International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Occular Drug Delivery System – A Review
Naveen Kumar, Sonia Pahuja, Ranjit Sharma
The unique Anatomy of the eye makes it a highly protected organ and unique structure restricts entry of the drug into the target site of action. Designing an effective therapy for ocular diseases has been considered as a difficult task. Major barriers in eye medication are the ability to maintain a therapeutic level of the drug at the site of action. Therapeutic drug levels are not maintained for a longer duration in target tissues. Limitations of the traditional route of administration have challenged scientists to find an alternative mode of administration like periocular routes. The ophthalmic formulations are available as buffered, isotonic, sterile solution. A number of types of dosage forms are applied as the drug delivery system for the ocular delivery. The topical ocular drop is the most suitable and patient compliant route of drug administration, especially for the management of anterior segment diseases. Ideal ophthalmic drug formulation must be able to prolong the drug release and to remain in the area of the front of the eye for prolong period. It is necessary to optimize ophthalmic drug delivery; one way to do so is by adding polymers, development of in situ gel or using erodible or nonerodible insert or colloidal suspension to extend the precorneal drug retention.

2. Safety Study of Purple Sweet Potatoes Leaves Extract (Ipomoea batatas (l.) Lamk) Antin-3 Variety as a Sunscreen Active Ingredient on Human Skin
Dipahayu D, Arifiyana D, Indramaya D M, AnggraeniS
Background: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensively has known as a major cause of photoaging and photodamage on skin.  Anthocyanin is one of flavonoid group, which has a chromophore and conjugated double bond, absorbing electromagnetic radiation in UV wavelength. Ethanolic leaves extract of (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) Antin-3 variety contains considerably high anthocyanins so that it can be a potential sunscreen active ingredient. However, the safety effect of ethanolic extract of (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) Antin-3 variety on human skin is still unclear. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety (irritation and allergic effect) of ethanolic leaves extract of (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) Antin-3 variety on human skin trough a patch test. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic young and old leaves extract of (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) Antin-3 variety. Each of them is on a 500, 1000 and 5000 ppm on vaselinum album base. The patch test was applied on the back skin on seven of adult females who are included in inclusion criteria (as a subject study) for 24 hours and they were observed for four days. Results: There are two out of seven subjects indicated irritation which understandably were caused by the old leaves 1000 and 5000 ppm. Conclusions: The old leaves vary in the phytochemical compound compared to the young leaves which have more potential risk to irritate and cause allergies to the human skin. Anthocyanin is a major content in young leaves.

3. Removal of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Antibiotics Pharmaceuticals From Aqueous Systems By ZnO
Aseel M. Aljeboree
Pharmaceutical products are being increasingly discovered, in the environment. However, traditional treating systems do not provide an adequate remedy, for pharmaceutical drug elimination and still there is not a regulated criterion for their limitation in water. Adsorption is one of the most efficient and practical techniques to remove pollutants from water. ZnO to be used as adsorbent being abundant and cheap has removal capabilities for certain pollutants from water such as drug,drug, metal ions, phenol, and different anions. In this paper the potential of ZnO for removal of vitamin B6 has been discussed. Different parameters like, initial drug concentration (5-80 mg/L), temperature (15, 25, and 50 ºC), adsorbent dosage (0.001-0.15gm), were investigated. The adsorption of drug was best at neutral pH. The adsorption uptake decrease with increase in initial drug concentration, but increase with the amount of adsorbent and temperature. The equilibrium was evaluated using Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity of adsorption obtained from the Freundlich model was 108.556mg/g.

4. ph Dependent Release Potential of Natural Polymers in Sustained Release of Ornidazole From Colon Targeted Delivery System
Sharma Pankaj, Tailang Mukul
The aim of present work was to prepare colon specific delivery system of Ornidazole using different ratio of shellac, zein and guar gum. From study of various literature it revealed that shellac, zein and guar gum released drug from dosage form at the pH of 6.9, 11.5, 7-9 respectively. The main problem associated with colon targeted drug delivery system is degradation of drug in the acidic environment of stomach to circumvent the present problem different combinations of shellac, zein and guar gum were employed in the formulation of colon targeted tablet. Several preformulation parameters were determined such as melting point, FTIR spectroscopy, preparation of calibration curve, determination of λmax and partition coefficient. After the preformulation studies, next steps were preparation of core tablets, evaluation of core of tablets and coating of tablets. The data obtained from preformulation study seven formulations were developed and evaluated for various parameters. Based on evaluated parameter such as weight variation, friability, dissolution study, in-vitro drug release etc. the F7 formulation show better results colon targeted tablets. Drug content in F7 formulation was 95% and drug release after 6 hrs was 96%. Formulation containing combination of shellac, zein and guar gum released least amount of drug in the acidic environment of stomach and released most of the drug in colon. It is evident from above discussion that targeted delivery to colon will result in lesser side effects and maximum utilization of drug.

5. Enhanced Sensitivity of Electrochemical Biosensor on Microfluidic Paper Based Analytical Device Using Zno/Mwcnts Nanocomposite
Roekmono, Harsono Hadi, Hilya Nur Imtihani, Luthviyah Choirotul Muhimmah, Rio Akbar Yuwono, Ruri Agung Wahyuono
This paper presents an integrated ZnO/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) electrode in novel stacking paper-based microfluidic analytical device for electrochemical biosensor. The designed sensors were subjected to detect glucose and ascorbic acid in a simulated body fluid using electrochemical methods, including cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The composite of ZnO/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with variations in mass fractions of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8% MWCNTs for measuring ascorbic acid and glucose with concentrations spanning from 0.02 to 5.12 mM. The best results are obtained by 2% of MWCNTs in composited electrode, in which linear characteristics (R2>0.8) of the current response value show a sensitivity (gradient) of 0.017 and 0.085 µA/mM.cm2 for ascorbic acid and glucose measurement, respectively. The electrochemical detection by means of impedance spectra shows a linearly decreasing trend of chemical capacitance with increasing concentration of glucose and ascorbic acid. However, in the present system it is not sufficient to specifically distinguish the frequency response associated to glucose and ascorbic acid.

6. Formulation and Evaluation of Chloramphenicole Opthalmic Hydrogel with Carbomer And Hidroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Combination Bases
Insan Sunan Kurniawansyah, Marline Abdassah, Jalaludin
The preparation of an eye medication is one of the most interesting and challenging for a pharmaceutical, because the typical and unique eye anatomy and physiology cause the difficulty of effective drug concentration to reach the target site. From some recent research has been developed an ophthalmic hydrogel dosage, which is an eye gel preparation that provides many advantages over the preparation of the eye ointment and may increase corneal permeability and can extend contact time with eyes, optimal drug concentration at the receptor so that it can be obtained good bioavailability. Ophthalmic hydrogel has been developed to discover the formula contained chloramphenicol 0.5% as active ingredients with the combination of gel hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, and carbomer of (0:1, 1:0, 2:1, 4:1) as the base. Formula was made by several stages which were mixing with the active ingredient, and sterilization using autoclave at 121ºC for 15 minutes. Results which covered organoleptic evaluation, pH. viscosity, and the levels of the active substance showed that F4 was the best formula. F4 had a watery consistency, clear and odorless, pH of 7.49, viscosity of 55 cP, and the levels of the active substance at 100%. Test observations ophthalmic hydrogel for 28 days of storage showed no changes in the organoleptic. pH and viscosity changes occured, but still within the range of requirements, but levels of the active substance was decreased around 52.82% -53.66%. The antibacterial activity of preparations ophthalmic gel showed that it was effective against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Ophthalmic hydrogel formulas on the basis of carbomer combinations and HPMC were successfully made and the best formula was F4, which was a formula with a ratio of 1: 4.

7. Extraction and Preformulation Study of Deer Antler Velvet Extract: Physical Characterization of Aqueous and Ethanol Extract
Hariyadi D M, Setyawan D, Suciati, Widyowati R, Chang H-I, Suryawan I P G N,  Utama A W
Objective: The aim of the research was to extract the deer antler velvet from Kalimantan Indonesia and to study physical characteristics between 70% ethanol and aqueous extract. Materials and methods: Ethanol extracts was extracted from deer antler velvet using maceration and modified maceration method. Ethanol extracts were compared to aqueous extract which produced using maceration technique. The extract profiles were determined by screening test and physicochemical properties as preformulation study were characterized using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray diffractometer, differential thermal analysis (DTA), solubility test, BCA protein content, and molecular weight using SDS PAGE assay. Results: Extracts were successfully prepared and determined. Physicochemical properties of 70% ethanol extract and aqueous extract resulted different characteristics in melting point, solubility, crystallinity and protein content. Both ethanol extract and aqueous deer antler velvet extract contained group compounds of terpenoids and steroids and contains high amount of proteins at molecular weight of 17 to 43 kDa. In terms of crystallinity, ethanol and aqueous extracts had different crystal lattices. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of deer antler velvet was then recommended for further in vitro drug formulation and characterization. The molecular weight of majority protein inside aqueous deer antler velvet extract was 17 kDa and this datas will be useful for further drug formulation.

8. Formulation and Evaluation of Extended Release Capecitabine Loaded Pellets
Vishal Yadav, S Sathesh Kumar
Capecitabine is a well known orally-administered anticancer agent utilized in the treatment of colorectal cancer and metastatic breast cancer. The present study reveals the development and evaluation of an extended release Capecitabine loaded pellets. The Capecitabine loaded pellets were prepared by using a layering process followed by Wurster Process and made it extended release using Ethylcellulose (EC), Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP-K30) and Kollicoat SR 30D coating. The prepared extended release pellets were characterized by FTIR, SEM, DSC and XRD studies. The extended-release pellets also evaluated for particle size and shape, yields, moisture content, drug content, mechanical crushing strength, and micrometric properties. The surface of the uncured beads was found to be uniform and smooth and no crystals were visible. The DSC and XRD study revealed the compatibility of the drug and the polymers.  The prepared pellets were showed the good characteristics in term of various parameters and release the drug from the formulation for the prolonged period of time for up to 10.3 h.

9. Formulation of Chewing Candy from Black Mulberry Extract (Morus nigra l.) as Anticaries Drug
Arif Budiman, Zelika Mega R, Ainani Tajriyani, Diah Lia Aulifa
Objective: This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial activity of black mulberry extract (Morus nigra L.) in a chewing candy preparation against Streptococcus mutans (S mutans) and Streptococcus sanguis (S sanguis). Methods: The antibacterial activity of the extract was determined by disc diffusion method. The extract dose was determined from minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values using the microdilution method. The extracts were formulated into three variations of the glucose-sucrose base: F1 (43.5%:8.7%), F2 (34.78%:8.7%), and F3 (26%:26%). The chewing candy of black mulberry extract was evaluated physically, including organoleptic, preference tests and antibacterial activity test against S mutans and S sanguis. Result: The results show that black mulberry extract has antibacterial activity with MIC 0.3125% and MBC 0.625% against S mutans and S sanguis. The best formulation of chewing candy consisted 26% w/w of sucrose, 26% w/w of glucose and 0.625% w/w of black mulberry extract. The chewing candy from black mulberry fruit extract has antibacterial activity with an 8.2 ± 0.269 mm inhibition zone against S mutans and one of 10.8 ± 0.878 mm against S sanguis. Conclusion: The chewing candy consisting of 26% w/w of sucrose, 26% w/w of glucose and 0.625% w/w of black mulberry extract has antibacterial activity against S mutans and S sanguis.

10. An Evaluation of Hemoglobin Concentration in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Saba Ibrahim Salih, Karem Kdaer Karem, Wafaa Kadhim Jassim
The second type of diabetes Mellitus is the most common type of diabetes, its represent about 90-95% of diabetes cases. In this disease, the response of the body to insulin does not occur properly in a condition known as insulin resistance. The diabetes may accompany with anemia because the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) which is produced by the kidneys is regulates red blood cell production and the Kidney has been damaged at several levels as a complication of diabetes, the complication range from diabetic nephropathy to chronic kidney disease. This study was conducted at the AL-Kafeel Hospital, Kerbala from October 2016 to December2016. The study included 60 adult patients with age range from 43-67 years and having diabetes mellitus type 2. Fasting blood sugar and Hb tests were made and accompanied with other information like age and duration of diabetes mellitus. The results show that 43% of diabetic patients had anemia and there is a strong negative connection between Hb levels and the duration of getting diabetes (p<0.01). We conclude from this study that anemia is may developed in Type 2DM patients and the diabetic patients should be taken care of to prevent the development of diseases and other complications.

11. Spectrophotometric Determination Methyldopa and Salbutamol by Oxidative Coupling, Cloud Point and Flow Injection in Pharmaceutical Formulations
Nisreen Kais Abood, Mohammed Jasim M Hassan, Muneer A AL-Da,amy
Three methods study in this research simple, sensitive, an expensive and rapid Oxidative Coupling reaction, Cloud Point Extraction and Flow Injection spectrophotometric methods for determination Methyldopa and Salbutamol, the first method oxidative coupling reaction between the Methyldopa and thiosemicarbazide in presence of ferric nitrate anhydrous to yield dark green colored product that have absorbance at λ max 460 nm. Salbutamol coupling reaction with 4-nitrophenyl hydrazine in presence the potassium Iodide and sodium hydroxide to product the violet colored has absorbance at λ max 530 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed from (1-50) µg/ mL with sandall’s sensitivity (0.039,0.073), correlation coefficient (0.9998) and molar absorptivity (0.536×104,0.327×104) for Methyldopa and Salbutamol respectively. The secondly method to estimation the trace amount of phenolic drugs that product from the oxidative coupling reaction it is cloud point extraction, cloud point extraction enables the drugs to be precisely estimated under the optimal experimental conditions, the maximum absorption at λ max (470,535) nm respectively. The concentration was range (0.25-6) µg/mL, molar absorptivity 0.510×105,0.483×105 and enrichment factor (9.51,14.72)  respectively for Methyldopa and Salbutamol .Flow injection analysis is simple method to determination the phenolic is based on the measurement of absorption signal for product resulting from oxidative coupling reaction , study all experimental parameters chemical and physical to development and stability the colored of product .Total flow injection of 1.5mL/min was pumped and active material was detect at λ max (460,530)nm respectively for Methyldopa and Salbutamol . In this the proposed methods were suxciffuly, applied to the determination Methyldopa and Salbutamol in pharmaceutical preparation.

12. The Study of Bacillus Subtils Antimicrobial Activity on Some of the Pathological Isolates
Hussein A Kadhum, Thualfakar H Hasan
The study involved the selection of two isolates from Bacillus subtilis to investigate their inhibitory activity against some bacterial pathogens. B sub-bacteria were found to have a broad spectrum against test bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were about 23-30 mm and less against Klebsiella sp. The sensitivity of some antibodies was tested on the test samples. The results showed that the inhibitory ability of bacterial growth in the test samples using B. subtilis extract was more effective than the antibiotics used.

13. Kinetic – Spectrophotometric Estimation of Tetracycline in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Forms
Nahla A Alassaf, Faeza H Zankanah, Azhar S Hamody, Sarmad B Dikran
Simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described based on the coupling reaction of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC. HCl) with diazotized 4-aminopyridine in bulk and pharmaceutical forms. Colored azo dye formed during this reaction is measured at 433 nm as a function of time. Factors affecting the reaction yield were studied and the conditions were optimized. The kinetic study involves initial rate and fixed time (10 minutes) procedures for constructing the calibration graphs to determine the concentration of (TC. HCl). The graphs were linear for both methods in concentration range of 10.0 to 100.0 µg.mL-1. The recommended procedure was applied successfully in the determination of (TC. HCl) in its commercial formulations.

14. Assessment of some Immunological Parameters in Sera of Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients in Babylon – Iraq
Ayam M Salih, Zainab A Tolaifeh, Tsahel H Al Dulaimi
In developing nations, the major cause for liver infection that lead to liver fibrosis and cancer  is the virus type C.  The research has been conducted on 800 individuals assumed to be infected with hepatitis C virus, those individuals have been admitted to AL-Hilla Teaching Hospital ,Central Public Health laboratory, to the possible relation of serum  interferon -α, CD56, IL-10 and IL-12 in case infection of virus type C comparison to normal healthy control groups. ELISA  assay was used for detection  antibodies  to hepatitis C virus antigen  as well as its immunological response in the subjects which were infected. The result indicated that just 40 from 800 individuals (12-62) years old had HCV positive which represent (5.2%)  with  high frequency in male( 67.3%/), than female(32.6%) groups . The study also show  elevated of IL-10  level in all groups of patients compared to the groups of normal healthy controls (P<0.05). The highest level was  reached to 81.61pg/ml and 90.69pg/ml in male and female respectively. The IL-12 level also revealed a significant increase  level  in all groups of patients compared to the group of normal healthy controls (P<0.05). The highest level for it was reached to 99.25 pg/ml and 125.33pg/ml in male and female respectively. The study also revealed enhancement of IFN- α levels in all groups of patients compared to the groups of normal healthy controls (P<0.05) the  higher level which was  201.69 pg/ml and 311.71pg/ml  male and female  respectively. The results also shows increase level  of CD56 in all groups of patients compared to the group of normal healthy controls (P<0.05). The highest level was reached to 27.984ng/ml and 30.190ng/ml in male and female respectively

15. In vitro Assessment the Potential Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Bifidobacterium Derived Bacteriocins
Shadan A Alwendawi
Nowadays there are increasing interest in using microbial bioactive peptides as therapeutic agents or as adjuvant to increase the effectiveness of available therapies, a promising approach in this line is using of probiotics secreted peptides. Bifidobacterium is one of the favorite patented probiotics genera and most of human enteric Bifidobacterium secretes bacteriocins peptides to the surroundings. Bifidobacterial – associated bacteriocins are classified as GRAS peptides, and recently were attracted attention that become a widespread research topic in various fields including cancer drug discovery development. This study was conducted to seek for antioxidant and antitumor activities of bifidobacterial – derived bacteriocins.  Two bacteriocins, Bifidin B1 and Bifidin B2, were partially purified from enteric Bifidibacterium longum Bl and Bifidobacterium bifidum B2, respectively. Bifidins were physiochemically characterized in respective of thermal, pH, and storage stability. Their proteinaceous nature was confirmed. Potential antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging activity was evaluated, both Bifidins exhibited antioxidant activity, the highest percentage scavenging activity against DPPH was 70.55±0.2673 %, recorded for Bifidin B1, and was followed by 68.1 ±1.753% scavenging capacity for Bifidin B2, while both of Bifidins B1 and B2 had almost close values for scavenging of superoxide anion radicals, 66 ± 1.970 % and 65.64 ± 1.343%, respectively.  Bifidins demonstrated potential antitumor activity on two human cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and Skov-3, however, the antiproliferative activities does not exceed 60.8%. Bifidins B1 and B2 showed highest cytotoxicity against Skov-3 cells rather than MCF-7 cells, with IC50 values of 28.9± 8.76 µg/ml, and 29.87± 9.13 µg/ml, respectively.

16. Effect of Prednisolone on the Histology and Histochemistry of Rabbits Liver and Kidney
Fakhir M Alzubaidy, Fatima Adnan Alzubaidi, Jasem Hanoon Hashim, Enass Najem Oubaid
Prednisolone and prednisone are synthetic corticosteroids used to treat different diseases. They are well known to be used for treating many conditions like asthma, autoimmune diseases, many skin conditions, and may help to prevent or at least to suppress inflammations and immune responses. It was proved previously the correlation between prednisolone and the function of liver in patients having liver problems. In patients with alcoholic hepatitis, for example, prednisolone was accompanied with a short-term reduction in the rates of mortality, but this effect was not clear after 2 years. This research was performed to study the possible effects of prednisolone on the histology and the enzyme histochemistry of the liver and kidney in healthy rabbits. Twelve females adult rabbits (Six animals considered as treated group and other six animals as control group) were used in this experiment. After two weeks of adaptation time, treatment by the drug began. Animals treated by prednisolone oral dose 20 mg daily by gavage. Animals sacrificed under anesthesia, then ordinary histological sections (stained with hematoxylin-eosin) and frozen sections (by freezing microtome for Alp activity) of liver and kidney were prepared. The histological results and the ALP activity in both liver and kidney were found to be normal in treated group in compare with the control group. Prednisolone has many various effects on the physiology, psychology, immunology, even the molecular and genetics, varied from beneficial effects to undesired side effects. In the field of hepatology, prednisolone treatment was found to ameliorate many symptoms and enhance many biochemical and histologic abnormal changes in many types of liver diseases like autoimmune hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, septic shock patients, and cases of liver transplantation. In conclusion; according to the results of this research there no any effects of prednisolone on histology of liver and kidney and the ALP activity in these organs.

17. Isolation and Diagnosis of Pathogenic Bacteria from the Upper Surface of the Cell Phone Screen and Conduct an Antibiotic Sensitivity Test
Muthana Badeea Farhan, Khadija Khleaf Abdulla
A total of 120 samples (80) female samples and 40 male samples were collected from the front of the personal communication (the cell phone) for female students of Education College for Women (65) as well the medical staff of Ramadi Teaching Hospital (55), The samples are collected by swabs, The ages ranged between 19-60 years, These samples were initially culture on the blood agar medium and then on different selective and differential culture media. Api test strips were also used for the final diagnosis of bacterial isolates. The results showed that all samples gave 100% a positive result of general bacterial culture and 80% of pathogenic bacteria. The results of isolating and diagnosis indicated the presence of the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (58.3% of the total sample), Escherichia coli (44.2%), Enterococcus faecalis (25.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.3%), Proteus sp. (5%), The results showed that the positive bacterial culture rate for male samples was 87.5%, whereas the female bacterial culture rate was 76.3%. The most important isolates were highly resistant to cephalexin, followed kanamycin. Proteus sp. gave the largest percentage of the resistance to 100% of those antibiotics, except for nitrofurantoin followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the proportion of resistance to antibiotics used in this study.

18. Synthesis of Novel Ibuprofen-Tranexamic Acid Codrug: Estimation of The Clinical Activity Against HCT116 Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line and The Determination of Toxicity Profile Against MDCK Normal Kidney Cell Line
Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Alaa A Ali, Tariq Hussien Mousa
Objective: Both ibuprofen and tranexamic acid were tried to treat colorectal carcinoma, however, combined drugs were not. Accordingly, with the aid of SciFinder®, online absence of the mutual prodrug (codrug) was affirmed. This persuade the authors to conduct this research. Methods: The ibuprofen-tranexamic acid codrug was synthesized and characterized with 83% yield. The purified white powder codrug was tested against HCT116 colorectal cancerous cell line and MDCK normal non-cancerous cell line. Results: The newly synthesized and characterized ibuprofen-tranexamic acid codrug has significant parameters. One of which it absolutely obeyes the Lipinski rule of five. Moreover, like the Lipinski rule of five, the number of rotatable bonds (7 rotatable bonds) and the topological polar surface area tPSA (66.4 A2) shows a very favourable oral absorption drug candidate. The IC50 of the mutual prodrug against HCT116 colorectal cells was 5.33 mg/ml, while the IC50 for the MDCK normal kidney cell line was 6.4 g/ml. Conclusion: The authors conclude that the newly synthesized ibuprofen-tranexamic acid codrug has fair anticancer activity against HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line with tolerated toxicity profile acquired with the MDCK normal kidney cell line.

19. Employing Gamma Ray Irradiated Giardia lamblia as Trialed Vaccine in Experimental Animal
Amal Kamil Abdul Sada, Amany Mohamed Al-Kaysi
This is an experimental trial to prepare a vaccine from gamma-irradiated Giardia lamblia which is evaluated in experimental animals. The study was conducted from December 2015 to April 2016. The field survey of the parasite was conducted from those patients attending the laboratories of the Alawi Children’s Hospital in Rusafa and the Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Karkh, through which 1250 stool samples of different age groups were examined. Five groups of mice were used in the study; the first was injected with normal saline and considered as a negative control group, the second was injected with cystic form of non-irradiated Giardia lamblia and considered as a positive control group, whereas the other three groups were injected with gamma irradiated Giardia lamblia at three different doses 10, 15 and 25 rad respectively. Giardia lamblia was primarily cultivated in liver infusion agar for ten days to obtain the active phase. On the sixth day, the cystic phase was purified and standardized to be used in the infection of mice with or without the exposure of gamma rays. Mice showed high sensitivity to parasitic infestation, in the gamma non-irradiated and the irradiated with gamma 10 rad, and 15 rad irradiated groups which was 100%. The results expressed an excystation process of the depleted phases and the release of the feeder phases. The results of the three irradiated groups consisted of histopathological changes of the small, and the rectum by dissection after two weeks of infection, with intestine amputation lesions, as well as ulceration and inflammation of the inflammatory cells represented in small numbers of neutrophil, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The presence of ulceration and fall of epithelial cells in the intestinal cavity has been shown, and different forms of the parasite have been observed. Mice which was injected with irradiated G lamblia at high dose (25 rad), not show and sensitivity to the challenge infection and no excystation of thy parasite had been done. After 2 wreaks, a comparison was achieved between all study groups in which no histopathological changes were noticed in the mice irradiated with dose of25 rad. After another two weeks, a challenge dose was given (un-attenuated G lamblia) and mice were dissected after another two weeks, no changes on the level of histopathology of intestinal tissue were noticed the results suggested that mice acquire an immunity against the parasite infection.

20. Upregulation of Programmed Death-1 Ligand 2 (PDCD1LG2) Gene via the Effect of the Early Growth Response 2 (Egr2) Gene Expression in T-Lymphocyte Detected using Microarray-Technique-Based evaluation
Zainab Saad Ghafil Al-Raheem
The focus, in the current work, was applied on evaluation of Egr2-gene-dependent effects on the expression of the programmed death-1 ligand 2 (PDCD1LG2) gene in 2 types of T-lymphocytes (MF2), one type with the Egr2 gene (23 test samples (TS)) and other type without this gene (23 control samples (CS)). CDNA labelled with different fluorescent dyes, Cy3 and Cy5 for CSs and TSs, was mixed together and hybridized to a solid chip in a microarray-based technique. The resulted (upregulated, downregulated, and no changed) genes were categorized according to their functions using Go minor software. The results identified upregulated, downregulated, and no changed genes in the TSs compared to those in the CSs. Mainly, the PDCD1LG2, programmed death-1 ligand 2 was found to be changed in its levels. This gene is needed for T-cell-based proliferation and IFNG-based production. T-cell proliferation is inhibited via the interaction with PDCD1 via blocking cell cycle continuity. The current study presents important information that could be used as a guide for future in vitro and in vivo studies involving the PDCD1LG2 gene in links to the Egr2 gene.

21. Clinical, Parasitic, and Histopathological Study of Pigeons Infested with Raillietina spp in Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq
Abbas Hadi Jasim Al-Mahmoudi, Khalil G Chelab Al-Nailey, Mansour Jadaan Ali, Monyer Abdulameir Abd Alfatlawi, Tahseen A AL-Saeedi
Pigeons, in Al-Qadisiyah Province-Iraq, were investigated Clinically, parasitically, and histopathologically for the presence of Raillietina spp in their intestines. For these reasons, 5 cities from the mentioned province above were sampled as 150 (100 males and 50 females) pigeons were studied. The general clinical inspection, intestinal exploration and slides for the worms, and histopathological slide sections for the infested intestines were performed. The results of the clinical studies revealed delay growth in the young birds and emaciation in the adult pigeons. For the parasitic characteristics in the intestines, the results showed clearly the presence of Raillietina spp, declaring by their firmly attachment to the mucosa by their suckers and showing their segments, in the lumens of the small intestines. In the case of histopathological pictures, intestines revealed grossly small-intestine-wall-based enlargement and obstruction via intussception caused by the tapeworm presence with huge amounts of mucus and air bubbles and the parasitic white convoluted tracks in the intestinal mucosa. Microscopically, the results recognized that mucosa had mechanical disintegration, marked sloughing of the epithelial layers that belonged to the villi and crypts, epithelial-cell-based desquamation of the villi that were affected by dwarfism, mucosa and submucosa infiltration with mononuclear cells. This study provides important clinical, parasitic, and histopathological data of pigeons infested with Raillietina spp in Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq.

22. Correlation Between Serological Makers and Immunofluorescence Deposits in Kidney Tissue of Patients with Lupus Nephritis
Haider S Al-Hadad, Aqeel Abbas Matrood, Maha Abdalrasool Almukhtar, Haider Jabur Kehiosh, Riyadh Muhi Al-Saegh
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. Few biomarkers for SLE have been validated and widely accepted for the laboratory follow-up of inflammatory activity. In SLE patients, with lupus nephritis (LN), complement activation leads to fluctuation of serum C3 and C4 that are frequently used as clinical biomarker of disease activity in SLE. Patients and Methods: In this study the number of patients were 37, seven patients were excluded for incomplete data collection, 28 were females ,2 were males. The duration of the study is two years from 2015 to 2017. Patients were considered to have SLE and LN according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, and International Society of Nephrology/ Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS). All patients were evaluated with clinical presentation, laboratory investigations. Our patients underwent kidney biopsy according to standard procedure by Kerstin Amann, and their tissue specimens were studied in the laboratory with light microscope (LM) and immunofluorescence microscope reagents. The relationship between the serological markers and immunofluorescence deposits in kidney biopsy of all patients were studied using the statistical analysis of Pearson correlation and single table student’s T test. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The granular pattern of IF deposits was present in all LN patients, and in more than two third of patients these IF deposits presented in glomerular, tubular, and mesangium sites. While less than one third of patients had IF deposits in the mesangium only. There was no statistically significant correlation between serum ANA, anti-dsDNA, and IF deposits of different types. There was significant correlation between serum C3 and C4 hypocomplementemia and IgG immune deposits in kidney biopsy, and there was significant relationship between serum C3 hypocomplementemia and full house immunofluorescence (FHIF) deposits in kidney biopsy.Conclusions:Immunofluorescence deposits is mainly granular pattern in LN patients. There was no significant association between serum ANA, anti-dsDNA, and immune deposits in kidney tissue. Immunofluorescence deposits of IgG type correlates significantly with serum C3 and C4 hypocomplemetemia, and these immune deposits in association with low complement levels correlates with LN flare. There was significant correlation between C3 hypocomplementemia and FHIF.

23. Detection Y Chromosome Microdeletions Among Iraq Population in Infertile Patients with Azoospermia and Severe Oligospermia
Samah A Hammood, Saleh M Al-Khafaji, Alaauldeen S M AL-Sallami
Objective: To detection of microdeletions of Y chromosome and study the frequency of microdeletions in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia(Middle Euphrates center)in Iraq population. Material and methods: 153 males were included in the study, the casesweredivided into groups according to the infertility etiology and semen analysis according to Word health organization, the frequencies and the characteristicsof Y chromosome microdeletions were investigated in groups. Multiplex PCR was applied to detect the microdeletions. Results:Y chromosome microdeletion was detected in 42 (40.7%) of 153 cases ,Microdeletions in azoospermia showed more frequently detected  28 (52.8%), followed by severe oligospermia 14 (28 %),Microdeletions in the AZFc region were the most common 12 (22.64%), followed by AZFb 11(20.75%) and AZFa 5(9.43%) in azoospermia compared to  severe oligospermisAZFc 6 (12%) AZFb 4 (8 %) and AZFa 4 (8%). Conclusion: Y chromosome microdeletions were detected quite frequently in certain infertility subgroups. Therefore, detailed evaluation of an infertile man by physical examination, semen analysis, hormonal evaluationsand when required, karyotype analysis may predict the patients for whom Y chromosome microdeletionanalysis is necessary and also prevent cost increases. Recommendation: This study emphasizes that analysis of microdeletions should be carried out for all patients with idiopathic azoospermia and severe oligospermia who are candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

24. Molecular Study about some Genes among Salmonella Typhi Isolates un Hilla / Iraq
Ilham A Bunyan, Ali A Obeis
In this study, (100) blood sample were collected from patient suspected with typhoid fever how were visits the Al-hashimiya, Hilla Teaching Hospital and Morjan Teaching Hospital in Babylon province (Iraq) during the period November (2018) to February (2019). Identification was done by cultural and biochemical tests, and finally identification by Vitek2. Results showed that positive were (16) isolates of Salmonella enteric serovar typhi by Vitek2 (16%) from the (100) blood. Molecular study was accomplished first by the isolation of DNA from Salmonella typhi isolates, they used method had succeeded in extraction of genomic DNA from all isolates. Second by using PCR technique to detection four gene by using a specific PCR primer were done by comparison with allelic ladder which gave a (578bp) it was found that (flicA) gene present in (15) isolates (93.75%) of the positive sample. viaB gene was also detected in S. typhi sample and found that in (15) isolates (93.75%) of the positive sample which gave molecular length (438bp) band. Molecular detection of sipA gene in S. typhi present of this gene in all (16) isolated (100%) positive, which gave molecular length (1126bp). Molecular detection of sdiA gene was done for (16) isolated of S. typhi, and the results showed that (15) isolates (93.75%) the positive results for sdiA virulence were detected by the presence of (274bp) band compared with allelic ladder. This study was conducted to identify the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi within five isolated bacterial samples. One genetic locus covering a particular coding portion within the sdiA gene, which is responsible on the encoding of cell-division regulatory protein, was selected for amplification.

25. Detection of some Microorganisms in Patients with Pericarditis by Immunofluresent Assay in Hilla City / Iraq
Ilham A Bunyan, Shokry Faaz, Hala H Ali
In this study, (17) pericardial effusion specimens and blood samples were obtained from hospitalized patients diagnosed with pericardial effusion at Marjan Teaching Hospital, AL-Sader Teaching Hospital and Ibn-AL-Biatar Cardiovascular Center with age range between (2-77) years old from both sexes, 6(35.30%) male and 11(64.70%) of them were female. The period of collection were extended from July (2018) to January (2019). A total of (17) samples from hospitalized patients with pericardial effusion were included in this study, only 9(52.9%) patients with positive bacterial blood culture media, 7(77.8%) from female and 2(22.2%) from male, and 10(58.8%) patients with positive bacterial pericardial effusion, 7(70%) female and 3(30%) male. In the positive culture group, from 10(58.8%) cases, death occurred in 2(20%) patients, and in the negative culture group, from 7(41.2%) cases, death occurred in 2(38.5%) patients. The sera and pericardium effusion of patients in showed anti-IgM to M. pneumoniae, M. pneumophilia, L. pneumophilia, C. pneumophilia, RSV, Adenovirus, Influenza A virus, and Influenza B virus antibodies. The results showed 7/17(41.2%) positive cases of pericarditis attributed to M. pneumoniae. In (17) patients with acute pericarditis admitted found 2/17(11.8%) positive cases detected by IFA in patients with L. pneumophilia. IFA revealed that 1/17(5.9%) of positive cases for the assay positive for Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Recent study revealed that the IFA detect 2/17 (11.8%) of cases positive for Adenovirus. Depending on IFA recent study identified 2/17(11.8%) cases with RSV associated with another etiological agents and present a case of Influenza A virus infection 1/17(5.9%). Our results showed a case with pericardial effusion positive for Influenza B virus 1/17(5.9%) associated with presence of RSV and L. pneumophilia in patient with intestinal cancer with negative results of bacterial culture media for both pericardial effusion and blood.

26. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Leek on Insulin and Biochemical Parameters in Female Rats
Wafaa H AL-Hashemi
Aim : study the change in level of insulin, cholesterol ,urea, creatinine and the weight of rats, when uptake orally of Aqueous Extract of  (leek) for Female albino Rats. Methodology: Between march 2015 and January 2016, 20 female white rats They were randomized into two  groups one of it is a control group and others  treated with the aqueous extract warm of Allium porrum (leek) plants for concentration (800) mg/kg and taken for 1 month. This study was conducted in laboratories of physiology and chemistry at the faculty of pharmacollogy Medicine /University of Kufa. Results: It shows significantly increase (p<0.05) in the insulin hormone of white female rats for concentration 800 mg/kg comparing with control group, It also shown decrease (p<0.05) in the cholesterol level in plasma female rats for concentration 800 mg/kg which equaled with control group, and shown decrease (p<0.05) the weight of the rats. While the urea shows significantly decrease (p<0.05) the white female rats for concentration 800 mg/kg compared with control group.  Conclusion: the creatinine shows significantly decrease (p<0.05)  the white female rats for concentration 800 mg/kg compared with control group . In short comparing with control group. The aqueous of leek extract acts as increase insulin in white female rats while negative  effect of aqueous extract of leek on Cholesterol, Urea and Creatinine and weight of the rats.

27. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Leek on Insulin and Biochemical Parameters in Female Rats
Wafaa H AL-Hashemi
Aim : study the change in level of insulin, cholesterol ,urea, creatinine and the weight of rats, when uptake orally of Aqueous Extract of  (leek) for Female albino Rats. Methodology: Between march 2015 and January 2016, 20 female white rats They were randomized into two  groups one of it is a control group and others  treated with the aqueous extract warm of Allium porrum (leek) plants for concentration (800) mg/kg and taken for 1 month. This study was conducted in laboratories of physiology and chemistry at the faculty of pharmacollogy Medicine /University of Kufa. Results: It shows significantly increase (p<0.05) in the insulin hormone of white female rats for concentration 800 mg/kg comparing with control group, It also shown decrease (p<0.05) in the cholesterol level in plasma female rats for concentration 800 mg/kg which equaled with control group, and shown decrease (p<0.05) the weight of the rats. While the urea shows significantly decrease (p<0.05) the white female rats for concentration 800 mg/kg compared with control group.  Conclusion: the creatinine shows significantly decrease (p<0.05)  the white female rats for concentration 800 mg/kg compared with control group . In short comparing with control group. The aqueous of leek extract acts as increase insulin in white female rats while negative  effect of aqueous extract of leek on Cholesterol, Urea and Creatinine and weight of the rats.

28. Synthesis of Dendrimers Liquid Crystalline Materials based on 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene
Linh I Awad, Nasreen R Jber
In this study, new compounds of discotic liquid crystalline dendrimers are prepared which is derived from 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene. The synthesis of these compounds shows the effect of dendrimer unit on the mesogenic properties. The structures of prepared compounds characterized by using spectroscopic method e.g. FT-IR and 1HNMR. The liquid crystalline phases of prepared compounds was identified by using the hot-stage polarizing optical microscope (POM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).

29. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Esters Containing Heterocyclic and Derived from Azo Days
Zena. G. Alrecabi, Zainab Amer, Naeemah  Al-Lami
This study including prepared new colored esters containing heterocyclic with high molecular weights. In the first part of work we synthesized azo dyes [1,2] from the reaction p-toluidine with β-naphthol and o-nitro phenol, thin we synthesized Schiff bases [3,4] by the reaction anthranilic acid with benzaldehyde and dimethyl benzaldehyde. The reaction azo dyes (contain OH group) with Schiff base (contain COOH group) these led to produce the new colored esters [A1-A4]. The second part of work was modification the (C=N-) group in esters to heterocyclic compounds by reacting with phenyl iso cyanide to produce new β-lactam [B1-B4] and with anthranilic acid to get new hydroquinazoline [C1-C4]. All these compounds were characterized by physical properties and spectral methods FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

30. An Epidemiological, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Study of Giardia lamblia in Anbar Province – Iraq
Suad Shallal Shahatha
This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology of Giardia lamblia parasites in patients who visited some of the hospitals in Anbar province, which included (Fallujah Teaching Hospital, Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Ramadi Teaching Hospital for Women and Children and Hit Hospital ) during by examining 864 stool samples in a direct examination method, The results revealed the infection rate was 41.7 % and the percentage of infection among males 47.8% is higher than that of females 35.4% with significant differences (p≤0.05). The age groups (1-9) years recorded the highest rates 55.4% and the lowest rate 13.6% in the age group (40-49) years. The highest rate of infection was 62.5% during the month of June, while the month of October was the lowest rate 5% and significant differences. The incidence rate in rural areas was 50.6% higher than in the urban areas 32.5%. The study also included the effect of Teucrium polium L. on the parasite in the culture media HSP-1, the concentrations of 0.5-3 mg / mL significantly affected Giardia, it was noted whenever the greater the concentration, the greater the effect during different treatment periods (1-4) days, as the highest concentration 3 mg/ml killed all Giardia parasites on the fourth day of treatment.

31. An Epidemiological and Diagnostic Study of Anaplasma ovis Parasite in Native Goats in Anbar Province- Iraq
Suad shallal shahatha
This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of Anaplasma ovis parasite in the native goat of some areas in Anbar province (Ramadi, Fallujah, Khalidiya, Hit and Baghdadi), by collecting 156 blood samples of both sexes and different ages ranging from one month to nine years for the period from March 2017 to February 2018, the parasite was diagnosed with microscopic examination using Giemsa stain. The results showed a total infection rate 34.6%, the infection rate in females was 38.8% higher than that of males 29.5% and significant differences (p≤ 0.05). The highest rate of infection (40, 39.5%) was observed for the age group 4-5 years and 6-7 years respectively. The highest rate was 75% in April and lowest rate 18.1% in February. The study also included a number of hematological parameters, which showed a decrease in total erythrocyte count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) in the infected goats.

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