. Nano complex formula with two adjuvants resulted in significantly higher cellular immune response comparing to formula carrying one adjuvant. In conclusion, the implication of CPNPs in gene delivery accompanied with two adjuvants each possess different strategy, will result in partial protection to the delivered gene with upsurge cellular immune response.
10. Enhancement Solubilization of Dutasteride using Microsponge Formulation
Hassanien S. Taghi1 *, Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi1 , Esraa G. Jabar2
Dutasteride (DU) (5α-reductase inhibitor) that is used for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), DU has low water solubility and poor oral absorption that classified as Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II. This study aims to improve the physical properties of Dutasteride (DU) like solubility by the preparation of microsponge (MS). Microsponges are spherical in shape, sponge-like structure, polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres with a large internal surface area. Nine formulations of DU MS had been prepared by the technique of quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion (QESD) and utilizing Eudragit S100 as major polymer and glycerol as a plasticizer that dissolved in dichloromethane where polyvinyl alcohol PVA serves as a stabilizer in the external phase. The formulas were employed to optimize preparation variable factors include; different drug to polymer ratio, the addition of different concentrations of PVA, and stirring rate. Optimization was done using the response of production yield (PY),
entrapment efficiency EE), particle size, and in vitro drug release; The results display that the best ratio of (drug: polymer) was 5:1, and the best rate of stirring was 1,000 rpm respecting the optimum characteristics of microsponge. The best-selected formula prepared (F2) was underwent to evaluation regarding saturated solubility, FTIR, DSC, and SEM and showed 1.28 folds enhancement in saturated solubility compared to plain DU, and was well fabricated with high entrapment efficiency (83.7% ± 1.37), production yield (85.61% ± 0.6), and particle size of 77μm. Moreover, the percent release of DU was 75.74±1.5 after 4 hours, with good compatibility as confirmed by XRD, SEM, DSC, and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. It can be concluded that the selected formula prepared (F2) of DU microsponge is reassuring and promising drug delivery with improved pharmaceutical physical properties
11. Determination of Metochloropramide Hydrochloride by Spectrophotometric Method by using Diazotized p-nitro aniline reagent
Walaa A. Abd Alrada, Intidhar D. Sulaiman
New simple, sensitive, accurate, and inexpensive spectrophotometric technique has been developed for the estimation of Metochloropramide hydrochloride [MCP-HCl] in pure and pharmaceutical preparation. This technique is based on the diazotization of a primary amino group of Metochloropramide hydrochloride [MCP-HCl] with NaNo2 and HCl followed by coupling with p-nitro aniline in alkaline medium to obtain a stable red-colored water-soluble azo-dye, show a maximum absorption (λmax) at 513. 50nm. Bear,s low is obeyed in the concentration range of (0.2–25) μg.ml-1 with molar absorptivity of 2.313×103L.mol-1.cm-1and sandall’s sensitivity 0.0145 μg.mL-2. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitative were 0.182 μg.mL-1and 0.553 μg.mL-1, respectively. The proposed technique successfully applied to (tablets, syrup, and injection).
12. Preparation, Characterization and In-Vitro Diffusion Study of Different Topical Flurbiprofen Semisolids
Saba A. Jaber, Halah T. Sulaiman, Nawal A. Rajab
Flurbiprofen (FLB) is chemically 2-(3- fluoro-4-phenyl phenyl) propanoic acid. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Oral administration of this drug is associated with severe gastrointestinal side effects like ulceration and gastrointestinal bleeding. The solution to this problem lies in the fact that topically applied NSAIDs are safer than orally. This study aims to prepare different topical semisolid formulation of FLB as cream base (o/w), (w/o) and gel base using different gel-forming agents in different concentrations. Comparing characterization properties in addition to release and diffusion study for all the prepared formulas to select the best one. Method: Topical semisolid FLB preparations were formulated using different semisolid formulation starting from emulsion bases w/o and o/w comparing with different gelling agents in different concentrations which include carbopol 934, sodium carboxy methylcellulose (SCMC) and combination of both polymer in different concentration to get 1% gelling agents. All the gel formulations were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, spreadability, rheological studies, drug content, in vitro release and diffusion studies. Results: All gel formulations which contain gelling agent exhibit better in vitro drug release and permeation compared with the emulsion bases, especially 1% polymer combination. Ethanol exerts a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the in vitro drug release and diffusion for 2% carpbopol 934 compared with SCMC. Drug content was found to be uniform in all the formulations. The pH ranges of formulated gels were found to be suitable for topical application. Conclusion: Based on overall results, FLB can be successfully prepared as topical semisolid preparation with accepted properties.
13. The Role of IL-6 Gene Polymorphism in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Iraq
Diyar K. Flaifel, Ibtisam H. Al-Azawi
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and the incidence of the disease is increasing in developed. One-third of the world’s population is infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Still, only about 5% of infected individuals develop the disease within the first year of infection, and another 5% develop the disease later in life. Aim of the study: Is to investigate the relationship between the levels of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Al-Diwaniyah population. Patients and methods: The current study included 120 patients with tuberculosis who were classified into two groups. The first group included 60 TB patients who were sensitive to anti TB drugs and 60 patients with multi-drug resistance (MDR) based on gene Xpert. The study also included 60 healthy individuals serving as a control group. Demographic characteristics of study and control groups were retrieved. IL-6 (-572G/C) genotype polymorphism was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and according to the instruction of the providing company. Serum level of IL-6 was also measured by ELISA according to the instruction of the providing company. Results: It has been observed that genotype CC was more frequent in sensitive TB patients than both MDR TB patients and control subjects, 73.3 % versus 60 % and 61.7 %, respectively. Serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in MDR TB patients than in control group (p = 0.007), and there was no significant difference in its level between sensitive and MDR TB patients (p = 0.284). Conclusion: IL-6 gene polymorphism is not associated with multidrug resistance in TB patients; however, Serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in MDR TB patients than in the control group.
14. Osteocalcin as a Biomarker for Estimation of Infertility for Iraqi Patients
Eman S. Saleh, Inaam A. Ameen, Kaled N. Taha
Objective: The evaluation of serum osteocalcin (OSN) for Iraqi infertile patients to see the effect of osteocalcin insufficiency, which may lead to a decreased level of testosterone production in males that may cause infertility. Methods: Forty two newly diagnosed infertile males age range (24–47) years and thirty two apparently healthy males as controls age range (25–58) years. Serum levels of testosterone (TEST), stimulating follicle hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PROL), osteocalcin OSN, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were performed in both patients and controls. Estimation of serum OSN by Immulite1000 auto-analyzer, TEST, FSH, LH, PROL, and FBS by Immulite2000 auto-analyzer. Results: Infertile patients show significantly elevated serum levels for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH, and PROL as compared with controls according to p-value ( 0.000), (0.044), and (0.000), respectively. On the other hand, the infertile patients have lowered serum levels for OSN and TEST as compared with controls according to p-value (0.000) and (0.000), respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) is evaluated within the normal levels for both patients and control groups. Conclusion: Osteocalcin, act as a regulator of male fertility via its role in the biosynthesis of testosterone, so it serves as a biomarker for evaluation of male infertility. Therefore, osteocalcin could be used as a therapeutic for the treatment of disorders related to male reproduction, including male infertility and low testosterone levels.
15. Optimization Performance and Physical Stability of Ciprofloxacin HCL-Ca Alginate Microspheres: Effect of Different Concentration of Alginate and CaCl2
Hariyadi DM, Hendradi E
Inhalation treatment using antibiotics is an alternative for lung delivery. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled drugs is limited by their rapid clearance in the lungs. Sustained release systems in the lungs can improve therapeutic outcomes of drugs because they can retain the drug load within the lungs and progressively release the drug locally at therapeutic levels. This study presents the formulation strategies to control drug release in the lungs using an alginate polymer-based microspheres system. The microsphere’s composition can be adjusted to modulate release and can encapsulate compounds with high loading. The pulmonary route is commonly used and has been well accepted as a portal for non-invasive drug delivery for many lung diseases. It is explored for decades as an alternative for systemic as well as local drug delivery. The present study explored the in vitro benefits of ciprofloxacin encapsulated in alginate microspheres. The studies included size, morphology, yield, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency as well as stability. Current results showed small, smooth, and spherical ciprofloxacin-alginate microspheres were produced using aerosolization techniques. Small particles of less than 5μm were formed, which suitable for inhalation particles for lung delivery. High entrapment efficiency up to 95%, loadings of 80%, and a yield of 89% were also showed from microspheres. It was confirmed that all microspheres were stably indicated by no significant changes in morphology, organoleptic, and drug content after 30 days of storage. The recent promising characteristics of microspheres for pulmonary delivery will need further evaluation of the potency against microorganisms in lung disease.
16. Evaluation of Some Common Disinfectants Against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria
Ghada A. Mohammad
Seven disinfectants were used in this study, green clean, luxxtol, bittol, PAX guard, SALi, sarttol, and lenol, and their inhibitory activity was determined against nine gram-negative bacterial isolates; one isolate of each Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii, two isolates of each Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and three isolates of Citrobacter freundii, by using disc diffusion method. Results demonstrated the efficacy of lenol because it was the only disinfectant that gave inhibition zones around the filter disc for all types of studied bacteria, but other disinfectants had different effects on bacterial growth.
As well as, the detection on effect of prolonged disinfectant time by exposing bacteria to disinfectant for ten minutes expecting increased efficiency of disinfectants. The results showed that bittol had the first rank in increasing its inhibition ability of bacterial growth, Green clean was the next, followed by SALi, Sartol. Lastly, Luxxtol had the last rank because it had few effects on just A. baumannii.
17. Utilization of Poloxamer as Well as Combinations with Other Polymers as Base in Ophthalmic in Situ Gel Dosage Form
Insan Sunan Kurniawansyah, Taofik Rusdiana, Iyan Sopyan, Anas Subarnas, Habibah A. Wahab
The aim of this review was to find out which formulation were good for making in-situ gels using a combination of poloxamer and other bases. Formulation was characterized for appearance and homogeneity, pH and gelation studies, viscosity measurements, in vitro drug release, drug content, and stability studies. In vivo rabbit, eye irritation tests were conducted to evaluate the irritation of the in-situ gel delivery system; in addition, osmolality testing, sterility test, and isotonicity evaluation were also carried out. The results have shown that in-situ gel solution can increase residence time and also maintain the mechanism of drug release.
18. Synthesis, Characterization and Estimation the Biological Activity of New Mesomorphic Heterocyclic Compounds
Hussain A. Hamza, Nasreen R. Jber
This study is concerned with the synthesis and characterization of new liquid crystalline compounds that contain bis and quaternary terminal substitution, which were synthesized starting from thiocarbohydrazide. The liquid crystalline properties of the prepared compounds, the effect of these ends on the mesogenic properties and their Transitional stability were verified using a hot-stage polarizing optical microscope (POM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The synthesized compounds were characterized using FTIR, CHNS analysis, and 1H-NMR. The examination of antibacterials showing data results that about all the compounds [S]4,5 are dynamic and have mild to good antibacterial factivity with concs. (10,25,50, 100)μg/mL.
19. Impact of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii and adipose hormones with Insulin Resistant on obese aborted women
Abeer J. Hassan, Nazar Sh. Mohammed, Muhannad Shweash, Hatem M. Hadeed
This study was carried out at Baghdad hospital in, for the period from November 2018 to July 2019. The study included (151) aborted obese women whose ages ranged between (18–41) years with positive Toxoplasma gondii infection. They were divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) value: Group 1: consisted of 61 women with BMI <30, Group 2: consisted of (90) women with BMI >30. The control group included (52) healthy volunteer women aged 19–41 years with negative Toxoplasma for comparison of the results. The case and controls were matched for age and gender. Serum samples were tested for fasting blood sugar, insulin, IgG, and IgM of Toxoplasma, Leptin, and Adiponectin as well as insulin resistance index. The results showed that the age factor was not significant between group 1 and group 2 when compared with the healthy group, and there was no significant change between group 2 comparing to group1. In this study, the result of BMI showed substantial increase in group 1, while highly marked increase in group 2 when both groups were compared with the control group. Finally, the levels of Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies showed a highly significant increase in the two patient groups in comparison with the control group. An increase in mean value of leptin concentration was noticeable in group 1 and group 2 with a highly significant difference when compared with the control group. No significant difference was found in the levels of fasting blood glucose in Group 1 and Group 2 compared to the control group. Also, a significant difference in HOMA-IR and QUICK- IR was observed in the patient groups once associated control group. Data revealed a considerable difference with the glucose/insulin ratio in group 1, but a highly significant was noticed in group 2 when compared with the control group. HOMA-AD results showed a significant difference in Group 1 and a highly significant decrease in Group 2.
20. Ciprofloxacin Based on Carrier Double Layered Hydroxide Nano-particles of Fe+3/Fe+2, Fe+3/Ni+2, Al+3/Fe+2, and Al+3/Ni+2 Ions
Noor M. Mohammed1, Farah AH. Kadhim2, Aseel A. Hammood1, Ashour H. Dawood3
The double-layered hydroxide nano-particles compounds with ciprofloxacin drug were carried out by preparation of the double layered hydroxide (DLH) of M+3/M+2 ions for selective ions. The ciprofloxacin drug was inserted between them. The resulted compounds were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy; the antibacterial studied done by using the gram (+) and gram (-) pigments.
21. Relationship of HbA1c Values to Retinopathy, Nephropathy, and Cardiovascular
Aaya Hamid Al-Hakeem, Hadeel Haider Saleh
A total of 50 patients aged 35-75 years From Al-Sader educational Hospital in Al-Najaf city was studied to determine the glycated hemoglobin risk factors with value creatinine and urea in serum and diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic patient were (35-45 years old) with HbA1c 7.9 % (60mmol/mol). Patient were (45–55 years old), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) > 8.5 %. Patients between (55–65 years were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >10.5 %. HbA1c levels, lipid profile, level of Creatinine and urea in serum, family history, BMI, blood pressure, disease severity, and complications were determined. Most patients developed some grade of retinopathy (examined by an ophthalmologist) except those with HbA1c 6.7% (50mmol/mol). Diabetic patients aged (55–65 years old) with HbA1c 7.6% (60mmol/mol). Patients aged 56–75 years old of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >7% with poor glycaemia control ≥ 126mg/dL were assessed to classify diabetic retinopathy. HbA1c and GA are associated with nephropathy separately. Retinopathy and nephropathy may respond to different aspects of hyperglycemia. The GA found as a powerful indicator of microvascular complications same as HbA1c where long-term glycaemia is the risk factor.
22. The Inhibitory Effect of Garlic and Onion Root Exudates on Escherichia coli from Urinary Tract Infection and Molecular Detection of hlyA Virulence Gene
Anas Y. Al-Hayawi, Muna H. Sh. Al Jubori
162 urine samples were collected from UTIs during October to December 2017 at Saladin General Hospital. E. coli was 38.9% of the collected samples. Women are more vulnerable to infection. The resistance percentage to Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Imipenem were 17% to 100%. The root exudates were prepared by using hydroponics with different periods: (7, 10 and 14 days). Onion (Allium cepa L.) root exudates have not any effect on the E. coli through the periods while root exudates of garlic (Allium sativum L.) gave the highest inhibitory effect at the period of 10 and 14 days. The virulence factors of E. coli were screened for the presence of hlyA through PCR and showed that all the resistant isolates could produce beta-hemolysis.
23. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitors Induce Stomatitis in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer (Review)
Furqan M. Abdulelah, Hassanien S. Taghi, Hayder R. Abdulbaqi, Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi
Metastatic breast cancer patients may acquire oral morbidity from therapeutic procedures. A common adverse event (AE) of the Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor is associated stomatitis (mIAS) secondary to mTOR inhibitor therapy, which have a negative impact on the quality of life, therapy adherence and health care expenses. A multidisciplinary team strategy is essential for reducing mIAS and capitalize on therapy advantages for breast cancer patients. We discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and natural history of mIAS in this review. In the context of promoting a coordinated team care approach to optimizing patient care, current and new management policies are outlined for the prevention and treatment of mIAS. Types of Studies Reviewed: We piloted different research from 2007 through 2019 using the terms “stomatitis,” “mIAS,” “mTOR,” “everolimus,” “oral care.” and “metastatic breast cancer,” We have chosen papers from peer-reviewed journals reporting controlled trials and evidence-based guidance. Results: Cytototoxic chemical or radiation therapy causes, clinical presentation, and paradigms of therapy can distinguish mIAS from mucositis. The continuum of patient oral health care may include specific preventive and therapeutic leadership approaches. Practical consequences: Oral health providers are at the forefront of oral health care for patients who have metastatic breast cancer and are uniquely positioned to deliver patient education, to advocate precise reporting of mIAS, and to encourage early identification, monitoring and rapid intervention to reduce the serious and time-limiting dose of this manageable AE.
24. In-vitro Cytotoxic Anticancer Effects of Honeybee Venom Fractions on Different Cell Lines
Montaha A. Al-Safar, Hamid Naji Obied, Rana A.Ghaleb, Ali S.Kashkol
Background: Honey bee venom (HBV) has been used from ancient history in traditional medicine, but recently with the progression of medical and biological science, some HBV fractions were found to had specific therapeutic use. Honey bee venom fractions such as melittin were noticed to have had in-vivo and in-vitro anti-tumor effects. Honey bee venom has about twenty different biological fractions. Melittin was the dominant fraction extracted from crude HBV. The aim is to study the in-vitro anti-cancer effect of one HBV fractions extracted by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-.HPLC) against four cancer and one none tumorigenic normal cell line.HBV was collected by using the electric collector and dried by lyophilization and separated by RP-HPLC into sixteen different weights yield uncharacterized fractions. For detection of the anti-cancer effect, all the 16 HPLC peaks were tested separately on four cancer cell lines and one none tumorigenic cell line. Materials and methods: Four cancer cell lines, B16, MCF-7, Hep-G2, HCT-116, and MDCK normal canine kidney cell line was cultured and maintained on RBMI-1640 media with 10% fetal bovine serum. The HBV 16 fractions was tested on the above cell lines separately by using MTT cytotoxicity assay protocol. The viability percent was obtained versus five concentrations of HBV (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125 Ug). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated and plotted using sigma plot software, it was found as 5.6 for B16, 21.2 for MCF-7.14 for Hep-G2, 21.4 for HCT116, and 45 for MDCK cell line subsequently. Cell line subsequently from the result we found that only fraction number 8 (HBv-F8), has had cytotoxic effects on the cancer cell lines and the normal canine kidney cell line while the other fifteen HPLC fraction had no any cytotoxic effects. Conclusion: We conclude that HBV-F8 has a cytotoxic effect on cancer and normal cell lines with different IC 50 for each cell line. The best cytotoxic effect was found on B16 melanoma cell line, and the least effect was found on HCT-116 cell line. At the same time, it is also toxic on MDCK normal cell line at 45.13 ug half-maximal inhibitory concentration.
25. Detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) for Genes Cause Drug-Resistant in Iraqi Mycobacterium Tuberculosis isolates by new Pyrophosphate Technique.
Hassan Kadhim Nemir, Ismail Aziz, Alaa Kareem Mohammed
In this search, a new pyrophosphate technique was proved. The technique was employed to single- nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which diagnosis using a one-base extension reaction. Three Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes were chosen (Rpob, InhA, KatG) genes. Fifty-four specimens were used in this study fifty-three proved as drug-resistant specimens by The Iraqi Institute of Chest and Respiratory Diseases in Baghdad.; also one specimen was used as a negative control. The steps of this technique were by used a specific primer within each aliquot that has a short 3-OH end of the base of the target gene that was hybridized to the single-stranded DNA template. Then, the Taq polymerase enzyme and one of either α-thio-dATP, dTTP, dGTP, or dCTP were supplemented and incubated for 1 min. ATP is synthesis by convert Pyrophosphate freed by DNA polymerase using pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), and the amount of ATP estimates by the firefly luciferase reaction. This technique, which does not demand expensive equipment, can be applied to rapidly monitor a one-point mutation in the gene that causes drug-resistant in mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results showed a high variation in values of ATP formation through matching and mismatch bases added. So, this assay (which required only five minutes), enable to find the gene SNP causes resistant for the specific drug.
26. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of New Azo Compounds Derived from Sulfonamides and Isatin Schiff Base
Rana A. Kamoon, May M. Jawad Al-Mudhafar, Tagreed N-A Omar
The present study deals with the synthesis of four different azo-azomethine derivatives; this is done by two steps; the first step is diazotization of sulfonamides (sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadiazine) separately, followed by the second step; the coupling reaction of diazotized compounds with isatin bis-Schiff base named 3-((4-nitrobenzylidene) hydrazono)indolin-2-one. The later one (bis-Schiff base) was synthesized by the reaction of 3-hydrazono-indolin-2-one with p-nitrobenzaldehyde. The chemical structures of newly synthesized compounds were approved on the basis of their FTIR, 1H-NMR, and CHNS elemental analysis data results. The synthesized azo compounds were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial potential using well diffusion method. All the target compounds were clearly inhibited Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, while only compounds 2b and 2c show antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most active compound among the prepared azo compounds against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans is compound 2b.
27. Synthesis and characterization of Al(III) complex with paracetamol
Mohanad A. Sultan, Ali E. Karim, Ahmed Kandory, Azza Al-metwali
The complex of Al (111) with paracetamol have synthesized and characterized using UV–Vis, Infrared spectroscopies and melting point. The ligand has been found to behave as tridentate chelating agents. Paracetamol complex coordinate through the carboxylate oxygen, phenolate oxygen atom, and amine group. The complex solubility was evaluated for several solvents and it was found the compound was more soluble in DMSO. Job’s method of continuous variation suggested 1 : 2 metals to ligand stoichiometry for paracetamol complex
28. Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis prevalence Among Blood Donors Prevalence in Diyala Province
Raghad Ibrahim, Ansam D. Salman
This study was conducted in Diyala province from1 Nov. 2016 to April 1, 2017) and included (200) blood samples were used serological tests for diagnosis in the laboratories of Baquba General Teaching Hospital, Blood Bank Department for prevalence of infection by bacteria Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis among blood donors at the Central Blood Bank . The study showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp and Brucella in Diyala (69%) and (31%) respectively.The study also showed that the age group (31–40) is the most susceptible to bacterial infection also the prevalence of salmonella in the city is higher than the village where the incidence of Salmonella in the city (73.33%) and in the village (26.67%) . The proportion of infection with Brucella melitensis in the city (69%) and in the village (30%).
29. Correlation Between HCV Infection and Creatinine Level in Thalassemia Patents
Saif Yassen Hassan, Saif Jabbar Yasir
The current study aimed to fine the relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV), and kidney impairment in thalassemia patient. This retrospective case-control study include sample size total number 102 patients ranged between 15 and 30 years were divided into two groups: first, 51patients suffering from kidney impairment – the kidney impairment detected by creatinine level in serum and second, 51-patient without kidney impairment as a control group. Both group monitored HCV infection. The patient attended to AL-Zahra hospital (Najaf) thalassemia department from January to Aug 2018. Biochemical test use for detection of creatinine, serological test use for detection HCV. The SPSS program version 24 uses for data analysis the results. When observed the results in both groups the percentage of HCV in the first group (with abnormal creatinine level) is higher than in the second group (with normal creatinine level). 32/51 (62, 7%) and 19/51(37, 2%) respectively. A high level of HCV in a group with kidney defect indicates for viral effect on the normal kidney function, kidney defect patient of thalassemia patient has a higher susceptibility to HCV infection.
30. Study of Molecular Interaction for Antibiotic Drug with Sugar Solutions at Different Temperature
Sundus H. Merza, Nagham H. Abood, Ahamed M. Abbas
The interactions of drug amoxicillin with maltose or galactose solutions with a variation of temperature have been discussed by taking in the volumetric and viscometric procedures. Physical properties [densities (ρ) and viscosities (η)] of amoxicillin (AMOX) aqueous solutions and aqueous solutions of two type saccharides (maltose and galactose 0.05m) have been measured at T = (298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K under atmospheric pressure. The apparent molar volume (ϕv cm3mole-1) has been evaluated from density data and fitted to a Redlich-Mayer equation. The empirical parameters of the Mayer-Redlich equation and apparent molar volume at infinite dilution Ø°v were explicated in terms of interactions from type solute-solvent and solute–solute interactions. Transfer molar volume ΔtraØ°v for AMOX from water to aqueous maltose and galactose solutions were calculated to comprehend different interactions in the ternary solutions. Limiting apparent molar expansibility (Ø°E) and Hepler’s coefficient was also calculated to indicate the structure making ability of AMOX in the ternary solutions. Jones–Dole coefficient B and A have been calculated from viscosity data by employing the Jones–Dole equation. The free energy of activation of viscous flow per mole of the solute (Δμ°2*) and solvent (Δμ°1*) have been explained on the basis of the Eyring and Feakins equation.
31. Synthesis New Liquid Electrodes for Determination Lansoprzole Based on a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer
Zahraa Mahdi, Yehya Kamal Al-Bayati
Liquid electrodes of Lansoprazole (LP) imprinted polymer was synthesis based on precipitation polymerization mechanism. The molecularly imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) polymers were synthesized using LP as a template. By methyl methacrylate (MMA) as a monomer, Pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PTA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linkers and benzoyl peroxide (BP) as an initiator. The molecularly imprinted membranes were synthesized using Dimethyl adipate (DMA), Dibutyl phthalate (DBPH), Dioctyl phthalate(DOPH), and Nitrobenzene (NB) as plasticizers in PVC matrix. The slopes and limit of detection of liquid electrodes obtained from the calibration curves ranged from (-17.85– -20.89) mV/decade and 1.8 x 10-5–6.0 x 10-6 M, respectively, and the response time was about 60 seconds. The Liquid electrodes were filled with 10-2 M standard solution of the drug and observed stable response for a pH ranged from 2.0 to 11.0 and with good selectivity for over several species. The fresh electrodes of synthesis were effectively used in the pharmaceutical sample to determine LP without any time-consuming pretreatment measures.
32. Loranthus Europaeus is an Alternative Medicine in Treatment of Cyst and Mouth Inflammation Resulted from Chemotherapy of Breast Cancer
Ali A.H. Aljeboory, Nazhat M. Abdlkareem Al-Zubaidi
The natural product continues to be important as a source of novel drugs because these drugs do not need a sophisticated instrument, cheap resources, less toxic, no resistance to them by bacteria compared with the synthetic drugs. However, the natural product will continue to be important in addition in three areas of discovery, they are a target for production by biotechnology, as source of new lead compounds of a novel chemical structure and as the active ingredients of useful treatments divided from traditional systems of folkloric medicine.1 The herb Loranthus Europaeus leaves, and fruits were used in Iraq traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, tumor, and antimicrobial infection.2 For these reasons, we tried to use the phytochemical and pharmacological studies to approach to their bioactive products as a new source for medicine. The extraction of an active constituent of Loranthus Europaeus (flavonoids terpenoids and alkaloids) by using chromatography method using a thimble of suxlet with different organic solvents. The ethyl acetate extract contain flavonoid, which contains quercitin and quercitrin. The active ingredient mixture of L.E. leaves extract have used as a mouth wash for female patient different age have breast cancer and under treatment with chemotherapy. We found that the bioactive martial extracted from L.E. used as mouth wash cause the cure of the inflammation of the mouth of those ladies. In addition that humans of different sexes complaining of cyst attached to one of their tooth treated with different types of antibiotic there was no response but when have given an antibiotic with bioactive agents of this L.E. there was complete cure of the cyst and there was no need for operation which give the possibility of presence of one or more of these (quercitin and quercitrin) active agents act as positive Nanocarrier of the antibiotic to the cyst directly and cure it.
33. Review on Nanoemulsion: Preparation and Evaluation
Zainab A. Sadeq
Nanoemulsion considers a novel drug delivery system that permits controlled or sustained drug release. It is a dispersion consisting of a surfactant, oil, and clear aqueous phase, kinetically, or thermodynamically stable with droplet diameter 10-100nm. Nanoemulsion applied to increase the solubility and bioavailability of lipophilic drugs; they have many advantages for drug delivery. There are many methods for Nanoemulsion preparation like High –energy emulsification method, Spontaneous Nanoemulsion, Phase inversion temperature (PIT). It applied for many routes of delivery, thus providing a promising effect for many fields such as cosmetics, therapeutic, and biotechnology.