International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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1. Formulation and Development of Novel Matrix Dispersion System based on Phospholipid Complex for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Ferulic Acid
Manjusha Bhange, Amrapali Jadhav
The usage of phospholipid complexes is one of the greatest ways to increase the oral poorly absorbed plant parts’ bioavailability components. However, the stickiness of due to the phospholipids, the inefficient breakdown of medications. To make the ferulic acid phospholipid complex (FAPLC) more dispersible and to create a dispersion of a matrix of ferulic acid according to the phospholipid complex (MD-FAPLC) utilizing a solvent evaporation method, pentaerythritol was used in this study. Pentaerythritol, phospholipid, and ferulic acid were mixed in a 1:2:5 ratio. Penta erythritol is used to enhance dissolving and as a dispersion agent. The study done on fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and calorimetry that uses differential scanning (DSC) investigations of the ferulic acid in MD-FAPC. The solubilities of ferulic acid in water and N-octanol were significantly higher in MD-FAPC than in pure ferulic acid (FA). At 120 minutes, MD-cumulative FAPLC’s dissolution was more than that of FA and FAPC and greater than that of pure FA. The story MD -FAPLC increased the oral bioavailability of FA by enhancing its permeability and solubility while maintaining its complex state with phospholipids.
2. Synthesis and Biological Activity of few Pyrimidines Derivatives against Hepatic Injury Stimulated by Carbon Tetrachloride in Male Rats
Zaid S. M. A-Ani, Sana A. Abdulmawjood, Adel O. A. Al-Hussain, Shihab A. Al-Bajari,
In the presence of sodium hydroxide, substituted chalcones are reacted with cyanoguandine in ethanol, and some chalcone compounds are used as a nucleus in the preparation of some five-, hexa-, and hepta-, heterocyclic compounds pyrimidine (pyrimidines derivatives), pyrimidine derivatives (A1, A2, and A3). Contains therapeutic properties and bioactivity, and has been used to treat various ailments. This study aimed to learn more about how pyrimidine derivatives could help mitigate the undesirable implications of carbon tetrachloride. a group of 50 male rats were separated into 5 groups: healthy control (no treated), CCl4 group, and the rest. A1 (N-(6-(5-methylthiophen-2yl)-4-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin- (1H)-ylidene) cyanamide), A2 (N-(6-(5-methylthiophen-2yl)-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-3,4-dihydropyrimidin -2(1H)-ylidene)cyanamide), A3 (N-(4-( Melting points, (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1HNMR spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography method (TLC) were used to describe compounds [A1, A2 and A3] to monitor the impacted liver function. Pyrimidines derivatives compounds reduced CCl4 toxicity while increasing the levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and alkaline phosphatase, unlike the CCl4 group and the CCl4 groups containing pyrimidines derivatives. The quantities of total lipids, protein, globulin, and albumin in the control group were substantially different (P0.05). Lipid peroxidation produced a considerable quantity of malondialdehyde compared to the control group, the CCl4 group. However, pyrimidines derivatives components reduced the quantity CCl4, lowering oxidative stress. The levels of catalase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase were higher in individuals who were given just CCl4 elevated in groups of pyrimidines derivatives component. There were substantial disparities in superoxide dismutase levels throughout the groups studied.
3. Preservation Activity of the Selected Preservatives Incorporated in Eye Drop Dosage Forms Marketed in Iraq
Hussein Ahmed H., Neama Noor A F., Bader Qasim A., Abbas Hayder K.
Ophthalmic preparation, especially drops, is one of the common pharmaceutical dosage forms intended to be applied to the eye cavity for different pharmacological purposes. Sterility and freeing of microorganisms M.O. are considered one of the most important requirements of the ocular drops, so the manufacturers are very concerned about keeping the sterility of their products. As well as post-marketing pharmaceutical tests must be performed to verify that the eye drop meets the desired properties and withstand the storage condition in pharmacy and during the period after opening the container. The present study aimed to evaluate the preservation activity of different types of preservatives and concentrations utilized in selected eye drops marketed in Iraq.
Seven eye drops products were selected and purchased from the Iraqi pharmacies each product was cultured for four weeks at nutrient agar first, then if there is growth identified, the eye drop cultured in MacConkey and mannitol agar for determination of the type of MO.
The addition of benzalkonium chloride (BK) in a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL as in both products (Apisulfa® by API and Orchadexoline® by Orchidia) can guarantee the product protection for 21 days and 14 days respectively.
While the addition of benzalkonium chloride in concentration of 0.2 mg/mL does not protect dexamethasone® eye drop by Eipico. (Xolamol® by Jamjom pharma) results revealed that the 0.75 mg/mL of BK has different and variable protection levels between full to nil protection. Tymer® eye drop shows no growth at all samples cultured in the present study and from all patches in spite of the low concentration of BK. Some samples from apisulfa® and Dexamethasone® as the preservative agent lose their activity totally before 6 months of the expiration date (show M.O. growth at day zero).
Tears natural® II by alcon contains (polidronium chloride) (PQ) in a concentration of 0.001%. Data obtained showed diverse results since samples from one patch show growth of M.O. since the first day while products from different patches show protection for three weeks. Samaphenicol® eye drop by SDI contains a mixed preservative (Thiomersal plus Poly quad (polidronium chloride)) in a concentrations of 0.005 and 0.001%, respectively. Results revealed that all samples survived without bacterial growth for three weeks and one out of three succeeded in staying sterile for the entire period of allowance. However, Staphylococcus aureus is only pathogen identified in the eye drops cultured.
4. Estimation of Active Components in Gokshura Tablet and Pushyanug Churna Formulation using High-performance Thin Layer Chromatography Method
Priyanka Rathore, Kratika Daniel, Vivek Daniel, Charanjeet Singh, Yashwant, Anil K. Gupta
Gokshura tablet is an ayurvedic formulation with gokhru (Tribulus terrestris) as best fixing recommended for building vitality levels. It enhances life, sexual want and drive.
Pushyanug churna is an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, hence this seems essential to explain the material institutionalization, various bioactive markers, blends exhibit in the polyherbal ayurveda compositions such as pushyanug churna. Point of the exhibit effort has been to create what’s more, approve a high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) strategy for assurance of diosgenin present in gokshura tablet. Mangiferin and chlorogenic acid are present in pushyanug churna.
Diosgenin, a biomarker chemical found in gokshura tablets, and mangiferin, a biomarker compound found in pushyanug churna, were standardized using recently developed easy and accurate HPTLC procedures. Pre-coated silica gel 60-F254 was employed at the stationary phase and a mixture of toluene, ethyl acetate, and formic acid (in the proportions 5:4:1) was employed for the mobile phase in the development methodology for diosgenin. In the mobile phase, mangiferin, ethyl acetate and methanol were added in a ratio of 40:60 v/v were utilized. In the chlorogenic acid mobile phase, ethyl acetate:formic acid:acetic acid:water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6 v/v). It was determined that the Rf value of the marker chemical was 0.77 (diosgenin) in gokhsura tablet and 0.23 mangiferin, 0.75 chlorogenic acid in pushyanug churna. For bioactive marker chemicals found in in-house and commercially available formulations, the developed HPTLC approach has shown to be straightforward, sensitive, specific, and dependable.
5. Clinical and Stability Assessment of Chloral Hydrate Syrup for Sedation in Pediatrics
Elhamdaoui Omar, Errouissi Yacine, Souly Karim, Bensouda Yahya, El Alaoui Yassir
To develop a stable chloral hydrate (CH) syrup and to test its clinical efficacy in inducing painless sedation during diagnostic imaging examinations in children under 4 years of age. For the physico-chemical tests, the vials were stored at + 5 and + 25°C and the analysis was carried out for 60 days. The microbiological tests were performed in 4 days of analysis. The prospective clinical study was conducted in 33 infants and children after receiving CH syrup orally for sedation prior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After two months of storage, the average concentrations in all tests were greater than 95% of the initial chloral hydrate concentration. No microbiological growth was noted after 60 days of storage. The clinical use of syrup in children resulted in effective sedation in 100% of children and rare side effects. Compared to midazolam, chloral hydrate is more effective for sedating children under 5 years of age and is significantly less expensive. The prescription of 5% CH syrup for sedation prior to imaging diagnosis has well-established efficacy. However, the safe use of chloral hydrate in infants and children under 5 years of age should be in accordance with international recommendations.
6. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride-loaded Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery: Optimization using Design of Experiments
Surendra S. Agrawal, Govind Soni, Anil Pethe, Khushwant S. Yadav
Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) has low oral bioavailability due to the presence of active efflux from intestinal P-glycoprotein receptors. Because of the difficulties associated with the oral administration of DOX, there is not yet a commercially available oral formulation of DOX. Nanocarrier system was manufactured utilizing poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and treated with chitosan to provide a surface coated. Nanoparticles (NPs) were created using a modified emulsification solvent diffusion (nanoprecipitation) method by electrostatic conjugation of chitosan to modify nanoparticle surfaces. The model was built using a Box-Behnken design with three independent components: X1 (PLGA), X2 (poloxamer 188), and X3 (chitosan concentration). The optimized chitosan-PLGA NPs had a mean particle size of 153.6 nm and a positive zeta potential of 21.51 mV. More than 85% DOX permeated through the everted gut by DOX-loaded chitosan-NPs as compared to NPs prepared with PLGA alone. Chitosan nanoparticles caused a 6-fold increase in DOX intestinal permeability. The findings pointed to the possibility of using chitosan-based nanoparticles of doxorubicin for oral treatment for cancer.
7. Eco-friendly Synthesis of Hydrogel Nano-composites for Removal of Pollutants as a Model Rose Bengal Dye
Nadher D. Radia, Aseel M. Aljeboree, Ahmed B. Mahdi, Ayad F. Alkai
In this study, hydrogel Nano-composite was prepared by free radical polymerization in the presence of sodium alginate (SA) and TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPS) as a surface catalyst. Potassium per sulfate (KPS) was used as a reaction initiator. Crosslinking agent methylene bis-acrylamide, the structure and morphology its hydrogel Nano-composites were studied using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Several factors that affected the adsorption process were studied, including effect of pH, effect of salt concentration and temperature. Also studied was the swelling behavior in two acidic mediums (pH=7, pH=1.2), the best surface swelling medium was at (pH=7). The adsorption isotherms were studied, and the result obeyed as favorable by Fruendlich isotherm depended on the value of (R2= 0.9404).
8. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activities of Mn(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with Azo Dye of 2-aminobenzimidazole and Indole
Hasan S. Mohammed, Gufran Shakir, Jin Wang, Vishwa D. Tripathi
Azo dye namly 3-[2-(benzimidazolyl)azo]-indole (BIAI) derived from diazonium salt of 2-aminobenzimidazole and indole is reported and characterized based on IR, Proton nuclear magnetic resonanc (1H-NMR), elemental analyses, mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) diffraction, electronic spectra. The BIAI was utilized to form Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexes. The complexes of BIAI ligands were identified via distinctive techniques (infrared, UV-vis, mass spectroscopies, molar conductance, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) diffraction and magnetic sensitivity). The Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexes were characterized as octahedral complexes and non-electrolytic under the common formula [M(BIAI)2Cl2]. The BIAI and its complexes showed interesting antimicrobial activity against two sorts of bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger fungi. The metal chelates of the BIPA ligand are non-electrolytes, according to molar conductance data. BIAI is coordinated to metal ions as a bidentate manner, according to IR spectra, with NN donor atoms of azomethine–N and methoxy–O. The BIPA ligand exhibited important chromic properties under pH changes.
9. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles via Black and Green Tea and Study its Toxicity on few Vital Organs of Female Mice
Shaima R. Ibraheem, Israa Al-Ogaidi, Hassan F. Al-Azawi
This study included synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a green method using AgNO3 solution with glucose exposed to microwave radiation. The prepared NPs were also characterized using ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UV/vis spectroscopy confirmed the production of AgNPs, while SEM analysis showed that the typical spherical AgNPs were 30 nm and 50 nm in size for the NPs prepared using black tea (B) and green tea (G) as reducing agent, respectively.
The changes in some of the biochemical parameters related to the liver and kidneys have been analyzed to evaluate the probable toxic effects of AgNPs. 40 adult male mice were included in this study.
To assess the probable health effects of the prepared AgNPs, an experiment has been designed that includes 40 adult mice, and it was randomly divided into three groups as follows: Group I (C): The control group consisting of 10 animals was injected intraperitoneally with PBS for 15 days. Second (G): included 10 animals who were injected with 0.1 mL of (2) mg/kg (G) intraperitoneally for 15 days. Group B included 10 animals injected with 0.1 mL of (2 mg/kg) (B) solution intraperitoneally for 15 days. Changes in some biochemical parameters related to the liver and kidneys were analyzed to assess potential toxic effects on the function of these vital organs.
The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT)(IU/L), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (IU/L), and cholesterol (mg/dL) as parameters of liver function were analyzed, and the serum levels of uric acid, creatinine, and urea (mg/dL) were analyzed as parameters of kidney function. The results revealed that no significant changes occurred in organ weight in groups treated with AgNPs compared with the control. However, the results showed a significant increase in ALT enzyme level in the third group compared with its level in the control group. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in ALT level between the second group and the control. The level of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) enzyme was significantly increased in both groups (2 and 3) in comparison with its level in the control group. No significant differences were found in cholesterol levels between the groups. Also, there were no significant differences found in uric acid levels between the groups. At the same time, creatinine level increased significantly in group 2 (where the NPs prepared using Black tea as a reducing agent) compared to its level in the control group. Urea level increased significantly in both groups (2 and 3) in comparison with its level in the control group. We conclude that the submission to AgNPs causes toxicity in the liver and kidneys.
10. Synthesis, Characterization and Study the Biological Activity for Some New Heterocyclic Derivative from 4,5-dichloro Imidazole
Ahmed kamal, Shaimaa Adnan
Creating a multi-step method for synthesizing heterocyclic compounds is the goal of this research. The first step involves reacting 4,5-dichloro-2- phenylenediamine with 3- amino- 4-“hydroxybenzoic acid to produce an imidazole derivative (1), which then reacts with salicyldehyde to produce the azo compound (2). Two, a Schiff base derivative is produced via a reaction with p-chloro aniline (23). Final steps involve reactions (3) with chloroacetyl chloride, alanine, sodium azide, thioglycol acid, anthranilic acid, and maleic anhydride, yielding beta-lactam derivatives (4), imidazolidine (5), tetrazol(6), thiazolidine (7), hydroquinazoline”(8), and oxazepine (9), respectively. The spectroscopic techniques of fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) have been used to identify all of the compounds that have been prepared; next, the compounds’ biological effects on two types of cancer have been investigated.
11. Prevalence of Human Adenoviruses in Respiratory Tract-infected Patients in Anbar Governorate (West of Iraq): A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study
Riyadh A. Abd-Alazeez, Mothana A. Khalil, Hazim I. Ghazzay
Background: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are a significant worldwide problem that causes viral respiratory tract infections affecting millions worldwide each year, especially in children and immunocompromised adults.
Objective: To know the prevalence of HAdVs strains 3, 4, 7 among respiratory tract infected patients aged between 15–42 years in Anbar province (west of Iraq) using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.
Material and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done between 22th of January 2021 – October 11, 2021 to notice the frequency of HAdVs in Anbar governorate children and adults with respiratory infections from the various general hospitals and private clinics. Depending on our questionnaires, blood samples were taken from all those patients for hematological and serological parameters. The ELIZA test with PCR has been done depending on the manufacturer’s instructions.
Results: A total of 104 respiratory tract Infected patients, 11(10.6%) patients were ELISA IgM positive, 9(8.7%) of ELISA IgM positive patients were positive using PCR technology. The 6(5.8%) patients were ELISA IgG positive for HAdV. Out of 32 mild pneumonia patients, 1(3.1%) was positive for HAdV using IgM ELIZA. Out of 46 moderate pneumonia patients, 6(13.0%) were positive for HAdV using IgM ELIZA. Out of 26 sever pneumonia patients, 4(15.4%) were positive for HAdV using IgM ELIZA. Out of 32 mild pneumonia patients, 1(3.1%) was positive for HAdV using IgM ELIZA. Out of 46 moderate pneumonia patients, 6(13.0%) were positive for HAdV using IgM ELIZA. Out of 26 sever pneumonia patients, 4(15.4%) were positive for HAdV using IgM ELIZA.
Conclusion: The prevalence of HAdVs strain 7 in children with respiratory infection was 4.8%, whereas its prevalence in adults in age groups 18–50 and 51+ years was 2.9% for each group using the IgM ELIZA test.
12. Estimating the Incidence Frequency of Helicobacter pylori Co-infection with Hepatitis C Virus among Thalassemia Individual in Wasit Governorate of Iraq
Safaa Z. M. Al-Saidi, Abdulameer M. Ghareeb
Objective(s): Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative bacterium that plays a significant role in developing gastrointestinal diseases such as peptic ulcers. H. pylori infection affects more than half of the world’s population. This pathogen incidence becomes more effective among thalassemia patients, a common genetic disorder characterized by a point mutation that leads to impaired production of the β-globin chain. Chronic hepatitis C is a chronic disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that has significantly increased morbidity and mortality rates in these patients due to liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma.
Methods: Current study included 90 β-thalassemia patients admitted to the thalassemia hematology center in Al-Kut women and children Hospital, Wasit province, Iraq from September 2020 to November 2021. The patients are divided into two groups (β-thalassemia with HCV group and β-thalassemia without HCV). First and second groups contain 32 and 58 specimens of blood and stool samples, respectively. The patient diagnosed with thalassemia syndrome regularly attended the thalassemia hematology center for transfusion and chelation and follow up on Hb level and iron status. This study aimed at serological and molecular diagnosis of co-infection H. pylori with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among thalassemia patients and diagnosis infection rate. Diagnosis was used Serological enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) techniques for HP-IgG, Level of ferritin, liver function test will be determined and Nested PCR method targeting the molecular diagnosis will be used to confirm H. pylori 23S rRNA using DNA extracted from stool samples.
Results: 90 β-thalassemia patients sample were diagnosed by Serological ELISA techniques for HP-IgG and the result showed 30 samples were positive (18 from the β-thalassemia with HCV group and 12 from the β-thalassemia without HCV)and 60 samples negative for HP-IgG and Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting the molecular diagnosis will be used to confirm H. pylori 23S rRNA using DNA extracted from stool for 30 stool samples revealed 13 samples positive (9 from the β-thalassemia with HCV and 4 from β-thalassemia without HCV) while 17 samples were negative.
Conclusions: The predominance of H. pylori among patients in Wasit was 43.3%. Levels of ferritin have significant correlation with H. pylori in HCV patients. There was a positive correlation between hepatitis C status and high H. pylori rate when compared with β-thalassemia without HCV. Splenoctomy was a positive correlation with H. pylori in β-thalassemia with HCV. Moreover, these results recommend study about the virulence factor and genes. Other molecular studies are needed for detecting more virulence genes in H. pylori bacteria such as real-time PCR and sequencing of H. pylori in patients with thalassemia, especially those with high serum ferritin.
13. Synthesis, Characterization of New Isatin-Ibuprofen Derivatives with Expected Biological Activity
Wassan F. Ismail, May M. J. Al-Mudhafar, Ammar A. Fadhil
Ibuprofen is one of the most important members of NSAIDs, named aryl propionic acid derivative. Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione) is an important molecule of heterocyclic compounds that have many biological activities. This work illustrates the synthesis of new ibuprofen-isatin derivatives by connecting ibuprofen hydrazide with different isatin derivatives by a condensation reaction, followed by characterization by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using the egg-white induce edema method for all the synthesized compounds (5-8), the compounds 5 and 6 showed better anti-inflammatory activity than ibuprofen as a standard compound. Their antimicrobial activity was evaluated and compared with ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, and fluconazole; the compounds 5 and 7 have moderate antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with lower antifungal activity.
14. Evaluation of Acute Oral Toxicity of the Emblica officinalis Phytosome Formulation in Wistar Rats
Varsha B. Mane, Suresh G. Killedar, Harinath N. More, Harshal L. Tare
Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. The herbal medicine phytosome was used to create a novel drug delivery system to extract E. officinalis fruit. E. officinalis fruit extract phytosome (EOP) formulation was tested for toxicity, and the LD50 cut-off value was determined using female wistar rats weighing 95 to 105 g. Acute toxicity testing was performed on a total of 12 female wistar rats, with three rats in each of the four groups as per 423 organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD) guidelines. A single oral dose of the EOP formulation at 300, 300, 2000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight was administered to groups I, II, III, and IV. For 14 days, we monitored all of the animals to see if any of them died, developed any clinical symptoms, or put on any significant weight. There were no fatalities among the animals, and notable distinctions between the two groups were not found in terms of observed clinical symptoms or animal body weight. At the time of the gross necropsy, no abnormalities were discovered. The phytosome (EOP) formulation of E. officinalis has been shown to be non-lethal and tolerable at 2000 mg/kg bw. 5000 mg (mg/kg) of LD50 were selected for this investigation.
15. Emerging Bacterial Eye Infection: Identification, Susceptibility and Immunotherapy of Kocuria Species in Patients of Basrah, Iraq
Israa Asaad Aziz, Marwan Y. Al-Maqtoofi, Ahmed A. Burghal
Ocular infections are common and considered sight-threatening consequences Non-pathogenic commensal bacteria can cause a serious opportunistic pathogen among immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals leading to blindness. The aim of this study was the identification bacteria isolated from ocular infections, investigate the antibiotic susceptibility, and using interleukin 17 (IL-17) as the immunotherapeutic agent to support the patient immune system. 33 eye swab samples were collected from people with microbial eye infections including (conjunctivitis, dacrocystis, corneal ulcers, and post-traumatic). Recovered isolates were gram stained and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Out of 36 swabs, 14 bacterial isolates were identified. Gram positive bacteria were predominant isolates, pathogenic Staphylococcus species 6 (42.85%) followed by non-pathogenic commensal bacteria Kocuria spp. 5 (35.71%). Gram negative bacteria including only Moraxella species 2 (14.28%). Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicated high sensitivity of recovered isolates to tetracycline and Ofloxacin and significant resistance to both benzylpenicillin and erythromycin. The recovered bacteria exhibited significant resistance to IL-17 via Immunotherapeutic assay in-vitro. In conclusion, non- pathogenic commensal bacteria Kocuria spp. seems to be predominant and IL-17 lack to antimicrobial activity in-vitro.
16. New Carbon Paste Sensor for the Determination of Ciprofloxacin in the Pharmaceutical Preparations, Serum and Urine
Waleed M. Khalaf, Bashaer A. Al-Aphalahy
A quick, novel and highly accurate sensor with superior electrochemical properties have been developed to measure ciprofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations and human fluids. Three carbon paste sensors for ciprofloxacin (CPF) were produced using the ionophore molecule ciprofloxacin-methyl orange (CPF-MO) in combination with three different plasticizers: di-butyl phthalate (DBPH), di-butyl phosphate (DBP), and tris (2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP). The slopes of sensors A, B, and C were 59.84, 44.67, and 50.49 mV/decade, respectively. The linear range was 5× 10-5 to 1 ×10-2 M, with detection limits of 4.6×10-5, 4.4×10-5, and 4.9×10-5 M, respectively, and a lifetime of 58, 19, and 21 days. Because sensor A produces the best results, pharmaceutical and human fluids were applied using this sensor; the recovery percentages were 98, 97, 102, 95, and 97 for CPF standard, Bactiflox tablets 500 mg, ciprocin eye drop 0.3%, urine, and serum, respectively, using potential techniques.
17. Kinetic Adsorption and Release Study of Sulfadiazine Hydrochloride Drug from Aqueous Solutions on GO/P(AA-AM-MCC) Composite
Basam W. Mahde, Ahmed M. Sultan, Makarim A. Mahdi, Layth S. Jasim
The composite was made by free radical polymerization of graphene oxide and acrylic acid, with microcrystalline cellulose and acryl amid serving as the monomer, N, N-methylene bis- acryl amide (MBA) as the cross linker and potassium persulfate (KPS) as the initiator. Graphene oxide/ poly (acrylic acid-acryl amid-microcrystalline cellulose) [GO/P(AA-AM-MCC)] super adsorbent composite characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM) Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). A sulfadiazine drug (SFDH) was removed from an aqueous solution using the synthesized composite as an adsorbent. To learn more about the adsorption process, we used data from the Langmuir and Freundlich models equation. The study clarified the impact of some parameters, such as adsorbate weight at the range of 0.01–0.1 g, and equilibrium time at the range (1–360) minutes. It is found that the best weight of adsorbate was 0.05 gm and a contact time was 120 minutes. Adsorption appears to follow the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms; the kinetics of drug adsorption have been investigated using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order rate expressions. The synthesized adsorbent also demonstrated a very high release rate and high removal efficiency of the drug SFDH from its aqueous solution.
18. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine Drugs on Amino Acids in the Kidneys of White Mice (Mus musculas)
Baraa J. Al-Musawiu, Nahla A. Al-Bakri
Hydroxychloroquine (HQC) and chloroquine drugs belong to a class of drugs known as 4-aminoquinoline, its structure weak bases due to the presence of the essential side chain, and this chain contributes to the accumulation of drugs in the intracellular parts.
Twenty-one mice were taken and divided into three groups, the first group (A) was the control group that administered oral distilled water for 30 days, and the second group (B) treated group that was dose with 15 mg/kg/day of drug for 30 days, and the third group (C) was the treated group by injected drug with a concentration of 30 mg/kg/day for 30 days also.
The result of amino acids studied in the kidney of adult white mice (Mus musculus) showed the presence of (18) amino acid represented: asparagine (Asn), alanine (Ala), arginine (Arg), citrulline (Cit), glutamine (Glu), glycine (Gly), histidine (His), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), lysine (Iys), methionine (Met), proline (Pro), phenylalanine (Phe), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), taurine (Tau), tyrosine (Tyr) and valine (Val). Statistical analysis showed high significant differences in the concentration of amino acids between the two groups of experiments treated with the drug (HQC) with a concentration (15 and 30) mg/kg/day and control group, as well as significant differences between the three groups.
19. Thermal Analysis in the Pre-formulation of Amorphous Solid Dispersion for Poorly Water-soluble Drugs
Tholfekar Fo’ad, Ghaidaa S. Hameed, Ayad M. R. Raauf
This study is unique in studying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of poorly water-soluble drugs before their formulation. Three selected drugs atorvastatin, albendazole and diclofenac were mixed with three different polymers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and soluplus (SOL). The pure drugs and physical mixtures were subjected to solvent evaporation and milling techniques to obtain solid dispersions. All, as received and TGA analyzed solid dispersion mixtures to evaluate their thermal behavior at a temperature that ranged from 0–300°C. The results showed that the addition of polymer either in physical mixtures or solid dispersions of the drugs has resulted in either increase or decrease of the thermal stability of the drugs depending on the method of preparation and the type of the polymer and the nature of the drug.
20. Body Weight and Liver Profile Status for Female Rabbits Administration DXN-spirulina and Combination of Folic acid, B6 and B12
Zahraa Falah, Nawras A. Alwan
Introduction: Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement and provides new hope for millions or more nutritional deficiencies for people suffering from nutritional deficiencies and promises many health benefits to those people. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of DXN-spirulina (a food additive) on weight parameters and liver function in female rabbits.
Materials and Methods: Thirty mature female rabbits (16–18 weeks of age) were divided into three groups (10 rabbits/group). These groups include the first group served as a control group and; the second group was given DXN-spirulina in doses (0.5 g/kg of body weight) and the third group was given a mixture of folic acid, B6 and B12 (2.5 + 50 + 1 mg/kg of body weight). All groups were administered for a period of four weeks as a treatment. At the beginning and end of the treatment, the animals’ initial and final body weights (BW) were recorded and liver enzymes were analyzed at the end of treatment.
Results: The results showed that the DXN-spirulina dose in final body weight was heavier (p<0.05) in GII than in GI and GIII and changed positively in BW (absolute or relative to initial BW). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase decreased (p < 0.05) in GI and GII compared with GIII.
In conclusion: DXN-spirulina taken orally (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) as a natural antioxidant has been shown to improve body weight and liver enzyme status without adverse effects on these enzymes.
21. Electrocatalytic Reduction and Voltammetric Determination of Curcumin by Blood Medium
Ibtihal H. A. Al-Omairi, Muhammed M. Radhi, Ahmed A. Mohsin
Curcumin is a chemical produced from the Curcuma longa family. Curcumin compounds can be used in various types of cancers. The study focused on the electrochemical properties of curcumin in the blood medium. The redox reaction of curcumin in blood was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to find each of the electrochemical parameters such as different concentrations, pH, scan rates, and reliability (stability). In-vitro experiments found that the activity of curcumin in the blood has good behavior against disease through the interaction of curcumin molecules with blood components that have only one peak reduction current that appeared at a voltage of -0.750 V. A good indication for these reactions is to serve as an antioxidant reagent enhanced by the alkaline medium (pH = 8) of the blood medium. Also, the curcumin compounds present in the alkaline medium can be used for patients suffering from cancer diseases.
22. Development and Validation for the Estimation of Fenofibrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage form by Reversed-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography
Awdhut Pimpale, Mahendra Gunde, Rajendra Kakde, Ishwar Kakde
Very simple, exact, precise and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) methods used to estimate the amount of fenofibrate in both the bulk and tablet formulations. The reversed-mobile phase buffer and ACN in the proportion (40:60) v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min were used to create the Princeton (C18) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5) column. At 240 nm wavelength, the detection procedure was approved. The RT was established to be 3.905 minutes under fenofibrate’s optimum circumstances. The calibration curve had a range of 87 to 232 g/mL and a correlation coefficient of 0.9994. All-important parameters’ RSD values were below 2.0%. A 99.13 and a 100.44% recovery rate, respectively, were shown to exist. In accordance with ICH requirements, the established technique was evaluated for linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy, and system applicability. The feasibility and repeatability of the suggested technique for determining the amount of the commercially available dosage forms of fenofibrate in tablet and bulk form were also demonstrated.
23. Novel Antidiabetic Polyherbal Formulation for Synergistic Therapeutic Effects in Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Rats
Pande V. Bhaskarrao, Chandel S. Singh, Soni Vishal
Worldwide demand for new anti-diabetic drugs from plant sources has increased as diabetes mellitus has become a global epidemic. In the era of herbal medicines, polyherbal formulations offer higher therapeutic efficacy than single plants due to synergistic effects. Therefore, the objective was to develop a novel anti-diabetic polyherbal formulation containing mixtures of three plants: Azadirachta indica leaves, Tinospora cordifolia stem and Ocimum sanctum leaves extracts. The eight different plant formulations (F1 to F8) were formulated while F1 to F3 contained a single plant extract. Hyperglycemia was developed in rodents by ingestion of streptozotocin. The experimental animals’ serum sugar level, body weight and lipid profile were determined. In the diabetic rats treated orally with F1 to F8, the blood glucose level decreased significantly compared to the diabetic control group. Similar effects were also observed in the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. In addition, F1 to F8 controlled lipid level, namely total cholesterol (CHL), triglycerides (TGL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in rodents. The findings suggested that F7 showed higher anti-diabetic and antihyperlipidemic efficiency when equated to the other formulations. It was also found that the formulations (F1 to F3) containing a single plant extract exhibited lower therapeutic efficacy than the polyherbal formulations (F4 to F8). The results suggest that the higher therapeutic efficacy of the polyherbal formulation is due to the synergistic effect of the different phytoconstituents in the plant mixtures.
24. Development and Characterization of Eudragit Rl100 Nanoparticle Loaded Duloxetine Hydrochloride Gel for Transdermal Drug Delivery
Parameshwar Kondapuram, Suvendu K. Sahoo
Purpose: The study sought to examine the feasibility of transdermal delivery of duloxetine hydrochloride from a nano-gel and in-vitro assessment of the gel to demonstrate improved solubility and drug absorption from in-vitro permeation studies using rat skin.
Materials and Methods: Six formulas of amorphous duloxetine hydrochloride-loaded nanoparticle (NP) using eudragit RL 100 and Tween 80 as a stabilizer in the different ratios of ethanol by the solvent antisolvent technique. The physicochemical critiques of the amorphous duloxetine hydrochloride-loaded NP have completed the best formulation, NPF6, fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size, and surface morphology analysis. The nano gel on produced using NPF6 in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and carbopol glycol 934 gelling solutions. Investigated the gel’s mechanical and rheological characteristics and in-vitro permeation.
Results: The chosen solvent-antisolvent precipitation technique might produce NP with desirable physicochemical characteristics. The particle size of the nanoparticle’s two factors is regulated by solvent: antisolvent surfactant content and ratio. According to the findings of the FTIR investigation, the medication and excipients were compatible. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation reveals the development of distinct asymmetric NPs. A comparative learning process and statistical analysis discovered that the best thermosensitive nanogel of amorphized duloxetine hydrochloride NPs with higher bioavailability features was carbopol glycol 934 gel.
Conclusion: As an outcome, the previously described in-vitro assessment of in-place nano gel put an example of the invention’s latent for increased solubility, patient compliance, and transdermal distribution of duloxetine hydrochloride.
25. Evaluation of the Biological Efficacy and Physicochemical Evaluation of Toothpaste Prepared from Few Types of Plant Extracts against Some Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from the Mouth
Raghad H. Mohammed, Asmma E. Al Niaame
The demand for a herbal-based products such as toothpaste is high these days. Consumers believed that herbal-based toothpaste are safe, effective and less toxic because few and safe chemicals is used as compared to synthetically produced toothpaste. Therefore, this study was amied to formulate and evaluate new polyherbal toothpaste containing herbal extracts available to treat periodontal problems. The polyherbal toothpaste was formulated using three herbal extracts namely lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus L.) marjoram (Qriganum majorana L.) and salivia (Salvia officinalis L.) and tested against Streptococcus mitis-orul Streptococcus pyogen, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis Enterococcus faecium, Gemella morbilloe, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia ssp, Acinetobacter baumannii complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with different concentrations varying from 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 mg/mL. The significant inhibition has seen against Streptococcus mutans (27 mm) and there is no inhibition for both Acinetobacter baumannii complex and P. aeruginosa. The formulated toothpaste was also evaluated with the standard physiochemical parameters along with the antimicrobial activity. it opens a window for future study to enhance the ability of the toothpaste and to prove the efficacy and safety of the formulated toothpaste. Then a comparison was made with commercial toothpastes for three selected types.
26. Preparation and Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Mouthwash Prepared from Few Types of Plant Extracts against Some Types of Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Mouth
Zainab H. Khudhair, Asmaa E. Al-Niaame
Problems associated with drug resistance and the toxicity of some medicinal compounds currently in use are a major problem that requires searching for new compounds to overcome these problems. In the current study, two types of mouthwash were prepared, the first representing the mixture of aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis L., Pimpinella anisum L. and Silybum marianum L. plants and the second represented the mixture of their methanolic extracts. The inhibitory activity of the two prepared types of mouthwash was tested in comparison with the effectiveness of commercial products available in the Iraqi markets, namely oral B and alpha zac against some types of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the mouth of patients attending to some specialized dental centers in the city of Baghdad, where three of them were negative for gram stain represented by (Enterobacter cloacae ssp dissolvens, Kluyvera intermedia and Serratia marcescen). The four gram-positive represented by Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus parasanguinis and Staphylococcus aureus, using the diffusion agar method and tube method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The methanolic and aqueous extracts showed inhibitory activity against most types of bacteria included in this study, as the inhibitory values ranged between 10 to 24 mm. The aqueous’s lowest inhibitory dilution (MIC) was 28% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL, and the lowest bactericidal dilution (MBC) was 14% at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. These results are close to the inhibitory properties of the methanolic extract, as no significant differences were observed in both MIC and MBC values between both lotions. The prepared aqueous and methanolic extracts lotion showed distinctive stability in terms of pH, density, color, smell and homogeneity over a period of three months from the date of preparation under different storage conditions.
27. Production, Purification and Characterization of IFN-α2b in Escherichia coli
Ehab H. A. Mageed, Falah H. Shary, Abdulelah A. Almayahi
IFNα-2b as a protein is a cytokine used to treat more than 14 diseases all around the world, the recombinant human IFN-2b was synthesized and a genetic engineering method or recombinant DNA technology. IFNα-2b as a protein with broad biological action, including antiviral and anticancer properties, might be a useful therapeutic protein for a variety of diseases, including hepatitis C and cancer. IFN-α2b sequence was taken from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) gene database and optimized before being cloned and produced in the pET28a+ vector. Escherichia coli was considered as a prokaryotic expression system. IFN-α2b expression was carried out in E. coli strains BL21 (DE3) and BL21(DE3) pLysS and E. coli DH5α strain used for cloning. isopropyl-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induced protein production in bacteria cells bearing the pET28a+ IFN-α2b construct, followed by sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separation of total proteins. Western blotting was used to confirm that IFN-α2b was expressed successfully in E. coli strains BL21 (DE3) and BL21(DE3) pLysS.
28. Understanding Degradation Pathway of Poorly Stable Diltiazem Hydrochloride and Development of its Stabilized Controlled-release Tablets
Rajesh Agrawal, Prasad G. Mishra, Balkrishan Bansal
Diltiazem hydrochloride is a class -1 drug, as per the breast-conserving surgery (BCS) classification system, which is highly soluble and highly permeable. It is a poorly stable drug that poses many problems during formulation preparation. The stability of the final product is quite challenging. The API undergoes hydrolysis to form desacetyl-diltiazem. It is the major degradation impurity. Desacetyl-diltiazem exhibits only a quarter to half of the pharmacological activity as compared to diltiazem HCl. A correct understanding of the degradation pathway and usage of suitable excipients can provide a stable product with improved shelf life. During the course of various trials and application of factorial designing, an optimized composition for oral controlled release tablets of diltiazem HCl has arrived, suggesting that exposure to an aqueous medium for tablets granulation and eliminating the polyvinylpyrrolidone from the composition significantly improved the product stability and final tablets shelf life by not only maintaining the desired in-vitro drug release profile but also keeping the related substances (impurities level) at very low levels throughout the entire shelf life.
29. Formulation and Evaluation of the Fenofibrate Spray-dried Emulsion Tablets
Nikam Aarti, Kamble Ravindra
The present research work deals with the development of a self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) of Fenofibrate (FF) followed by spray drying to form solid SMEDDS and tablets with enhanced solubility and dissolution. FF is BCS class II drug with low bioavailability and low aqueous solubility. The solubility of the FF can be improved by formulating SMEDDS. Liquid SMEDDS were developed by adding the drug in oleic acid, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP to get a clear solution. In the spray drying method, dextran was used to form the granules. Further, direct compression method was used to manufacture the tablets. The spray-dried product containing solid SMEDDS of FF showed nearly 30-fold solubility enhancement in distilled water in comparison to pure FF. The optimized formulation containing solid SMEDDS of FF (F9) showed an increased dissolution rate (100% drug release at 60 minutes) in comparison to conventional tablets. The optimized batch showed excellent stability at the accelerated condition for the period of 3 months. The current research work demonstrates spray drying as a potential approach to transfer the liquid SMEDSS to a solid SMEDDS with an enhanced solubility and dissolution rate.
30. Formulation Optimization and Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of Moxifloxacin
Anil K Gupta, Charanjeet Singh, Yashwant, Kamal
Oral administration of a pharmacologically active agent is the common and most preferred route among patients suffering from different types of illness. In the market, different type of oral dosage form is available among them tablet is the most favorite and demanded formulation. Further, the tablets, which are easy to use and swallow, are the ideal dosage form like orally disintegrating tablets (ODT’s). The main advantage of this type of formulation is that they can give easily to old aged and under-aged patients.
In this research work, ODT’s formulation was manufactured, which get easily disintegrates and gives no bitter taste in the buccal cavity during administration. To achieve this task, moxifloxacin was complexed with suitable ion exchange resins (IER) like Kyron T314. In this course of action, multiple trials were performed using variable percentages or ratio of moxifloxacin and Kyron T 314. The resulting complex powder was characterized by different parameters like IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Along with the other excipients, drug resin complex (DRC) was used to manufacture the tablets. In this process, two super disintegrants viz. cross povidone and Ac di sol were used, and tablets were prepared by direct compression methodology.
The finished product parameters of the tablet were estimated using the different available analytical methodologies.
In this research work, it was concluded that the minimum time (19 seconds) for the wetting of tablets was observed when the quantity of crospovidone used was around 10% (MIT05). Additionally, this formulation gives maximum drug release (84.48%) after 120 minutes.
Therefore, by using a suitable IER, taste-masked ODT’s of moxifloxacin can be prepared. This method is more efficient and effective in the development of such type of formulations.
31. Novel Potentiometric Sensor for Estimation of the Moxifloxacin in the Pharmaceutical Samples, Urine, and Serum
Sarra A. Abrahem, Shyama M. Ahmad, Bashaer A. Al-Phalahy
An easy, simple and ecofriendly process for the estimation of moxifloxacin (MFN) in the pharmaceutical samples, serum and blood. The prepared sensors contained moxifloxacin–bromophenol blue as ionphore and, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, di-butyl phthalate and di-butyl phosphate as plasticizers. The electrodes based on di-n-butyl phthalate (DBPH), Tris (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), and di-butyl phosphate (DBP), gave slope 44.50, 56.86 and 46.38 mV/decade, respectively. The linear concentrations were 1×10-5 – 1×10-2, 5×10-5- 1×10-2 and 5×10-5 – 1×10-2 M with detection limits of 9.0×10-6, 4.7×10-5 and 4.9×10-5 M and a lifetime of 17, 39 and 12 days for electrodes based on DBPH, TEHP, and DBP, respectively. The best electrode was TEHP which gave the best results. The sensor that based on TEHP as plasticizer was better response and stability, it was used to estimate the moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical samples using single and multi-standard addition potentiometry.
32. Synthesis, Characterization of New Ligand Derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and its Complexes with Few Metallic Ions and Evaluation of their Activity as Anticancer
M. N. Dawood, H. O. Jamel
A new heterocyclic ligand (LH) derived from 4-aminoantipyrene was prepared through the reaction of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole with 4-amino-antipyrene dissolved in absolute ethanol as the first step to form compound-A, while the second step involved the reaction of O-phenylenediamine with benzil to produce compound -B, the third step involved the reaction of the products of the first and second steps to give the ligand as a final product. Five complexes, Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn(II), Cd (II) and Ag (I) were synthesized from the reaction of the ligand (LH) with its ionic salts. The ligand and its prepared complexes are characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy and X-rays as well as used other techniques such as quantitative analysis of the elements china health and nutrition survey (CHNS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) as well as molar conductivity and magnetism sensitivity, in addition to measuring melting points. These techniques were used to determine the structures and geometry of the prepared compounds.
FTIR spectra showed that the ligand behaves as a tetra-dentate ligand and that the ratio of ligand to metal is (1:1) for all the prepared complexes according to the molar ratio calculations, which were confirmed by quantitative analysis of the elements CHNS and atomic absorption measurements. The molar conductivity results showed that all the non-electrolytic complexes except the zinc (II) and cadmium (II) complexes were ionic in a 1:1 ratio. From the foregoing, it is proved that the complexes have tetrahedral geometry, with the exception of the Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes, which are octahedral. The anticancer activity of the ligand and its complex with silver was further evaluated using breast cancer cell lines and compared to the normal cell line. The study showed good results by treating infected cells compared to normal cells.
33. The Effect of L-carnitine on Apoptotic Markers (Annexin V and Clusterin) in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Women undergoing ICSI
Zahra A. Alhussien, Hayder A. L. Mossa, Muayad S. Abood
Background: Despite abnormal apoptosis of granulosa cells is believed to have a role in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the cellular and molecular processes behind this are unknown. Atresia occurs in developing PCOS follicles, likely facilitated by increased androgen levels. Atretic follicles are eliminated in the absence of tissue injury or inflammation, suggesting that programmed cell death may be the mechanism behind this process.
Aim of the Study: The current study evaluated the protective effect of L-carnitine (LC) against programmed cell death and, eventually, endometrial receptivity.
Patients and Methods: This prospective case-control research was performed at the Al-Nahrain University’s high institute for infertility diagnosis and assisted reproductive technologies and the Al-Farah Specialist Fertility Center. Sixty women diagnosed with the polycystic ovarian syndrome were recruited in this research and began their IVF/ICSI cycle; clusterin and annexin V were measured as apoptotic markers in the early follicular phase of the cycle CD2-in the serum and in the follicular fluid on the day of ova pickup. Endometrial thickness was assessed by ultrasound examination.
Results: Both serum annexin V and clusterin were decreased significantly after treatment (p< 0.05). The mean endometrial thickness in all enrolled women was 5.30 ± 0.70 mm. There was no significant difference in mean endometrial thickness between the study and placebo groups, 5.43 ± 0.63 versus 5.37 ± 0.66 mm, respectively (p = 0.441). There was no significant difference in mean serum annexin V (p = 0.101), but follicular fluid annexin V and serum and follicular fluid clusterin were lower in the study group than in the placebo group in a significant manner (p< 0.05).
Conclusion: The treatment of patients with PCOS resulted in lowering serum and follicular fluid annexin V and clusterin, indicating a significant reduction in oxidative stress and apoptosis, leading to better quality oocytes, better quality embryos and improved endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation.
34. Anti-angiogenic Activity of Rosa canina Extracts, an Ex-vivo and In-vivo Study
Zaman M. Jasim, Ghaith A. Jasim, Ibrahim S. Abbas
Angiogenesis, known as blood vessel growth from preexisting vasculature, occurs when proangiogenic overcomes the angiogenic factor. The most important angiogenic factors (promotors) of angiogenesis were vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), angiogenin and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα). Rosa canina, commonly known as rose hip or dog rose, widely distributed in Europe, Asia and North America, belongs to the Rosacea family. Different biological compounds were found in R. canina, such as high phenolic composition (specifically flavonoids), vitamins as vitamin C, carotenoids, and fatty acids as (linolenic acid). Polyphenolic compounds are very important due to its efficacy as antioxidants and antiangiogenic. The dried powder of R. canina was extracted by using successive solvent extraction according to polarity (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol). The yield% of hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were (0.8, 1.2 and 2.4 g per 100 g dried powder). Rat aorta assay (ex-vivo) was done to investigate antiangiogenic activity and choose the most bioactive extract. IC50 of avastin (positive control), ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane were 20.281, 33.582, 61.744 and 94.537, respectively. The results revealed that ethanol extract (EE) was the most biologically active extract. Chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) in-vivo was done using R. canina ethanol extract. eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) has a greater percentage of inhibition of blood vessels when used in two concentrations 250 and 500 mg/20 mL. The zone of inhibition as mean ± SD was 19.921 ± 4.048 mm and 30.302 ± 2.805 mm, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was used to identify the phytochemical constituents of the EE. In the present study, EE of R. canina revealed six flavonoid compounds (rutin, quercetin, catechine, astragalin, hyperoside and gallic acid) that could be responsible for the biological activity of the ethanol extract. In conclusion, the EE of R. canina reported a promising antiangiogenic activity both ex-vivo and in-vivo that may be attributed to the flavonoid content of the extract. The purpose from the study in order to investigate the antiangiogenic activity of R. canina extracts ex-vivo and in-vivo.
35. Identification of Candida Species Using Phenotypic and Molecular Methods Isolated from Women Infected with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Maysan, Iraq
Khutam J. Hassan, Ali A. Kasim
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by Candida spp. is a serious health that primarily affects women of childbearing age, accounting for 15–25 % of vaginitis patients. There have been few studies on the VVC in Maysan province/Iraq. Thus, the aim of this study was the phylogenetic and molecular identification of Candida spp. Isolated from women with VVC in Maysan/Iraq. A total of 100 samples were taken from women of reproductive age attending the Maysan Maternity Hospital. The cultures were positive for 45 (45%) and six Candida species, including; Candida albicans (44.4%), Candida glabrata (17.8%), Candida dubliniensis (15.6%), Candida parapsilosis (11.1), Candida krusei (6.7%) and Candida Kefyr (4.4%). The colors of colonies of tested Candida on CHROMagar Candida confirmed our isolates. C. albicans and Candida dubliniensis showed capability to form chlamydospores and germ tubes and grow in the presence of cycloheximide. C. dubliniensis and C. parapsilosis showed no growth at 45°C. The majority of tested Candida species revealed 9%-100% identity with many reference strains in GenBank.
36. Design and Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Eye Drops Containing VRN for Ocular Drug Delivery
Raffah K. Mahal, Fatima Al-Gawhari
As a well-known oral and intravenous antifungal, voriconazole (VRN) has an extensive history of usage in the medical field. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been produced to treat ocular fungal keratitis in the eye. A 32Box-behnken design was used to produce a variety of new formulas for hot-melt extrusion. The SLNs were evaluated by entrapment efficiency (EE percent), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential (ZP). A series of in-vitro and in-vivo studies were carried out on the new formula. The produced vesicles’ EE, PS, PDI, and ZP values were all good. SLNs eye drops were numerically adjusted to include carbopol, a stabilizer, lipids, and a surfactant, among other substances. ZP of -36.5 ± 0.20 mV, 80.9 ± 1.02 % EE, 205 ± 9.1 nm PS, and 0.015 PDI were all included in the data. For example, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), it was discovered that the crystallinity of the drug had been reduced. The in-vitro release study and the SLNs and carbopol-based eye drops prepared with ultrasonication method demonstrated sustained release up to 48 hours. Comparing VRN-SLNs pharmacokinetics to that of pure drug solution, researchers discovered an area under the curve (AUC) and Cmax three times higher and a factor of five times higher, respectively (both P 0.01). By functioning as a carrier, SLNs may increase the bioavailability of VRN in the eye. The in-vivo studies were performed by infecting the rats with candida species. It was observed that VRN-loaded SLNs eye drops were more efficient in treating candidiasis. Results indicate that VRN-loaded SLNs eye drops provide a sustaining VRN topical effect and quick relief from fungal infection.
37. Modulatory Effects of Metformin on Farnesoid X receptor and Specificity Protein 1 in Human Pancreatic Cancer BxPC-3 Cells
Walaa M. Tawfeeq, Inam S. Arif, Basma T. Al-Sudani
Background: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth major cause of death, accounting for 7% of cancer-related deaths. Metformin (antihyperglycemic agent) users had a 62% lower risk of developing pancreatic cancer when compared to metformin non-users.
Objective: This research aims to study the role of the Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) receptor in human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 and metformin’s modulatory effects on this receptor.
Material and methods: Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay for INT747 (FXR agonist) and metformin, FXR and Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot, respectively.
Results: INT747 increased the growth and viability of BxPc-3 cells in addition to a significant increase in FXR and SP1 mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, BxPC-3 cells viability was significantly reduced by metformin in a dose- and time-dependent manner with downregulation of FXR and SP1 at mRNA and protein levels
Conclusion: FXR may act as an oncogenic factor in pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells by increasing FXR and SP1 expression, while metformin significantly reduced FXR mRNA and protein levels in BxPC-3 cells, which may be due to a reduction in SP1 expression.
38. The Role of Vitamin B12 on Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase in Anemic Patients
Israa B. Raoof, Mayssaa E. Abdalah, Raghad A. Mohsin
Background: Anemia affects people at all stage of their lives, but it is most common in pregnant women and young children. Iron deficiencies are metabolic stress since it affects both the abilities to provide oxygen to tissue and the abilities to use oxygen (mitochondrial capability impairment). Vit.B12 plays role in the metabolism of AMP-activated protein kinase which considers as protection against inflammation in-vitro and in-vivo.
Methodology: This study includes 30 samples of the patient and 30 samples as control groups, by centrifugation, blood samples were separated and stored at minus twenty centigrade. Different questions were asked of all patients and control groups. like duration of anemia, malabsorption, malnutrition, history, drugs, weight, height, and smoking
Results: The results showed that the mean value of height levels in patients (162.2 ± 4.495) no significant difference (p-value = 0.6) as compared to control groups (165.6 ± 5.359) also in weight levels showed no significant difference (p-value = 0.9) between control (69.3 ± 3.418) and patients groups (63.8 ± 4.654). In vit.B12 levels, the mean value of patients (295.923 ± 162.241) showed a significant difference (p-value = 0.012*) as compared with mean of control groups (482.2 ± 158.12). In transferrin levels, there was a significant difference (p-value=0.04**) in vit.B12 levels between mean of patients (29.307 ± 11.604) and mean of control groups (42.4 ± 8.711). In addition to that, the mean value of Hb levels in patients (9.7 ± 2.200) showed significant difference (p-value = 0.03*) as compared to control groups (14.1 ± 0.94), finally, PCV levels showed a significant difference (P-value = 0.02*) in Polycythemia Vera (PCV) levels between mean of patients (43.3 ± 3.82) and mean of control groups (30.1 ± 6.601).
Conclusion: In this study, further demonstrate that vit.B12 plays role to decrease inflammations by macrophage inhibition; we identify the mechanism of AMP pathway mediate vit.B12 action of anti-inflammations, and reported the relation between vit. B12 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, therefore vit.B12 is considered as a novel action of anti-inflammatory reagent responses.
39. Formulation and Evaluation of Floating-pulsating Drug Delivery System containing Fixed-dose Combination for Chronotherapy of Hypertension
Ashok Koshta, Neelesh Malviya
This project aims to build a floating, pulsatile hypertension therapy. This work examined the 3-factor, 2-level box-behnken design and optimization technique for the floating pulsatile tablet. The quantity of polyox WSR N12K and polyox WSR205 was chosen to be the independent variable. Drug release, lag time, and swelling index are chosen to function in terms of dependent variables. ANOVA was intended to assess the data statistically, and p-value of 0.05 was regarded to have statistical significance. The tablet containing bisoprolol fumarate (BF) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) was chosen for preparation. The system comprises of 2 parts: an outer layer comprised of an erodible material with a gas-generating agent and a center core tablet holding the active medicinal component. Super disintegrants and active ingredients are to be used to prepare rapid release core tablets (RRCT). The improved formulation’s release kinetics provided the best fit for the zero-order models. The floating-pulsatile release (FPRT) F13 revealed a lag-time of 4 hours with > 90% of the drug being released at level 0 (65 mg) for polyox (WSR-205) and level +1 (65 mg) for polyox (WSR-N12K). After the burst, drug release is restricted. The tablets floated well and released drug for 6 hours. The concept of floating pulsatile is to be applied to improve retention in a gastric environment of dosage forms that have a lag phase after bursts release.
40. Pharmacological Evaluation of New 4, 5-dihydro-1H- Pyrazole-1-yl acetate Derivatives as Anti-inflammatory Agents
Shahlaa Z. Abdul-Majeed, Monther F. Mahdi, Suhad F. H. Al-Mugdadi
A series of nine novel 4, 5-dihydro-1H- pyrazole-1-yl acetate derivatives (IVa-i) by Shahla et al. were investigated in-vitro for their ability to prohibit arachidonic acid (AA) from becoming prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), the inhibitory effects were found at 0.016 and 0.02 nM for compounds IVe and IVf, respectively, this was due to high affinity for binding with cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. kinetics study and binding affinity results of these compounds showed good Kd constant of IVe and IVf with COX at (0.008 and 0.003 nM), respectively. Cytotoxicity of these two compounds in RAW 264.7 macrophages cell lines were performed for anti-inflammatory testing, determine their non-cytotoxic concentration to make sure that their anti-inflammatory activity not caused by cytotoxicity, results showed that IVe (IC50 = 4.2 μM) and IVf (IC50 = 2.7 μM), respectively. Compound IVe decreased the COX fold activity followed by compound IVf more than the positive control at the same concentration. During the evaluation of pro-inflammatory marker nitric oxide (NO) level with these compounds, results showed that the level significantly reduced in the presence of IVe & IVf at (5 and 10 μM) and (2.5 and 5 μM) respectively. Determination the level of cytokines with these compounds also performed, compounds IVe at concentration of (10 μM) and IVf (5 μM) significantly reduced the mean level of TNF-α. Significant reduction of proinflammatory IL-1β and IL-6 mean level production was observed at 10 μM of compound IVe and 2.5, 5 μM of compound IVf. The results showed good indication for the anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds and to optimize activity, further structural optimization is required. in the future study.
41. Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Betalactamase and Metallobetalactamase Producing Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Different Infections in Baghdad City of Iraq
Sajad Numan, Fitua Al-Saedi, Israa Burhan
Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen related to hospital-acquired infections worldwide. This study was designed to isolate A. baumannii from different clinical specimens, investigate the presence of antibiotic resistants’ and detect the prevalence of extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) and metallobetalactamase (MBL) production among A. baumannii isolates.
Methods: Over a 6-months period, 500 different clinical samples were collected from four hospitals in Baghdad. Identification of bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity test were performed using Vitek 2 system. A. baumannii isolates were screened for MBL and ESBL production.
Results: Among the collected clinical samples, (424) were bacterial isolates. Of these, 69 samples (16.27%) were identified as A. baumannii. A largest number of A. baumannii isolates were isolated from sputum (at a percentage of (50.72%) followed by blood (30.43%), urine (13.04%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (2.89%) and wound (2.89%). Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that A. baumannii isolates displayed different resistance rates to the applied antibiotics. It was resistant to β-lactam antibiotics: ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime and imipenem at a percentage of (90, 87, 85.5 and 74%), respectively. It was resistant to aminoglycosides (gentamycin and amikacin) at 80 and 81%, respectively. The resistance rate to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 87, and 80% to Ciprofloxacin.
In the present study, all imipenemresistant A. baumannii isolates 51 (74%) were positive for MBL production. 57 (82.6%) β-lactam resistant isolates were ESBL producers.
42. Detection of the Effect of Adiponectin, Vitamin D on Few Biochemical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Maha A. Zaboon, Walaa E. Jasim
Diabetes is characterized by elevated blood glucose in the absence of treatment, resulting from defects in either insulin action, secretion or both, disturbances in the metabolism of fat, protein, carbohydrates and vitamin D3. The body gets vitamin D when exposed to UV radiation or food. Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted by fat cells (adipose tissue) and is involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the effect of vitamin D and adiponectin at patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as a G1 (120 patients 60 male and 60 female) and its relation with G2 healthy 60 subjects as a control (30 male, 30 female) and other related biochemical markers such as (lipid profile, and (BMI). The age of G1 and G2 is 35–65 years. Vitamin D and adiponectin value were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A spectrophotometer measured FBG. The lipid profile was tested by lipid care analyzer. The results showed that the mean values of vitamin and adiponectin in G1 were lower than in G2 with highly significant differences between them (p < 0.01). The mean values of BMI and lipid profile in G1 were higher than that in G2, with a highly significant difference between them (p < 0.01), except the value of HDL it was lower in G2 than G1 with no significant difference between them (p > 0.05).
43. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Alcohol Extracts of Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum on Bacterial Isolates from Urinary Tract Infection Patients
Ahmed K. Al-Kubeisi
This study aimed to study the effect Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum crude extract on bacterial isolates from children suffer from urinary tract infection (UTI) and compare it with the activity of antibiotics. The bacterial isolated were collected from variety of hospitals during the period 6-1-2021 to 5-4-2022. The isolates were cultured and identified. 100 bacterial isolates identified as follows Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2), Escherichia coli (65), Staphylococcus aureus (20), Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis (2) for each, Scaphirhynchus albus, Morganella morganii and Micrococcus (1), Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii and Pseudomonas luteola (1). Different degrees of sensitivity were shown by the isolates for different types of antibiotics. Antibacterial activity of aqueous Z. officinale extract was (7–30) mm while the alcoholic extract of Z. officinale was (4–20) mm. aqueous A. sativum extract (3–26) mm while alcoholic extraction (5–22) mm.
44. Curcumin Involve the Myofibrosis Process of Rabbit Valve Interstitial Cells based on Expression Alpha- Smooth Muscle Actin: Experimental Posttest-only Control Group Design
IGN Iswan R. Ranuh, J. N. E. Putranto, Achmad Lefi
Introduction: Following an acute rheumatic fever infection brought on by an inflammatory reaction to streptococcal bacteria, rheumatic heart valve disease results in valve degeneration. Elements of the immune system play an important role, in facilitating myofibroblast transdifferentiation and clearing damaged tissue of apoptotic cells. Myelofibrosis arising in valve components is the main cause of valve dysfunction. Valve myelofibrosis showed a significantly increased collagen, proteoglycan, and elastin content in myofibrotic valves compared to healthy valves. Objective: To establish curcumin’s capacity to prevent rabbit valve interstitial cells (VIC) from differentiating into myofibroblasts after being stimulated by TGF-1 by comparing the results to controls.
Method: This study uses a posttest-only control group design for an in-vitro laboratory experiment. Heart VIC of a New Zealand rabbit were isolated (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and induced fibrosis by administration of TGF-β1 5 ng/mL. VIC pretreated with TGF-β1 were treated with low-dose curcumin (20 nanoM/L) and high-dose curcumin (50 nanoM/L). The immunocytochemical method based on SMA expression observed the inhibition of myofibroblastic differentiation. Statistical significance was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis statistical test with a p-value <0.05 as the limit of significance.
Result: Administration of curcumin with low doses (20 nanoM/L) and high doses (50 nanoM/L), significantly decreased TGF-β1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation of VIC, which was characterized by decreased SMA expression in all low-dose curcumin treatment groups (20 nanoM/L) (1.40 ± 6.30) and high-dose curcumin (50 nanoM/L) (1.40 ± 8.30).
Conclusion: Curcumin potentially prevent the development of SMA-expressing VIC into myofibroblasts.
45. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluations of a Medicinal Plant, Carthamus tinctorius L Cultivated in the South West of the Sahara of Algeria in the Wilaya of Adrar
Yasser Kadri, Abdelhafid Nani, Malika Bahiani, Oum E. Mezaouli, Marwa Belbachir
This work was carried out on Carthamus tinctorius, on which we performed the extraction of secondary metabolites using cold maceration using a solvent consisting of methanol and acetone and water (7/7/6: V/V/V). We were able to determine the density of polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins present in this medicinal plant. We also studied its antibacterial power tested on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, by a method called “disc diffusion method”. The contents found are 0.25 mg CE/g DM in condensed tannins, 1.17 mg CE/g DM in flavonoids, and 7.18 mg GAE/g DM in polyphenols. The E. coli bacterium is the only one that was sensitive and whose zone of inhibition has a diameter equal to 14 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of E. coli is equal to 100 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) is equal to 150 mg/mL; therefore the MBC/MIC ratio of the hydromethanolic extract of C. tinctorius is approximately 1.5, this enabled us to demonstrate that this extract has a bactericidal effect.
46. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Divalproex Sodium Extended-release Tablets
Charanjeet Singh, Yashwant, Anil K Gupta, Vishal Garg
There are two important parameters for a control release formulation. Primarily, it should be available in the form of a single-dose formulation. It should be given to the patient per day or few days a week during the treatment of patients suffering from diseases like arthritis, angina and diabetes. The second important characteristic of such formulation is that they release the active molecule at the site of action. This will reduce the chances and the level of the side effects of the drug.
Among the available such type of dosage form, sustained-release formulations (SR) give the most promising and desirable results.
In the SR dosage form, the drug release profile is controlled by the pharmaceutical engineering in the core matrix of tablet. In this study, SR oral tablet of divalproex sodium was manufactured by varying the quantity of drug release-controlling polymers like metolose 65 SH and metolose 90 SH. In the formulations, these polymers were used in different proportions and evaluated their impact on the physical and chemical characteristics of the finished drug product. The results of all formulations were as per the requirement of standard pharmacopoeial monograph. However, drug dissolution results of two formulations viz. DF9 and DF16 were observed to be optimum and excellent among all batches.
47. Design of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Lamivudine using Ion Exchange Resins Indion 204, Tulsion 335 and Doshion P551
Shital J. Bidkar, M. E. B. Rao, Ganesh Y. Dama, Jayant S. Bidkar, Ajinkya D. Dighe
Ion exchange resigns are suitable for usage as flavor masking agents and sustained pharmaceutical release due to their inherent properties such as high ion exchangeability, modified administration capacity, physiochemical stability, and non-solubility in any solvent. Ion-exchange resins (IERs) are macromolecular polymers with differing cationic and anionic functional groups qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The polymer chain is fabricated in such a way that it consists of different salt-forming groups in repeating mode. In this study, we have tried to create a rapid dissolving oro-film of lamivudine using the ion exchange resins indion 204, tulsion 335, and doshion P551. FDOFs attempt to boost patient compliance by shortening the time it takes for the treatment to take effect, in addition to having a quick onset of action and higher bioavailability and also it’s a conventional dosage form. Out of three different resins, indion 204 gives a very excellent result with 1:1.5 ratio, where the maximum amount of complexation is within 4 hours of stirring. Their resinate are converted into granules and exhibit satisfactory value of angle of repose, bulk density, and flow property. Drug loading with indion 204 resin showed above 94%.”
48. Immunological Detection of Cytomegalovirus and Bacterial Vaginosis Associated with Trichomonas vaginalis in Women with Miscarriage
Hawraa D. Hameedi, Zahrah A. D. Al-Shammari
Miscarriage is a complicated pregnancy and known as a spontaneous ending of pregnancy itself before the baby has attained a level of viability. Miscarriages may be sporadic or recurrent. A total of (113) a high vaginal swabs and serum was collected. According to sample size, samples from aborted women were obtained from hospitals in Maysan Governorate, Iraq (cervical swabs and serum) in the obstetric and gynecology outpatients department during period from November 2020 to May 2021. Some variables were been investigated in accurate study like age, education, residences and diseases and others. The SPSS version (23) is used for a statistical analysis, and a p-value of (0.05) was considered statistically significant. The aim of the study is immunological detection of IgM and IgG cytomegalovirus in blood of infected women suffering with Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis. Associated between cytomegalovirus, T. vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis in a abortion women.
49. Synthesis and Antioxidant Evaluation of Few Heterocyclic Derivatives
Athraa H. Mekky, Abeer M. Jasem
A series of novel heterocyclic derivatives [A1-A7] have been synthesized by the alkylation reaction of the (SH, NH, OH) of various heterocyclic (oxadiazole, thiadiazole,4-hydroxy coumarin and benzothiazole) with chloro acetone or 2-bromoacetophenone. The resulting percentage yield of synthesized compound was relatively (69-85%). The producing compounds have been identified by infrared radiation (IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy, and the quantities of various physical properties (melting point, crystal shape, and color). The synthesized derivatives were examined for their antioxidant activities.
50. Synthesis of Few New Carrier Polymers Derived from 2-hydrazinylbenzo[d]thiazole
Hanaa G. Attiya, Ruwaidah S. Saeed, Fatimah A. Hasheem, Muna S. Al-Rawi
2-hydrazinylbenzo[d]thiazole compound [1] is produced from reaction of 2-mercapto-benzothiazole with hydrazine hydride in ethanol. Compound [1] reacted with maleic anhydride in DMF to produce (Z)-4-(2-(benzo[d] thiazol-2yl) hydrazinyl)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid [compound (2)]. While the treatment of compound [2] with the ammonium persulfate (NH4)2S2O8 (as the initiator) in order to produce compound [3], then compound [3] reacted with thionyl chloride in benzene to produce compound [4], finally compound [4] reaction with various drugs: cephalexin, amoxicillin, sulfamethizole, elecoxib obtained polymers [5–8]. The structure of synthesized compounds identified by spectral data: fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) spectroscopy. The polymers [5–8] have been screened for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (G+), Escherichia coli (G-) and compared with the drug (amoxicillin). The anticancer activity (Hep G2 (human liver cancer cell line) of some prepared polymers were also studied.
51. Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Imported and Domestic Meat Samples
Esraa M. Kazem, Eman M. Jarallah
Food-borne microbes are considered one of the most important health risks at the present time, as well as an economic problem where the contaminated material must be destroyed and large sums of money lost to the producing companies. The result of examining the samples of cans using the pour method was that imported cans are more polluted than local cans. The sellers, as these bacteria cause food poisoning and most of them are resistant to antibiotics, which increases their danger. The highest percentages of antibiotic resistance were detected for trimethoprim followed by gentamicin and penicillin G, while most isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. The 60 samples were collected from canned food. They were randomly collected from different supermarkets in Hilla, Iraq. It also showed the results of microscopy and biochemical tests. In addition to the recognition of isolates by the Vitek 2 system, it was found that 30% of them contain Staphylococcus aureus, 20% Enterobacteriaceae, and 10% different bacteria, including Streptococcus and other species. Sensitivity tests were conducted for all the samples.
52. Biokinetic Model Development of 177Lu-labeled Methylene Diphosphonate as a Radiopharmaceutical Treatment
Hesham MH Zakaly, Mostafa YA Mostafa, Micael Zhukovsky
177Lu is a lanthanide radionuclide. In recent years, the possibility of applying a drug based on the 177Lu radionuclide as a palliative treatment for bone metastases has increased. 177Lu has many prospects in terms of its applications in nuclear medicine. The high-energy beta particles and the relatively short half-life of the radionuclide are used to provide an effective treatment. In this work, a comparison of organ and tissue doses is performed with two different drugs: 177Lu in an ionic radionuclide form and 177Lu labeled methylene diphosphonate (177Lu-MDP). 177Lu in an ionic form actively accumulates in the liver and bones. Phosphonate compounds form stable radio-labeled complexes. This suggests that 177Lu-MDP is a non-dissociated form of the drug. The distribution and elimination of the drug occur according to the kinetics of the carrier, i.e., methylene diphosphonate. It is shown that the use of an osteotropic complex (describing any drug that is attracted to and targets bone) allows for the concentration of a large dose in pathological areas and minimizes damage to healthy organs and tissues.
53. Study of the Effective Range of Drug Level Using a Novel Nano Co-polymer-Mefenamic Acid
Ayat H. Athab, Alaa H. Al-Safy, Mohammad N. Al-Baiati
In the present work, the work is divided into two parts, the first include synthesis a novel nano co-polymer by the esterification reaction between phthalic anhydride and glycerol, as it was characterized via fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The second parts, mefenamic acid drug reaction with novel nano co-polymer by esterification reaction which synthesis in first stage to produced novel nano co-polymer mefenamic acid drug. because the urgent need to retain the drug within the effective range for longer time, this driving us to look for a new optimization method for drug release; therefore, the study included, the study of drug release in two values of pH 7.5 and 5, where the choice of these two values depends on that the pH of the extracellular tumor is in the range of 6.5–7, while the endosome and lysosome are 4.5–5.5. The study gave great results, by linking the drug (mefenamic acid) with the nano co-polymer.
54. Detection of the Inhibition Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Green Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis) and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Against Few Bacteria and Fungi Species Isolated from Eyes Infection
Sawas Y. Hammadi, Asmaa E. Mahmood, Ameeda A. Attea, Wahran K. A. Al-Douri, Reem M. Hamdoun, Nabaa S. Saleh
A 80 samples were collected from patients who were suffering from eyes infections in Samarra hospitals, Samarra city during the period from December 20, 2020 to January 20, 2021. All the samples were from male and female aged between 1–75 years. They were cultivated on selective and differential media in the laboratory and stained by gram stain. Some biochemical tests were done as confirmation diagnostic tests. There were 71 (88.75%) samples yielded positive growth that includes Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumonia 24 (30%), 16 (20%) and 9 (11.25%), respectively. The results show that 7 isolates of Haemophilus Influenzae, 6 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 5 isolates of Escherichia coli with percentages (11.25%), (7.5%) and (6.25%) respectively. Four isolates with 5% of Candida albicans were isolated from eyes infections. The sensitivity of bacterial isolates was tested using 12 antibiotics that included quinolones, aminoglycosides, beta- lactams and tetracyclines antibiotics. Imipenem and levofloxacin were more effective than the rest of the antibiotics which range from medium to inactive.
The antibacterial impact of alcoholic extracts of Camellia sinensis leaves and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on certain microbial infections were investigated. Results show that 100% concentration of alcoholic extract gives a high inhibitory effect on all isolated microbes in compares with NPs. The highest inhibition zone is S. aureus with a diameter of 35 mm and the less is 10 mm against S. pneumoniae. The alcoholic extract shows an effective result against C. albicans with a diameter of 15mm. At concentrations of 100% and 150%, zinc oxide nanoparticles inhibit S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans, respectively
55. Identification of Flavonoids in Artemisia annua L. by High-performance Liquid Chromatography and Evaluate the Antioxidant Activity
Mawlood K. Mawlood, Ali A. Dawood, Noor E. Abdul-Razzaq
The study aimed to isolate and identify flavonoids in the Artemisia plant, results obtained from the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that Artemisia plant contains different concentrations of flavonoids, which include 0.995 μg/g (0.58%) artemisinic acid, 3.96 μg/g (2.33%) artemisitene, 10.36 μg/g (6.09%) dihydroartemisinin, 152.25 μg/g (89.6%) artemisinin and 2.318 μg/g (1.36%) deoxyartemisinin. The identification of all types of flavonoids in flavonoids isolated from Artemisia indicates the efficiency of the method for isolating flavonoids from Artemisia, as well as evaluation of flavonoid concentration in Artemisia extract and isolated flavonoids by measurement of the antioxidant effect) in three methods.
56. The use of Bacterial Cellulose Produced from the Local Isolate Komagataeibacter xylinus TELE8 as an Antibacterial for Wounds
Tayseer S. Al-Deresawi, Melad K. Mohammed, Saad H. Khudhair
The present study aimed to use the bacterial cellulose pre-produced from local isolate Komagataeibacter xylinus TELE8 as antimicrobial dressings for wounds and compared their activity with specific artificial antibacterial. First, the toxicity of bacterial cellulose was examined in-vitro and in-vivo toward the shape and growth of human lymphocytes and then toward skin irritation, respectively. The results showed that there was no effect of bacterial cellulose dressings on the shape and numbers of human lymphocytes compared to the studied positive and negative control samples, also, the results of the study of the effect of bacterial cellulose dressings on the skin surface characteristics indicated that there was no erythema, edema, redness and dryness on the surfaces of the skin exposed to bacterial cellulose in test animals.
Thereafter, the effect of BC, anti, and BC + anti dressings were studied using 12 male rabbit of 6 months old and were randomLy distributed into four groups included: a control group (without treatment), BC group (treated with bacterial cellulose), BC + anti group (treated with bacterial cellulose and sodium fusidate), and anti group (treated with sodium fusidate), all wounds in animals were treated for 15 days according to their group and the observations were recorded. The results showed clear and rapid wound healing in two groups, including the BC group and BC +Anti group compared with the anti-group and control group, also, the scores of skin irritation in the two previous groups were significantly lower than the anti-group and the control group for all days of the experiment; therefore bacterial cellulose may provide a promising effect in enhancing wound healing and preventing wound infections that act in delaying wound recovery.
57. Preparation and Characterization of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose Gastroretentive Film using Metoclopramide HCl
Dalia S. Hamdi, Masar B. M. Mohamed, Saja M. Mansour
This study aimed to formulate a gastro retentive slow release dosage form based on oral film for metoclopramide hydrochloric acid (HCl), a medication with a narrow absorption window. The gastroretentive film was made using a solvent casting method with varying ratios of primary polymers (HPMC 15000 cps and HPMC K4M), secondary polymer (carbopol 934), and PEG-400 as a plasticizer. The film of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M-3 (50:50) (HPMC K4M: carbopol) was buoyant for 20 minutes. The 52 wt % of metoclopramide HCl (metclo) was released from the HPMC K4M-3 film after 24 hours, and its swelling index was (46.5%). The mucoadhesive strength of the HPMC K4M-3 was 18 gm, and the film showed no effect on the rat’s stomach tissue compared to normal rat tissue histologically. The HPMC K4M-3 produced modest values of percent elongation of 77.6%. To conclude, the optimized film appeared to be a promising mucoadhesive gastro retentive oral film with the ease of administration and controlled release.
58. Effect of Zinc drug on amino acid concentration in liver of white mice, Mus musculus
Taqwa M. Ahmad, Nahla A. Al-Bakri
Zinc is one of the essential trace elements, it plays a key role in many biochemical and functional processes. It is less harmful than many other minerals, in the case of exposure to high doses of zinc, poisoning occurs, and this poisoning may mostly result from the accidental ingestion of household products containing zinc or nutritional supplements, this study was conducted to find out the effects of zinc on the concentration of amino acid.
A total of 30 adult white mouse males were taken and divided into three groups; the first group (control) of 10 mice taken with distilled water for 30 days, the second group includes 10 mice that were dose with Zn drug concentration of 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days, the third group includes 10 mice that were dose with Zn drug 100 mg/kg/day for 30 days. In the current study (18) amino acid was recorded in the liver of adult white mouse males as follow: asparagine (Asn), serine (Ser), glutamine (Glu), glycine (Gly), threonine (Thr), histidine (His), citrulline (Cit), alanine (Ala), proline (Pro), taurine (Tau), arginine (Arg), tyrosine (Tyr), valine (Val), methionine (Met), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), phenylalanine (Phe) and lysine (Lys). Statistical analysis showed high significant differences in the concentration of amino acids between the two groups of the zinc-treated experiment with a concentration (50 and 100) mg/kg/day and control group, as well as significant differences between the two groups of the zinc treatment experiment with a concentration of (50 and 100) mg/kg/day.
59. A Study of Removal of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution on Chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid-co-crotonic acid) Hydrogel
Rasha A. Mohammed, Hazim A. Walli
This study used chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid-co-crotonic acid) hydrogel (Ch-g-P(AA-CA)) as an adsorbent to remove aqueous solutions of lead ion (Pb (II)). A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to estimate the ion’s adsorption amounts. Metal ion concentration, pH, existing salt, and temperature were all studied. A gile’s classification indicates that these isotherms are of the L-curve type, and the experimental data were best fit by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. At various temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), adsorption and various thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were studied. It was found that the adsorption process was not spontaneous, based on the thermodynamic parameters of the metal ion-ch-g-P(AA-CA) hydrogel systems. Ch-g-P(AA-CA) hydrogel adsorption increased as the pH of the solution rose and decreased as the ionic strength rose, according to the study’s findings.
60. Updating of PD-1, PDL-1 and CD8+ in Benign and Malignant Breast Cancer in Iraqi Women
Ban H. Hameedi, Ali S. Sultan, Ali A. A. Mahdi
The study conducted at Center for the Early Detection of Breast Tumors at Medical City’s oncology teaching hospital carried 90 patients who participated in this study. The research was carried out between February 15, 2021, and July 20, 2021. The diagnosis was made by the consultant medical team using the triple assessment technique, which includes physical breast examination, ultrasonography, mammography, and fine needle aspiration cytology.
Women patients clasified into 3 groups (benign tumor, control and malignant tumor) benign B (34 women) divided in/to two sub groups such as (benign premenopausal age B1 (17) and benign postmenopausal age B2 (17) and malignant M (34), malignant premenopausal age M1 (17) and malignant postmenopausal age M2 (17), and control group C includes (11) premenopausal age C1 and (11) C2. An ELISA approach was used to measure the level of soluble PDL, PD L1, and CD8 expression in serum.
PD1 shows significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in pre- and post-menopausal malignant groups M5, M6 when compared with C1, C2, B1, B2. PDL-1 levels were non-significant (p ≥ 0.05) in pre and postmenopausal control and benign groups (C1, C2, B1 and B2) while they were increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in M1, M2 in comparison with B2,C1,C2, B1. CD8 in the M1 increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) when compere with group1, group 2, group bening1, group benign 2 and malignant 2.
Conclusions from the current study that the values of PD1and PDL1in pre and postmenopausal malignant women breast cancer showed an increase compere with the other groups, the levels of CD8+ increase in the premenopausal malignant breast cancer women in comparison with other groups.
61. The DNA Extraction from Chlorella Algae, and its Preparation for Real Time-polymerase Chain Reaction
Sara H. Abdulameer, Hadeel M. Thabit
Our current research involved the extraction of DNA from chlorella algae for prepare it to real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) After the collection of algal samples from the riverine quarter environment, they were placed in test tubes, about (1-mL) and centrifuged at (3500 rotation for 5 minutes), with placed a control negative sample for certain the success of the practical steps sequentially of the experiment, and to know the effectiveness of the lytic enzymes, and the reagents which used. When the microalgae are visible down each test tube by watching its green color, 400 μL of the lytic solution add to the remaining sample with mixing, and 10 μL of an enzyme proteinases K are added to them, which helps to break down the walls and membranes of the cells. The incubated of samples at a temperature of 65°C for 1-hour, followed by the addition 400 μL of chloroform phenol (it plays the role of breaking down DNA-related proteins) with shaking, and the samples are centrifuged again to take the upper layer as it represents the DNA of the algal samples, they are withdrawn and transferred to a new pentroph. A 5 μL RNA-ase enzyme is added to them to destroy the RNA and preserve the DNA. Added (500 mL of isopropanol), with mixing well by hand, and centrifuged at 12,000 rotation, for 10 minutes, alcohol removed and DNA extracted prepared for the PCR reaction.
62. Synthesis of New Tetrazole and Azitidenen Compounds with Evaluating of its Antibacterial Effects
Mays Neamah M, Ibtissam K. Jassim
4-((4-chlorobenzoyl)oxy) benzoic acid was used to synthesize new thiazole heterocycles. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of the synthesized compounds Schiff base. Then we derive from Schiff base 4-oxoazetidine and 4-oxothiazolidin heterocycles.
63. Comparative Antioxidant and Antiulcer Potential of In-house and Marketed Polyherbal Formulation
Medha A Khade, Manish K Gupta, Birendra Srivastava, Supriya R Hyam, Amol B Khade
The prime objective of the present research was to assess the antioxidant and comparative anti-ulcer potential of a gastroretentive polyherbal formulation with a conventional oral marketed formulation. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. For the assessment of comparative anti-ulcer potential, the aspirin-induced rat ulcer model was utilized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies were performed to study the effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity signified the antioxidant activity of the formulation. Evaluation parameters such as pH of the gastric content, total and free acidity, ulcer index, and histopathological changes were studied in the aspirin-induced anti-ulcer activity. The study’s outcomes reveal the significant anti-ulcer potential of the in-house gastro-retentive polyherbal formulation and marketed formulation as indicated by the reduction in ulcer index, free and total acidity. The results of the histopathological investigation further strengthened the anti-ulcer potential. Moreover, pre-treatment with gastro-retentive formulation decreased the ulcer index to a greater degree than the conventional marketed formulation. The results conclude that the antioxidant, antisecretory, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory actions might be responsible for the anti-ulcer activity. Further, the gastro-retentive formulation has an improved potential in treating ulcers over conventional oral formulations.
64. Bioactivity Guided Fractionation and Elucidation of Anticancer Properties of Madhuca longifolia Leaf Extracts
Nutan S. Kendre, Pravin Wakte
One of the leading causes of mortality in the globe is cancer. Cancer is a primary reason of death, with approximately 19.3 million novel cases expected to be diagnosed globally in 2022. The use of naturally generated anticancer chemicals must be developed as an alternative safe, affordable, and practical method for cancer treatment as traditional cancer medicines have failed to meet the requirements for successful cancer therapy. Phytochemicals and herbal extracts from various plants have been shown to have powerful chemopreventive properties. In this work, we studied the pharmacognostical and anticancer activity of the leaves of Madhuca longifolia. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of plants M. longifolia shows considerable movement beside breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The pharmacognostical study of leaves of M. longifolia shows existence of phenolic compounds, steroids, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and triterpenoids. The cytotoxicity of cancer cells has been linked to the induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The IC50 values of ethyl acetate fractions of ML is (14.37 μg/mL) and n-butanol fraction of ML (19.58 μg/mL) showed good activity which is compared with the standard drug tamoxifen (4.59 μg/mL). From the study, we concluded that the leaves of the plant M. longifolia show significant anticancer activity.
65. Some Virulence Genes Profile of Escherichia coli Stains Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Iraqi patients
Rusul B. Q. Al-Lami, Haydar K. Al-Maliky
Background: The urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent bacterial infectious illness seen in clinical practice, accounting for considerable morbidity and high medical expenses. Escherichia coli is the most prevalent bacterium causing UTIs. The expression of a broad range of virulence factors by E. coli contributes to the severity of UTI. This research investigated the function of E. coli virulence determinants in the pathogenesis of UTI. The aim of the present study is to identify virulence genes in Uropathogenic E. coli which are responsible for UTI by isolation and identification of major microorganisms (Uropathogenic E. coli) that cause UTI and detection of antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates. The determination of some virulence uropathagant genes such as cnf, hly, and fimH genes by PCR.
Material and Methods: From March 2022 to June 2022, approximately 200 clinical urine samples were collected from patients suffering from UTI of both genders; (160) urine samples from females and (40) urine samples from males in age groups ranging from 15–50 years who attended Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital, Al-Zahrawi Surgical Hospital, and Misan Hospital for child and childbirth in Misan city, Iraq.
Results: In the current study, E.coli has some virulence factors such as cnf, hly, and fimH for (40) E.coli stains were reported as a positive 4(10%), 30(75%), and and 13(32.5%) respectively.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that looking into the bacterial pathogenicity linked to UTIs might help doctors provide better care.
66. The evaluation of Two Zwitterionic Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Materials for the Rapid Separation of Methamphetamine and Muscimol Pharmaceuticals
Salsal K. Abdulrahman, Ameen W. Qassim, Ashraf S. Rasheed
The investigation aimed to use two Zwitterionic Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) columns to examine the retention behavior of methamphetamine and muscimol. The various spacer lengths between zwitterionic molecules in the stationary phases have been utilized to investigate methamphetamine and muscimol retention behavior. In hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), the retention characteristic of these two drugs was examined using a mixture of sodium acetate buffer/acetonitrile as an eluent equipped with a UV detector. It has been established that hydrophilic and hydrophobic mechanisms primarily govern the separation of methamphetamine and muscimol medicines on two ZIC-HILIC columns. As previously stated, the ZIC-HILIC-1 column demonstrated a difference when compared to the ZIC-HILIC-5 columns. The combination of positively and negatively charged locations in a single molecule bonded to the surface of an adsorbent allows for distinct variations in methamphetamine and muscimol selectivity separation.
67. Antimicrobial of New 5, 6-dimethylbenzoimidazol Schiff Bases
Sura S. Raoof, Afrah Salman, Hiba A. Hasan, Dina Saleem, Shams Khaleel
Organic chemistry is replete of heterocyclic compounds containing carbon and other elements like oxygen, nitrogen and/or sulfur. These compounds play an important role in biological activities. A new series of 5, 6-dimethylbenzoimidazol derivatives (3a-e) were synthesized by reaction of 2-amino-5, 6-dimethylbenzimidazole with different benzaldehydes. Spectroscopic methods such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) were used to characterize all compounds and they were identified by studying their physical properties such as melting points and Rf values. All compounds were magnificently prepared with a high yield 94–97%. The antibacterial activity of these derivatives against selected pathogenic bacteria were measured using well diffusion method. The results showed that all derivatives have antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogenic bacteria, including gram positive and negative bacteria, but these derivatives’ activity against G-ve bacteria appeared to be higher than those against G + ve bacteria.
68. Assessment of Serum Omentin-1, Adipsin and Resistin Levels in Beta Thalassemia Male Patients in Baghdad City of Iraq
Mohammed K. O. Al-Sammari, Omar T. Jawad, Marwa J. Mohammad, Ali H. Abbas, Mustafa T. Jawad, Suzan N. Abdullah
Adipocytokines has a significant impact on the development of many illnesses. (e.g. beta thalassemia), This research aims to determine the levels of Omentin-1, adipsin and resistin of (35) male patients their age (20–30) years that effected with Beta-Thalassemia city and (15) of healthy people as control group in Baghdad city by using enzyme linked immuonsorbant assay (ELISA). The findings of this research revealed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.01) in levels omentin-1, which are (78.33 ± 6.14) pg/mL in patients group and (35.88 ± 5.8) ) pg/mL in control group. The levels of adipsin show a significant increase (p ≤ 0.01), which are (603.13 ± 11.46) ng/mL in patients group and (171.76 ± 17.45) ng/mL in patients group in control group, also a significant increase (p ≤ 0.01) in the levels of resistin which are (2.1 ± 0.5) ng/mL and (0.35 ± 0.06) ng/mL in control group.
69. Applications of Amphiphilic Chitosan Derivatives in Drug Delivery Systems: A Review Article
Zainab N. Aljashaami
Chitosan has unique physicochemical characteristics to make it safe and effective as a carrier of some drugs. However, some drawbacks restricted its applications in drug delivery systems. Chemical modifications occurred on the backbone of chitosan to overcome the disadvantages properties of chitosan. Chitosan derivatives were synthesized by inserting the hydrophobic moieties into the chitosan molecule. The resulting amphiphilic derivatives with low toxicity may form self-assembled nanoparticles that can deliver a drug to different body sites. The preparation and applications of the hydrophobic chitosan derivatives will be reviewed in this article.
70. A Review on Improved Drug Performance of Nanocrystals Formulations
Arathy Jolly, Dineshkumar Balasubramaniam, Krishnakumar Kunnambathu, Smitha K. Nair
Nano-based technologies are one of the most effective ways to resolve poor aqueous solubility and low absorption of drugs. Nanocrystals are pure drug crystals of particle size below 1000 nm with or without stabilizers adsorbed on it. Nanocrystals are carrier free and can be introduced in any of dosage forms. Reduced particle size and crystallinity offer increased solubility, dissolution velocity, and mucoadhesion. This causes an improvement in pharmacokinetic parameters and drug performance. Top-down approaches like milling, homogenization and bottom-up approach of precipitation are methods of preparation of nanocrystals. Also, combinations of these methods are used for nanocrystals preparation. This review discussed and summarized the improved in-vitro/in-vivo performances and pharmacokinetics of drug nanocrystals.
71. Advancement of Niosomal Transdermal Targeting Drug Delivery System
Abhay Sagare, Reenu Yadav, Vinod Gautam, Savita Yadav, Jyotiram Sawale
Traditional methods for applying medications to the skin include a variety of methods. Transdermal has been a popular method of drug delivery in recent years for a variety of medications that are challenging to administer in other ways. Transdermal drug delivery has a number of benefits, chief among them the prevention of first-pass metabolism and the stomach environment, which would render the drug inactive. In addition to discussing in depth the various formulation techniques and permeability enhancement for improved therapeutic efficacy, this review covers the fundamental anatomy of the skin that is pertinent to the transdermal route as a drug delivery method. The evaluation sums up the technologies that are now available on the market and discusses the path they are headed in. A transdermal patch offers a controlled release of medicine into the patient, typically through either membrane pores casing a reserve of medication or over body heat melting thin layers of medication entrenched in the adhesive. This is a bonus of transdermal drug transport over different drug transport styles, including like oral, topical, I. V., I. M., etc. The skin is a very real barrier; in this way, drug molecules are modest enough to permeate the skin and can be administered in this way. Typically, the basic disadvantage of transdermal administration systems. Transdermal patches for a wide run of solutions are now readily available. With properties like improved penetration of drug, a sustained sedate discharge by local depot, and modulating systemic absorption of drugs through the skin by a membrane which limits rate, niosomes are vesicular nanocarriers that are getting to be more and more well known as a potential transdermal drug delivery framework. Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant-based vesicles that are more stable, biodegradable, and generally harmless. Niosomes are ideal to liposomes since surfactants are more chemically stable than lipids. The concept of niosome, its benefits and disadvantages, composition, method of preparation, variables influencing niosomes, definition and characterization, and use of niosome are the main topics of this review study. Niosomes can be used to treat a variety of illnesses, including psoriasis, leishmaniasis, cancer, migraines, Parkinson’s disease, etc. Niosomes can help in diagnosis. Niosomal administration can be done intramuscularly, intravenously, orally, or it can be used topically.
72. Review of Green Synthesis and Anticorrosion Applications for Yttrium Oxide Nanoparticles
Maha J. Hassin, Taghried. A. Salman
Corrosion processes cause considerable losses in industry and the economy. Corrosion inhibitors have been used in both inorganic and organic forms for a long time. Nanomaterials are more effective at preventing corrosion than traditional materials because they have a higher surface-to-volume ratio. Metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) are also novel in a variety of technological applications due to their distinct physical and chemical properties. Due to their higher dielectric constant and thermal stability, yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) are well known for technical applications. It is frequently utilized in electrochemical applications, photodynamic treatment, and other sectors as a host material for a range of rare-earth alloying elements. As a polarizer, phosphor, biosensor, laser host material, and for bioimaging, Y2O3 NPs has also been employed. Anti-corrosion characteristics of yttrium oxide nanoparticles are appealing regarding the formation of a smooth adsorbed layer on metal surfaces or alloys. This review focuses on Y2O3 NPs promising usage and developments in corrosion-inhibiting applications. The processes of green, chemical, hydrothermal and sol-gel nanoparticle synthesis are discussed.
73. Effect of Berberine Supplement in Iraqi Sample of Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
Saba H. Majeed, Bahir A. R. Mshimesh, Isam N. Salman
In recent years, in vitro and in vivo research has shown that the Chinese traditional herb berberine, commonly used to treat bacterial diarrhea, decreases blood glucose levels. Berberine’s efficacy and safety in treating patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in type 2 diabetes were assessed in this randomized, single-blind controlled study. Metformin was given to 60 persons with documented type 2 diabetes and UTIs for 12 weeks. According to the study, group A (Control group) received metformin (0.5 g t.i.d.) and group B received a mixture of berberine (0.5 g b.i.d.) and metformin (0.5 g t.i.d.) with a 24 weeks follow-up period. After 12 weeks of treatment, the medicinal plant berberine reduces the recurrence of UTIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by significantly lowering pyuria (WBCs/HPF), bacteriuria (>105 CFU/mL), and hematuria (RBCs/HPF) in patients compared to pre-treatment values and the control group. Fasting plasma glucose levels in both groups decreased significantly after 12 weeks of treatment for type 2 diabetes, relative to pre-treatment values and between groups. The berberine group saw a statistically significant decrease in urea, but not in creatinine or uric acid.
In conclusion, this randomized study indicates that using berberine supplements to treat, prevent, and reduce recurring urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes.
74. Comparative Evaluation of Topical Antibiotics in Treatment of Mild to Moderate Acne Vulgaris
Raniah OA AL-mosawi, Jubran K Hassan, Firas F AL-tameemi
Acne vulgaris is the most common condition that brings the patient to the dermatology department in a hospital or clinic. it is a pleomorphic disease and can happen during any age in life most commonly present in teenagers between 14–25 years old with prevalence ranging from 50–95% in different populations worldwide. Acne vulgaris considered a benign condition but can have an important psychological effect on the patient because it targets mostly the most important part of the human body which is the face of young patients.
Clindamycin topical gel and erythromycin topical gel is effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris by acting against gram-positive propionibacterium acnes. FDA has approved dapsone topical gel formulation in 2005. So, we compare the therapeutic efficacy of topical clindamycin, erythromycin, dapsone, and control group in our study by dividing 60 patients randomly into four groups of 15 for each group. Each group was subjected to twice daily application on clean skin for 12 weeks. Followed up every two weeks and the result was compared.
We found that the overall percentage of reduction of dapsone 5% gel is 13.3% has a good response after 12 weeks. While it is 6.7% with clindamycin and 0% with erythromycin, 2% have a good response.the side effect is slightly better in the dapsone 5% gel group when compared with clindamycin 1% gel group and erythromycin 2% gel. Dapsone can also be used as monotherapy without significant risk of developing resistance, while clindamycin and erythromycin being antibiotics don’t have such privileges. So it is concluded that dapsone 5% gel is a slightly better topical option than clindamycin 1% gel and erythromycin 2% gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.


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