1. Amorphous Mixtures of Albendazole with Carboxylic Acids By Cogrinding Technique: Solid State Characterizations and In Vitro Efficacy Study
AS Shete, B Kumbhar, AV Yadav, S Korpale, SS Sakhare, RC Doijad
Purpose: To improve the physicochemical properties of poorly aqueous soluble albendazole by formulating its amorphous mixtures by different techniques. Methods: cogrind amorphous mixtures were successfully formulated with different carboxylic acids like citric acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid and succinic acid in equimolar ratios by grinding and solvent drop grinding technique without formation of cocrystals. The physicochemical properties of pure albendazole and corresponding cogrind mixtures were assessed in terms of melting point, drug content, saturation solubility and dissolution studies, Infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). Results: The results indicated a marked improvement in flow properties and saturation solubility of amorphous mixtures. Further, in case of dissolution experiments, the amorphous mixtures showed a significant enhancement in the dissolution profiles as compared to pure albendazole. In-vitro anthelmintic as well as in In vitro antifungal activity was also improved. It could be concluded that better improvement of physicochemical properties of albendazole could be possible with salicylic acid and citric acid using cogrinding technique. Conclusion: It is possible to formulate amorphous mixtures of albendazole with different carboxylic acids without forming cocrystals still strong agreement to form cocrystals by solubility parameters, structural features.
2. Development of Mouth Dissolving Films of Ondansetron Hydrochloride By Using Factorial Experimental Design
Siddhant Thakur, Vandana Arora Sethi, Abdul Wadood Siddiqui, Lalit Kumar Tyagi
The objective of this study was to develop a mouth dissolving film of ondansetron hydrochloride, an antiemetic drug that can not only serve in an active form but also provide rapid relief from motion sickness. Mouth dissolving oral film of ondansetron hydrochloride is a novel dosage form and was prepared by using HPMC E5, HPMC E15 and PVP K30 as a film-forming polymer in different concentrations. To study the effect of independent variables, i.e., concentration of HPMC E5, HPMC E15, and PVP K30 on various dependent variables like disintegration time and percentage drug content, 33 factorial designs was employed by using Design expert .11 After the application of 33 factorial experimental design, the process was optimized for the response variables R1-R2. The formulation showing disintegration time in the range (10-30 second), desired percentage drug release more than 85% is selected as optimized formulation. Formulation mouth dissolving films-5 (MDF-5), MDF-8, MDF-14, MDF-20, MDF-24, and MDF-25 shows desirable characteristics; all these formulations were taken as optimized formulation and subjected to in vitro dissolution study. MDF-25 containing 1% HPMC E5, 1% HPMC E15, and 1% PVP K30 show the promising faster disintegration time (19.66 seconds) followed by rapid and highest drug release (95.80%) within 120 seconds.
3. Peel-off Mask Formulation From Black Mulberries (Morus Nigra L.) Leaves Extract as a Tyrosinase Inhibitor
Arif Budiman, Zelika Mega R, Nadiatul Khaira Y, Diah Lia Aulifa
Hyperpigmentation is a skin pigmentation disorder caused by increasing melanin production. Tyrosinase enzyme activity plays a role in the melanin pigment synthesis in the skin using tyrosine as a substrate. An inhibitor of tyrosinase enzyme activity is the most prominent method for preventing hyperpigmentation. Morus nigra L. (MN) leaves with high flavonoids and polyphenols are the potential material to prevent hyperpigmentation by inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate a peel-off mask gel of MN leaves extract (Morus nigra L.), which can inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity. The MN leaves were extracted by a maceration method using ethanol (70%) as a solvent. The inhibitor of tyrosinase enzyme activity from MN leaves extract was determined by in-vitro study. The extract was formulated into a base of a peel-off mask gel containing variations in the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (10, 12.5, and 15%) and gelling agents. The peel-off mask gel of MN leave extract was evaluated, including organoleptic, homogeneity, pH, viscosity, spreadability, and drying time. Irritation tests were performed, and the test of preference of the formulation was also assessed. The result showed that MN leaves extract has an enzyme inhibitor activity of tyrosinase with IC50 of 511.91 µg/mL. The formulation containing 1.5% of MN leaves extract, 15% of polyvinyl alcohol, and 0.5% of carbomer showed the best physical stability results and safe for topical preparations. It can be concluded that the peel-off mask gel prepared from MN leaves extract is potential for preventing hyperpigmentation as well as safe to be used as a topical preparation.
4. Development of Gastro Retentive Floating Microspheres of Roxatidine Acetate Hcl By Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Technique
Miranda F C, Kamath K K, Shabaraya A R
The objective of the present work was to formulate and evaluate floating microspheres containing Roxatidine acetate HCl prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion technique. To achieve extended retention in the upper GIT, this may result in enhanced absorption and thereby improved bioavailability. Roxatidine acetate HCl is a competitive H2 receptor antagonist used to treat gastric ulcers. Floating microspheres systems have a density less than gastric fluids, and so these systems remain buoyant in the stomach without affecting the gastric emptying rate for a prolonged period. Floating microspheres were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M) and ethyl cellulose. The microspheres were evaluated for parameters like particle size, entrapment efficiency, shape and surface morphology, drug content, in-vitro drug release study and drug release kinetic study. The floating microspheres were found to be spherical, and the FTIR study confirmed the drug- polymer compatibility. All floating microspheres formulations showed good flow properties, and buoyancy was found to be 71-87%. Among all formulations, F2 showed an appropriate balance between buoyancy and drug release rate (90% in 12 h); hence it is considered as the best formulation. The data obtained in this study thus suggests that the floating microspheres of roxatidine acetate HCl are promising for sustained drug delivery, which can be used for reducing dosing frequency.
5. The Phosphatase And Tensin Homolog-Gene (PTEN-Gene) Expression Level is a Novel Indicator for Poor Prognosis in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
Shoroq Mohammed AL-Temimi, Adel Mosa AL-Rekabi
The objective of the present work was to formulate and evaluate floating microspheres containing Roxatidine acetate HCl prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion technique. To achieve extended retention in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT), this may result in enhanced absorption and thereby improved bioavailability. Roxatidine acetate HCl is a competitive H2 receptor antagonist used to treat gastric ulcers. Floating microspheres systems have a density less than gastric fluids, and so these systems remain buoyant in the stomach without affecting the gastric emptying rate for a prolonged period. Floating microspheres were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M) and ethyl cellulose. The microspheres were evaluated for parameters like particle size, entrapment efficiency, shape and surface morphology, drug content, in-vitro drug release study and drug release kinetic study. The floating microspheres were found to be spherical, and the FTIR study confirmed the drug-polymer compatibility. All floating microspheres formulations showed good flow properties, and buoyancy was found to be 71–87%. Among all formulations, F2 showed an appropriate balance between buoyancy and drug release rate (90% in 12 hour); hence it is considered as the best formulation. The data obtained in this study thus suggests that the floating microspheres of roxatidine acetate HCl are promising for sustained drug delivery, which can be used for reducing dosing frequency.
6. Using of the L-Arginine and Co-Enzyme Q10 Shows Improvement of the Male Subfertility
Mazin A Hasoon
Background: Infertility remains both prevalent and problematic among couples worldwide, where abnormal semen quality or sexual dysfunction are contributing factors in about half of subfertile couples. Oxidative stress has been a well-studied etiology of abnormal semen parameters. Reduced fertilizing capacity is related to raised concentrations of reactive oxygen species in semen, which may damage the cell membrane. Multiple over-the-counter therapies have been historically used for male fertility like (Coenzyme- Q10, and Arginine). Objectives of study: To determine the role of some of the antioxidants in the improvement of the semen parameters in a subfertile male, improvement by (coenzyme, q10 l-arginine) therapy. Method: An experimental interventional non-randomized clinical trials study for exploring the male sub-fertility improvement by (L-arginine and Co-enzyme-Q10) therapies- in Al Nasiriyah City in 2019. Sample size The study contained three groups. Each group contains eight included responders. Male-patient responders who were diagnosed to have unexplained sub-fertility by a specialist gynecologist and urologist after excluding all organic causes of the subfertility, SPSS version 24 had been used for data analysis, paired t-test, correlation regression analysis had been used, where p-value < 0.005 considered as significant. Result: A total of 24 patients with infertility, their mean age was 32 + –6.52 years, had been recruited within the study, with a very high significant statistical difference (p value < 0.005) between the first and the second occasions of measures and also between the first and the third occasions of measures, regarding volumes, counts, number of active sperms, number of active sperms, number of sluggish sperms, number of non-active sperms and number of abnormal sperms. By correlation regression analysis, there was a significant positive correlation of the independent parameters with the types of management modalities, where crossly examined by correlation regression. It was evident that all parameters except the counts are positively correlated by which p-value < 0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that the administration of Co-Enzyme, L- Arginine, and combination of both show improvement in most of the parameters of the semen. The combination was the first improver of the semen parameter followed by arginine, then the Co-Enzyme only, the volume, sperm morphology, and the activity were the main parameters affected by the multiple strategies of treatment protocols. Adding of the co-Enzyme to the protocol of the L-Arginine as a good semen volume incrementer, activity enhancer, abnormal morphology reducer.
7. Evaluation of Sterile Supply Cycle at One of The Malaysia Government Hospital in Perak
Insan Sunan Kurniawansyah, Soraya Ratnawulan Mita, Looi Shu Ying
Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) are normally mentioned as nosocomial infections, which usually occurs when the patients are hospitalized for a long time. One of the ways to reduce the number of HAIs is that hospitals should prepare their own Central Sterile Supply Department (CSSD). In CSSD, the authority should follow the guidance that is provided. Due to the uncooperative of the hospital that did not follow the guidelines that are provided by the government causes these infections to grow significantly. This research was carried out the CSSD in one of the government hospitals in the state of Perak. The data of this research was gain through interviews and observation to determine was this particular hospital had already followed the guideline that is provided by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia.The study concluded that the Malaysia Government Hospital in Perak, aspects that do not meet the requirements are design requirements, handling of used items, disinfection, packaging, and wrapping of used items before sterilization, sterilization methods, monitoring of sterilizer, quality management, selection and care of instrument, care of operating room textiles.
8. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (CH/AA-co-AM) Composite: Adsorption and Thermodynamic Studies of Benzocaine on from Aqueous Solutions
Abbas N. Karim, Layth S. Jasim
The research includes the preparation of cross-linking hydrogel (polo (CH-(AAc-co-Am). The method; polymerization of the free radicals by using the Chitosan as initiator for the reaction, also with the help of karnofsky score (KPS) and TEMED as cofactors. The mixture gets treated by Acrylic acid and Acrylamide that include MBA as a cross-linking agent. The adsorption was proved by using the fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM)analysis. In addition, TGA showed that the hydrogel is stable in high temperatures. The thermodynamic study of the hydrogel was performed by using the Benzocaine Drug, which includes measuring the Entropy and Enthalpy and Chips energy. It also showed that the hydrogel is governed by Freundlich and Temkin equations, and the adsorption from the Pseudo-second order model. The adsorption is a Physical and Exothermic. The adsorption time was 120Minutes.
9. Simple and Rapid Method For Estimate of Propranolol With Bi (III) Via Long-Distance Chasing Photometer (NAG-ADF-300-2) Utilization Continuous Flow Injection Analysis
Nagam S. Turkey, Elham N. Mezaal
A simple, sensitive and rapid method was used for the estimate of: Propranolol with Bi (III) to prove the efficiency, reliability and repeatability of the long distance chasing photometer (NAG-ADF-300-2) using continuous flow injection analysis. The method is based on a reaction between propranolol and Bi (III) in an aqueous medium to obtain a yellow precipitate. Optimum parameters were studied to increase the sensitivity for the developed method. A linear range for calibration graph was 0.1-25 mmol/L for cell A and 1–40 mmol/L for cell B, and LOD 51.8698 ng/200 µL and 363.0886 ng /200 µL , respectively to cell A and cell B with correlation coefficient (r) 0.9975 for cell A, 0.9966 for cell B, RSD% was lower than 1%, (n = 8) for the determination of propranolol at concentration (0.5,10 and 25) mmol/L, respectively to cell A and cell B. Results were compared with classical methods UV-Spectrophotometric at λ max = 289 nm and turbidimetric method by using standard addition method via t-test at 95% level confidence. The comparison of data explains that long-distance chasing photometer (NAG-ADF-300-2) is the choice with extended stellar detection and broad application.
10. Study of Platinum Nanoparticles with Methotrexate as Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy on MCF7
Logean Q Al-Karam, Auns Q Al-Neami
The present study aims to innovative nanotechnology that can overcome multidrug resistance (MDR), raise drug localization, and efficiency. This is done by applying a nanotechnology technique to cancer cells, which lead up to a new prospect for developing treatment methods on cancer cells. Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) was synthesized by the chemical approach in a range of different temperatures (180- 200-220-240-260°C), the characteristics of Pt NPs were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible spectroscopy, zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cytotoxicity of Pt NPs was tested in vitro by applying it on MCF7 cell lines first as an anticancer agent, second as a drug delivery system by combining the nanoparticle with Methotrexate together, and third as an applied Methotrexate alone on cell lines. The effect of Pt NPs and Methotrexate was measured by MCF7 assay to evaluate their drug delivery activity and anticancer activity. The result of the MCF7 assay test shows a great potential of Pt NPs with a high inhibition rate of cancer cell growth.
11. Synthesis and Modification of Some New Prodrug Polymers Based on Chitosan and Study of Some Applications
Tamara F. Hassen, Faris H. Mohammed
Synthesis of a new various drug delivery systems (DDS) could develop to provide the modifications and improve the therapeutic efficiency and safety of drugs. These may cause a reduction in size and number of doses, side effects, and biological inactivation and elimination. Also, the benefits may include lower toxicity and higher specificity of action This study includes the preparation of new polymers for chitosan by the interaction of chitosan with different drugs carrying carboxylic groups (cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, mefenamic acid) after conversion into acid chloride derivatives and diagnosis of the resulting compounds using the FT-IR and HNMR spectrum.
12. Synthesis, Characterization and Study Biological Activity of Five and Seven Heterocyclic Compounds
Fiadh A. Neshan, Muna S. Al-Rawi, Jumbad H. Tomma
The compound 3-((1-(naphthalene-2-yl) ethylidene) amino)-2-thioxo-imidazolidin–4-one [II] was prepared from the cyclization of 2-(1-(naphthalen-2-yl) ethylidene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamide [I] with ethyl α-chloroacetate in the presence of fused CH3COONa. The new 2-thioxo-imidazlidin-4-one derivatives containing heterocyclic unit, five, and seven-member ring were successfully formed, such as imidazoline-4-one, tetrazole, thiazolidin-4-one, and 1,3-oxazepinerings. The synthesized derivatives were characterized by their fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H-NMR, mass spectra, and CHN-S. Furthermore, the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antibacterial activity against E.col (G-), Staph. Aureus (G+), and Bacillus cereus(G+), and compared to Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, and Lincomycin as antibiotic standards.
13. The Metabolic Effect of Walnut in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Ahmed I Rashid, Iyden K Mohammed, Rusul A Kadhem, Nisreen Al-Bayati, Entisar J Al Mukhtar1
Background: Herbal therapy play a documented role now in preventing and preventing different diseases and may alternate medicinal treatment. The aim of the study was evaluation the high dose of walnut ingestion on metabolic syndrome in the polycystic ovarian patient as lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, and insulin in comparison with metformin. Conclusion: treatment with high dose walnuts have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress, not by scavenging free radicals generation only, but also by protecting antioxidant status, that leading to decrease oxidative damage to lipids, so it serves in improving metabolic disturbances and to decrease the side effects of chemical treatment of PCOs.
14. Formulation and Evaluation of Lornoxicam Transdermal patches using various Permeation Enhancers
Neha Sharma, S Sharma, R Kaushik
Background: Lornoxicam is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that possesses gastrointestinal tract (GIT) associated problems like gastric irritation. Transdermal patches can overcome the gastrointestinal tract associated problems of the drug and can be an alternate and convenient dosage form as compared to oral dosage forms. Three natural penetration enhancers i.e. Eugenol, Cineole and Limonene, were known to enhance the permeation of drugs from the patch. Objective: The present study aimed to prepare and evaluate transdermal drug delivery patches for sustained release of Lornoxicam using HPMC E50 as polymer and to study the effects of three potential permeation enhancers viz. Limonene, Eugenol, and Cineole at different concentrations on permeation of Lornoxicam from patches. Materials & Methods: Limonene, Eugenol, and Cineole at concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4% were used as permeation enhancers in the formulation of Lornoxicam transdermal patches. Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (1:5 drug: polymer ratio) and plasticizers like glycerine was used to prepare transdermal patches, including three permeation enhancers. A total of 12 formulations (F1-F12) were prepared with each enhancer at four different concentrations and evaluated for various parameters like thickness, weight variation, Water-Vapor Permeability, Tensile Strength, Percent Moisture Uptake, Drug Content, and Diffusion studies. Results: The partition coefficient was determined in octanol/water system, and it indicates that the drug is suitable for transdermal drug delivery. IR spectroscopy was performed to determine the physicochemical compatibility between drugs and the polymers, and the results suggested no physicochemical incompatibility between drugs and the polymers. The Optimized formulation F4 containing 4% Limonene as a permeation enhancer gave a maximum release 82.85% over a period of 24 hours. Kinetics data of formulations showed that all the twelve formulations followed first-order kinetics and except two formulations (i.e., F3 and F12) follow anomalous transport. Stability studies were carried out as per ICH guidelines, and formulations were found to be Stable. A transdermal patch containing Limonene as a permeation enhancer showed higher in vitro release of Lornoxicam as compared to other penetration enhancers. Conclusion: All 12 formulations, i.e., F1-F12, showed good physicochemical characteristics and showed an increase in permeation of drugs during their in vitro permeation study. This dosage form also showed improved patient compliance due to a simplified therapeutic regimen and comfort via the non-invasive, painless, and simple application. The optimized formulation can be exploited further to overcome the GIT associated drawbacks of Lornoxicam.
15. Stem Cell Factor Antibody: Effective Manipulation of Antihormonal Therapy in Resistant Human Breast Cancer In Vitro
Khalid Bahram Arif Issam Hussain, Carol Rea, Mohamed El-Sheemy
Tamoxifen is the most commonly used drug in the treatment of breast cancer via blocking the estrogen receptor pathway. However, the use of Tamoxifen is limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance, which may be associated with the de-regulation of the kinase protein expression or an increase in multiple drug resistance (MDR) expression. Two breast cancer cell lines, wild type MCF7 WT (sensitive, i.e., ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (resistant, i.e., ER-), were used. Expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was measured, the cells were treated with 4- hydroxy tamoxifen in the presence or absence of anti-stem cell factor, apoptosis protein (Annexin V) was measured and Influx/efflux rates were monitored by using Technetium99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99m Tc-Sestamibi-MIBI) at different time intervals. Results showed positive expression of AnnexinV in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7/WT, and the effect of blocking of the stem cell factor showed an increase in the drug accumulation within the MDA- MB-231 cell line. In conclusion, this study showed that the anti-stem cell factor enhances the effectiveness of antihormonal therapies determined by 99m Tc-MIBI. These findings may have implications for the use of anti-stem cell factor with anti- hormonal therapy in ER-negative breast cancer in order to overcome drug resistance and improve the outcome.
16. Synthesis and Biological Studies of Some Diazo Dyes As New Drugs
Hanan M. Ali, Sanaa Qassem Badr, Asawer Salim Temma
The novel azo dye (1) and diazo dye (2) was synthesized from two different drugs (paracetamol and cefpodoxime proxetil), followed by the purification and characterization of each. Then, the antimicrobial activities of (1) and (2) were screened in vitro towered Klebsiella spp., Aspergillus terreus and Candida glabrata infections by using different concentrations (0.008, 0.016 and 0.2 mg/mL) from each. Azo dye (1) is given high antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella spp., good activity against Candida glabrata, and no activity against Aspergillus terreus. These activities were seemed to be better than that received by the diazo dye (2) using the same concentrations. The results were also showed that the synthetic dyes provided a non-toxic effect and didn’t show any hemolysis effect in the cells. Further, the results were indicated that each synthetic dye was treated the dull infection with Candida glabrata and Klebsiella spp. with good results, but the results of (1) still better than (2). Due to recommend these dyes as new drugs for disseminated infections with the two microorganisms.
17. Hepatitis C and IL-6 with 174G/C Gene Polymorphism in β-Thalassemi
Aqeel A. Alsadawi, Al-Karrar Kais Abdul Jaleel duabel, Haider A. Alnaji
Polymorphisms have been shown to affect the progression of disease in patients with Iraqi thalassemia in the 174 G\C area of Interleukin-6 (IL-6). The objective of this research was, therefore, to determine the connection of IL-6 gene polymorphisms and thalassemia severity in Iraqi patients. Case-control research of 60 patients diagnosed with β-TM at the thalassemia center in AL-Zahra hospital in AL-Najaf City, Iraq, with a group of 40 healthy patients, was used as control; the patients (26 males and 34 females) were 3–49 years of era. Blood samples were gathered and controlled from all patients. Blood used to extract DNA to detect IL-6 G\C polymorphism using SSP-PCR. The outcome showed that the male age range (56.6%) was higher than the woman (42.6%), and the age range (10–19) was higher than the other. The outcome shows that GG genotype and G allele in thalassemia patients are a risk factor of severity, whereas CC genotype and C allele are a protective factor of severity. Conclusion: The polymorphism in IL-6 at a place (174 G\C) is associated with thalassemia pathogenesis in the GG genotype and IL-6 considers the seriousness of thalassemia as a predictive factor
18. Isolation of Lytic Bacteriophage Cocktail Against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From Human Skin Infections
Saad M. Hantoosh, Eman M. Jarallah
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a S. aureus that resistant to β-lactam antibiotics (e.g., Cefoxitin and Oxacillin). MRSA has a tremendous capacity to develop resistance to other classes of antibiotics and forming a real threat to patients. The process of exploring a new tactic of non-antibiotic treatments has become an urgent need. A bacteriophage is one of the possible treatments that strongly suggested. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria as a natural host with a bactericidal capability against multidrug-resistant bacteria that do not respond to conventional antibiotics. The current study investigates the lytic efficacy of phage-cocktail in vitro, specifically against S. aureus isolated from skin infections and find out the possible association of phage-antibiotic resistance. A total of 43 isolates of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus were isolated from skin infections. The isolates are distributed as (10 isolates of burn, 4 isolates of diabetic foot ulcer, 7 isolates of surgical wounds, 3 isolates of pressure ulcer, and 19 of skin and soft tissue infection). The isolates exhibited variant antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics (Cefoxitin FOX, Vancomycin VAN, Oxacillin OX, Rifampin RA, Chloramphenicol C, Nitrofurantoin F, Clindamycin DA, Azithromycin AZM, Amikacin AK, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT, Ciprofloxacin CIP, and Gentamicin CN). A bacteriophage cocktail was isolated using a phage-enrichment technique, high titer phage lysate (5*109 pfu/ml) was obtained and investigated against 43 MRSA isolates. The phage-cocktail showed high specificity to S. aureus but variable susceptibility to 43 MRSA isolates. It was observed that there was no association (p ˃0.05) between phage and antibiotic resistance of (FOX, OX, VAN, RA, C, F, and DA) where the significant association was observed (p < 0.05) with (AZM, AK, SXT, CIP, and CN). Significantly, the more antibiotic-resistant isolates exhibited more sensitivity to phage- cocktail, which represents a promising alternative to antibiotics that do not affect with increasing antibiotic resistance.
19. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Iraqi Euphorbia epithymoides (FamilyEuphorbiaceae)
Enas Jawad kadheem
The objective of the present work was to formulate and evaluate floating microspheres containing Roxatidine acetate HCl prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion technique. To achieve extended retention in the upper GIT, this may result in enhanced absorption and thereby improved bioavailability. Roxatidine acetate HCl is a competitive H2 receptor antagonist used to treat gastric ulcers. Floating microspheres systems have a density less than gastric fluids, and so these systems remain buoyant in the stomach without affecting the gastric emptying rate for a prolonged period. Floating microspheres were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M) and ethyl cellulose. The microspheres were evaluated for parameters like particle size, entrapment efficiency, shape and surface morphology, drug content, in-vitro drug release study and drug release kinetic study. The floating microspheres were found to be spherical, and the FTIR study confirmed the drug-polymer compatibility. All floating microspheres formulations showed good flow properties, and buoyancy was found to be 71-87%. Among all formulations, F2 showed an appropriate balance between buoyancy and drug release rate (90% in 12 h); hence it is considered as the best formulation. The data obtained in this study thus suggests that the floating microspheres of roxatidine acetate HCl are promising for sustained drug delivery, which can be used for reducing dosing frequency.
20. Diagnostic Values of Some Immunological Markers in Patients With Urinary Tract Infection
Thekra Ahmed Hamada AL-Tikrity, Marwa Tariq Ahmed Al-Douri, Nihad Nejres Hilal, Mohammed Mohsin Abdul- Azi3
The study was carried out in Tikrit city from January 1st to July 1st 2015. These patients admitted to Sallah Al-Deen general hospital and primary health care centers in Tikrit city. The number of patients with Urinary tract infection was 300 patients whom their ages ranged from 2 months to 70 years. The control group included 100 individuals who appeared healthy with no history of UTI. A urine direct and indirect examination was held for all the patients and control. The result showed 70 % positive specimens in culture media. Most isolates were Staph. aureus with 25%. Staph. saprophyticus 24% , E. coli 16%, pneumoneae 5% . Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus Spp. and Citrobacter frundii were present in about 5% and 7%, respectively. A member of (yeast-like fungi) Candida Spp. was also found in the ear in about 11%. Blood analysis showed that there was a significant increase in WBC, ESR, neutrophil, and CRP in UTI patients compared to the control group. Serum cytokines showed that the mean level of serum IL-1 family (IL-1α & IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8 in addition to TNF-α, all were significantly higher in UTI patients than in the control group. Also, results showed a significant increase in serum cytokines in UTI patients with gram-negative bacteria in comparison with gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion: A significant difference was found between patients with UTI and control group regarding some immunological markers. They are also can differentiate between gram-positive and negative UTI.
21. A Novel ADP-Ribosyl Cyclase (ARC) Regulators
Zainab N. Al-Abady, Israa Najm Abdullah Al-Ibadi, Oraas Adnan Hatem, Nawal Khinteel Jabbar, Makarim Ali Enad
CD38, which is the main NADase enzyme with its ADP-ribose cyclase (ARC) activity, has been proposed to be involved in many human diseases. Therefore, regulating its activity is the main target of this research. This study proposed four novel regulators; nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, gallic acid, and benzamide, these regulators have a remarkable effect on the cyclase activity of ARC. The cyclase activity of ARC was measured using fluorimetric assay, the reaction was initiated with the addition of enzyme to its substrate nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD) and the production of cyclic GDP-ribose (cGDPR) was measured with different concentrations from proposed activators. The rate of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was increased with the addition of low concentrations of Nicotinamide and Nicotinic acid. However, Nicotinamide and Nicotinic acid are known as ARC inhibitors at high concentrations. The increase of ARC activity was also observed with Gallic acid; it is clear that Gallic acid has a strong effect on the activation of ARC and the formation of cGDPR. The last product was Benzamide, these data reflected the activation effect on ARC. Finally, the search for new ADP-ribosyl cyclase activators and the determination of their roles might provide a new therapeutic strategy for several metabolic and inflammatory conditions.
22. Synthesis New Liquid Electrodes for Determination Pyrazinamide Based on a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer
Mohammed A. Mudhi, Yehya Kamal Al-Bayati, Khalaf. F.Al- Samarrai
Liquid electrodes of Pyrazinamide (PZD) imprinted polymer were synthesis based on precipitation polymerization mechanism. The molecularly imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) polymers were synthesized using PZD as a template. By 1-Vinylimidazole (VIZ) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomers, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate(TPT) cross-linkers and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator. The molecularly imprinted membranes were synthesis using Dibutyl Sebacate (DBS), Dibutyl phthalate (DBPH), Dioctyl phthalate(DOPH), and Nitrobenzene (NO) as plasticizers in PVC matrix. The slopes and limit of detection of liquid electrodes obtained from the calibration curves ranged from (-27.86– 29.96) mV/decade and 1.8 x 10-5 – 6.0 x 10-6 M, respectively, and the response time was about 60 seconds. The Liquid electrodes were filled with 10-1 M standard solution of the drug and observed stable response for a pH ranged from 2.0 to 11.0 and with good selectivity for over several species. The fresh electrodes of synthesis were effectively used in the pharmaceutical sample to determine PZD without any time-consuming pretreatment measures.
23. Preparation of New Molecularly Imprinted Polymers and its Use in the Selective Extraction For Determination Phenylephrine Hydrochloride at Pharmaceuticals
Adnan R Mahdi, Suham T Ameen, Yehya K Al-Bayati
This study was aimed at four electrodes were synthesized based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Two MIPs were prepared by using phenylephrine hydrochloride (PPH) as the template, methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomer as well as trimethylol propane tri methacrylate (TMPTMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross linkers respectively and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. The same composition was used in the preparation of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs), but without the template (Phenylephrine hydrochloride). For the preparation of membranes, different plasticizers were used in the PVC matrix, such as Dioctyl phthalate (DOPH), dibutyl phthalate (DBPH), and nitrobenzene (NB). The characteristics studied are the slop, detection limit, lifetime, and linearity range of PPH–MIPs electrodes. Results obtained from selectivity measurements on interfering cations (K+, Ca+2, Al+3) and some pharmaceutical additives such as methylparaben, propylparaben, trisodium citrate showed no interfering with drug phenylephrine hydrochloride. The preparation electrodes have been shown good response including testing pharmaceutical analysis.
24. Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for estimation of Aspirin by Using Different Functional Monomers
Fatma N. Abd, Yehya Kamal Al-Bayati, Baker A. Joda
We have created a new technique with high sensitivity, low price, and high stability. This technique is based on a molecularly impressed polymer (MIP) using a functional monomer called methyl methacrylic acid (MAA) and styrene. Appropriate cross- linker and aspirin (AS) template to produce monolithic solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) fiber. Also, a polymer was created without selective binding locations, which was called a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). (SPME) all these analytical techniques used for the extraction, preconcentration, and selective determination of aspirin (AS) and its derivatives with Uv-vis double beam spectrophotometer. The firmness, stability, and durability of the manufactured fiber offer it its essential position in SPME. Specimens were obtained from Aspirin devices Analytic testing was conducted using UV-vis and Electron Microscopy Scanning (SEM) and FTIR. The relative normal deviations (RSD percent) for four drug-repeated studies for three readings are a range of (at 30-60 ppm AS) percent (1.20-3.61). The comparative recoveries (93.63-99.71) acquired for AS are within the range.
25. Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Some Transition Metal Complexes Derived from the Ligand N-Benzylimidazole Against Methicillin-Resistantt Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa)
Zainab Nashaat Al-Saadi, Abbas Washeel Salman, Hayder Dawood Arkawazi, Michaele J. Hardie
Metal complexes of the ligand N-benzylimidazole (BnIm) and their in vitro antibacterial study are reported. The complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Ag(I) were synthesized by the reaction of the ligand with appropriate metal salt in 1:4 metal to ligand mole ratio. All the synthesized ligand and their complexes were characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. Further, the compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against a multi-resistance strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using ciprofloxacin as a standard antibiotic. In general, all the tested compounds showed antibacterial activities at minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) level.
26. Efficacy of Gelling Agents on the In-vitro Release and Physical Properties of Loxoprofen Sodium Gel Containing Ultra Elastic Vesicles
Nidhal K. Maraie, Huda S. Kadhium
Objective: Preparation of a topical prolong release gel for loxoprofen sodium using optimized nano-sized transfersome dispersion using different gelling agents with in vitro and in vivo evaluation in comparison to the marketed gel prepared by a conventional method. Method: The optimum nano transfersome dispersion containing 5% egg lecithin (as an oil phase) 1% span 60 (as an emulsifying agent) was converted into a gel using different gelling agents including carbopol 974p, carbopol 940, carbopol 934 and hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100) at ratio of (1:1). Each prepared gel was then evaluated in vitro to determine the homogenisity, consistency, spreadability, viscosity, and in vitro drug release as well as skin permeation test, human skin irritation test, and in vivo effectiveness. Result: The selected gel formula (TG3) showed best homogenisity, consistency and spreadability as well as it produced initial burst release of 60.3% (within 1 hour) followed by the prolonged release of 95.4% continued for 6 hours. In addition, the optimum gel formula (TG3) has shown remarkable prolong release, which was significantly higher than the marketed gel (loxonin® gel 1%) without any sign of skin irritation with better effectiveness Conclusion: This work succeeded in preparing topical gel for loxoprofen sodium using carbopol 974p as gelling agent and utilizing ultra elastic lipid vesicles (transfersomes) with prolong release that reduces dose frequency and improves patient compliance
27. Effect of Storage Period on Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized By Pseudomonas Aeroginosa
Khawlah J Khalaf, Hamzia A Ajah, Ashraf S Hassan
The present study demonstrates the effect of storage period on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their antibacterial activity. The result shows that the size of (AgNPs) which synthesis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 93.55nm after 4-72hour, and when storage about 2 years, we found that the size of AgNPs was stable and reduced to 69.0nm. Antibacterial activity against pathogenic microbes: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia sp,Streptococcus sp , Klebsiella sp, Candida albicans was performed before and after storage and found that AgNPs have activity against this microbes.
28. Antibacterial Activity of Some Nanoparticles Against Some Pathogenic Bacteria That Isolated From Urinary Tract Infections Patient
Taha H. Alnasrawi, Zahraa A. Althabet, Ghufran S. Salih, Mohammad J. Al-Jassani
Nanoparticles include multiple metal oxides such as yttrium, copper, nickel, zinc, iron, and silver that have antimicrobial activity. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of some nanoparticles (NPs)against various pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus). Antimicrobial activity of NPs was accomplished by the mean of disk diffusion assay using dilutions of (200, 100, 50, 25, and 12.5) and the MIC and MBC of each isolate is determined. NPs shows no antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. It is highly recommended using NPs as an economical alternative antibacterial agent, especially in treating ectopic infections but with high concentration since low concentration gives no result without taking the risk of developing resistant bacterial strains as with antibiotics.
29. Effect of Oral Vitamin D3 Supplements on Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress in Adult Albino Female Rats
Khder N Abdulla, Muneef S. Ahmed, Saleh Mohammed R
The present study was designed to show the effect of Vitamin D3 on lipid profile and oxidative stress. The present study used 30 adult albino female rats that distributed to following groups (each group consist 6 rats); control group received ad libidium, second group administrated Vitamin D3 (orally, 8.9μg/kg) for eight weeks, third group administrated Vitamin D3 (orally, 17.8μg/kg) for eight weeks, fourth group (pregnant rats) administrated Vitamin D3 (orally, 8.9μg/k) for eight weeks, fifth group (pregnant rats) administrated Vitamin D3 (orally, 17.8μg/kg) for eight weeks, and then killed. The results showed high significant increased (P < 0.05) in levels of lipid profile (total cholesterol, total glyceride, high density lipid (HDL), low density lipid (LDL) very low density lipid (VLDL)), especially in pregnant female rats (third and fifth groups) compared with control group. On the other hand, the results showed significant changes (P < 0.05) in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase especially in pregnant female rats (third and fifth groups) compared with control group. It was concluded that the prolong using and overdose of Vitamin D3 lead to elevated the lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats especially in pregnant female rats.
30. Extraction, and Purification of Peroxidase Enzyme from Peganum harmala Seeds
Mahmoud Hamid Al-Fahdawi, Albab fawwaz Al-farras, Hayder Nasser Al-Mentafji
The aim of this study was to extract peroxides enzyme from Peganum harmala seeds; peroxides was extracted by using different extraction buffer solutions, then it was purified by three steps of purification includes precipitation with ammonium sulfate in a saturation ratio of 70 %, ion exchange chromatography through DEAE-Cellulose, and gel filtration chromatography throughout Sephadex G-100, and determine the optimum condition for extraction. This was performed by controlling the type and concentration of buffer, pH of the buffer used, and the ratio of extraction. The Sodium acetate buffer with 0.2mM and pH5.0 was found to be the best buffer for the extraction of peroxidase. By using the extraction ratio for a plant of 1:3 (W/V), the specific activity was 195 U/mg protein. These three purification steps raised the specific activity to 235U/mg protein in the precipitation step with purification fold 2.3 and enzyme recovery 69%; the specific activity was increased to 243U/mg protein in Ion exchange step with purification fold 2.4 and enzyme recovery 23%, also the specific activity doubled after gel filtration step to 447U/mg protein with purification fold 4.4 and enzyme recovery 15%.
31. Mutagenicity Acridine Orange Mutagen On The Biological Activity of aureus Isolated From Tonsillitis
Nebras Rada Mohammed, Salwa Jaber AL-Auadi AL-Musawi
Study design of cases is a cross-sectional study that descriptive study design of 280 isolates collected from tonsillitis, the identification achieved by using Vitek2-GP. The biological activity of antimicrobial sensitivity test of all 280 isolates against antibiotics including Ceftazidine 70(25%) resistance, 196(70%) sensitive, 14(5%) intermediate; Azithromycin 154(55%) sensitive, 28(10%) intermediate., 98(35%) resistance; Oxacillin 266(95%) sensitive, 14(5%) resistance; Cephalexin 238(85%) sensitive, 42(15%) resistance; Gentamycin 266(95%) sensitive, 14(5%) resistance; Ceftriaxone 238(85%) sensitive, 42(15%) resistance;Norfloxacin 252(90%) sensitive, 28(10%) resistance; Cefoxitin 266(95%) sensitive, 14(5%) resistance; Erythromycin 42(15%)sensitive, 238(85)% resistance; Cloxacillin 126(45%) resistance, 154(55%) sensitive; Imipenem 266(95%) resistance, 14(5%) sensitive; Vancomycin 266(95%) resistance, 14(5%) sensitive and Methicillin 280(100%) resistance, 0 (100%) sensitive) compared with CLSI(2013). Radial caseinolysis assay and Fibrinolysis assay of Staphylococcal fibrinlysin achieved by quantitative screening of staphylokinase on plasma agar plate and semi-quantitative screening of staphylokinase on skimmed milk agar plate to limit fibrinolysis zone and caseinolysis zone around well on plat. Results showed variable degree of production staphylokinase, some isolates positive for production, another negative for production staphylokinase (staphylococcal fibrinolysin). Induced mutation achieved by chemical mutagenesis when exposition S.aureus to different mutage of Acridine Orange (AO) chemical mutagen in dose (10,20,30,40,50,60) mg, the results of mutagenesis in optimum mutage (dose of mutagen) with increase production of staphylococcal fibrinolysin when occurs random mutagenesis was 75 colony (viable cells) viability in 30 mg. Genotypic analysis of sak gene encoded for staphylokinase accomplished by using PCR, all results of S.aureus isolated from tonsillitis positive for possessing sak gene (400bp).
32. Formulation, Physical Characterization and Wound Healing Activity Evaluation of Carboxymethyl Chitosan-Curcumin Carbomer-Based Hydrogel
Retno Sari, Tristiana Erawati, Faza Fauziah, Wiwik M Yuniarti
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different concentration of carboxymethyl chitosan and curcumin on physical characteristics and wound healing activity of carboxymethyl chitosan-curcumin hydrogel. Hydrogels were prepared using carbomer as a gelling agent and TEA was added to neutralize the carbomer hydrogel in order to make it swell. The obtained hydrogels were evaluated for its physical characterization such as organoleptic, viscosity, spreadability, drying time, pH, and wound healing activity on the burned wound in Wistar rats. The results showed that higher concentration of carboxymethyl chitosan significantly reduces viscosity and pH while its spreadability and drying time are significantly increased. Curcumin only affected two out of five physical characteristics: organoleptic and pH. Higher concentration of curcumin reduces its pH but statistical analysis showed no interaction between carboxymethyl chitosan and curcumin. The wound healing activity in Wistar rats with 2nd degree burn wound model indicates that carboxymethyl chitosan-curcumin hydrogel can significantly improve wound healing activity in rats compared to control group. Higher concentration of carboxymethyl chitosan can affect the physical characteristics of carboxymethyl chitosan-curcumin hydrogel i.e. a decrease in viscosity and pH, as well as an increase in spreadability and drying time. On the other hand, higher concentration of curcumin only affected the pH of the preparation. In the wound healing activity test, macroscopic observation showed that the combination of carboxymethyl chitosan-curcumin significantly increased the wound healing activity of 2nd degree burn in Wistar rats. However, the use of this hydrogel preparation statistically did not give significant improvement in wound healing process when compared with G1, G2, G3, G4, and positive control. Based on histopathology test results, it can be concluded that after 14 days of treatment the value of collagen deposition and PMN between groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and positive control and intergroup replication (1, 2, 3, 4, and positive controls) are in uniformity which indicates that the wound has undergone healing process. In addition, the four groups possess better results than negative controls which didn’t receive any treatment.
33. Characteristics And Release Of Gentamicin Sulphate From Sodium Alginate Microspheres Entrapped In Emulgel
Tutiek Purwanti, Maimuna Syamsuar, Dewi Melani Hariyadi, Tristiana Erawati
Gentamicin sulfate is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic that can be used for primary and secondary infections of the skin. Microspheres can be used to extend drug release on the skin; the resulting therapeutic effect is constant and has a longer duration of action. Therefore it can reduce the frequency of use and increase patient compliance. This study investigated the appropriate profile and release kinetics model of gentamicin sulfate microspheres entrapped on the emulgel base. Gentamicin- alginate microspheres were made by the ionotropic gelation method with aerosolization technique, using 2.5% Na-alginate low viscosity, CaCl2 solution of 1.5M as a crosslinker, maltodextrin as lyoprotectant and were dried using the freeze-drying method. The result of microspheres characterization, gentamicin microsphere was spherical with smooth surface structure and had particle diameter of 3.021 ± 0.017µm. Gentamicin microspheres had moisture content 2.89%, and maximum swelling index was 2625 ± 21.70% was achieved within 5 hours. The drug loading of microspheres was 1.75 ± 0.11%, and entrapment efficiency was 10.96 ± 0.19%. The release evaluation during 720 minutes showed that the amount of gentamicin release from alginate microspheres on emulgel base was 14.857 ± 0.816%, and gentamicin release on emulgel conventional was 49.239 ± 5.954%. The model of release kinetics of gentamicin microspheres on emulgel was Higuchi model that showed the release of the active ingredient through the diffusion process. While the model of release kinetics of gentamicin on emulgel base was first order, that showed the release of active agent depends on remaining concentration.
34. The State of Ferritin in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type II/Iraq
Ezzate H. Ajeena, Mohammad A.Alfawaz, Alaa S.Tajaldeen, Sami R.Alkatib
This study aims to examine the effects of anemia on patients with diabetes mellitus type II (DM). The cross-sectional study included 75 patients with (DM). They were divided into two groups according to the presence of anemia. The first group includes 50 diabetic patients suffering from anemia, while the second group contains only 25 patients with diabetes only. There was no specification in gender; the patients included both sexes and their ages were above 20 years. A blood sample was collected from each patient to measure (fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and ferritin). The results revealed an increase in anemia in females with diabetes mellitus more than males while the levels of HbA1c was on the contrary; it increased in males and decreased in females. A significant negative correlation is confirmed between ferritin and HbA1c in anemic diabetic women. Diabetic patients suffering from anemia recorded a sharp decrease in the levels of ferritin compared with patients with diabetes only. In conclusion, the incidence of anemia increase in diabetic patients with increased levels of HbA1c.