International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Neuroprotective Effects of Taraxicum Officinale as an Antioxidant and Anti-neuroinflammatory Agent in Rotenone Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Khawla A. Baqir, Selman M. Selman, Seenaa B. Mohammed
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by postural instability, rigidity, tremor, akinesia, uncontrollable shaking, and slow movement. Two main pathogenic processes cause it: oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. This study evaluates the effects of Taraxicum Officinale on rats via establishing a rotenone-induced model of Parkinsonism. This is the first study investigating the capability of T. Officinale to keep rats protected from rotenone-induced Parkinsonism via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. This case control study extended over three months and was carried out on 60 healthy male Albino rats, evenly divided into six groups: the first is the healthy control group, and the other five groups received rotenone 2.5 mg/kg IP every other day. The third, fourth, and fifth groups daily received oral doses of (300, 400, and 500 mg/kg) respectively of T. Officinale extract, and the sixth group daily received an oral dose of 10 mg/kg Sinemet.Neurobehavioral analysis done via rotarod was performed on day 22. Then animals were decapitated, and brain tissue samples were prepared for homogenization to get the tissue supertant on which the biochemical tests were performed to measure the parameters of melanoaldehyde and nterleukin-1β.Comparing the magnitude of T. Officinale’s effect with the rotenone group, the main results show that T. Officinale in groups 3, 4, and 5 boosted the motor coordination of the rats having Parkinsonism with a significant increase in rotation distance. This indicates that T. Officinale is good at improving symptoms of Parkinsonism in rats.The main results of the biochemical analysis are T. Officinale groups 3, 4, and 5 show a significant decrease in melanoaldehyde and interleukin -1β levels compared with the rotenone group. In conclusion, it is experimentally approved that T. Officinale has an antiparkinson-like activity reversing the rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in male rats via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

2.Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Dissolved Microneedles Patches for Meloxicam
Laila A. Alwan, Entidhar J. Al-Akkam
Meloxicam (MLX) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (NSAID) that is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and other joint conditions. Despite MLX’s low toxicity, oral administration is linked to adverse gastrointestinal effects such as perforation and ulceration. As a result, an alternative mode of administration for MLX is required to minimize the drawbacks associated with currently available oral medicines. Drug delivery through the skin could be a suitable option since it allows medications to be delivered directly to the illness site, resulting in maximum local effects with minimal systemic activity. Molding is the most common process for making MLX polymer microneedle (MN) patches. After adding the MLX to the surfactant, different types of polymer (polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVPK30), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium alginate (SA), and hydroxymethyl cellulose (HPMC) with different ratios and by using DW as a solvent. Afterward, the effect of type and the ratio of polymer used was studied to make the formulation better. Patches were investigated for needle morphology, drug content, axial fracture force measurement, and drug release, with the optimized formulae also being tested for pH, folding endurance, and ex vivo permeation. The PVA patch with 17.5% solid content, 10% PEG 400, and 0.25 percent glycerin has an axial needle fracture force of 30 N/100MN, which is sufficient for skin penetration. The release was quick, with about all of the medication being released in just 60 minutes. With a steady-state flux of around 3.1 times that of the ordinary patch, permeation was greatly improved. In comparison to a regular patch, MN has a lower lag time. According to the findings, the MLX MN patch could improve medication permeability while allowing for quick and painless administration.

3. The Effect of Polyethylene Glycol-coated Gold Nanoparticle on Mice’s Renal Function
Lamees T. Al-hadedee, Taghreed H.AL-Sadoon, Basma A. Jasim
Nanotechnology is one of the newest technologies that work on adapting matter at the atomic and molecular level, and it deals with materials or components with single dimensions ranging from (1–100) nanometers. This technology is used in fields like health and food, so this experiment was designed to know this material’s effect on the kidneys. Therefore, the gold nanoparticles (GNP) were prepared using a chemical method and coating with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and then a UV-visible spectrometer, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and zeta potential, with their sizes, were at a rate of 22.65 and 23.82 nm and after coating with PEG, the GNP volume increased to 76.50 and 80.15 nm, and when using UV, the highest absorbance was at 515.5 nm and became 530.5 nm, and using zeta potential it was -29.65 and became -9.4 millivolts. In this experiment (75), white mice were used randomly divided into three groups. The first group was the control, and the second group was given in the sub-peritoneal region 0.1 mL GNP, and it contains 0.01 IU/10 gm of mouse weight, while the third group was given in the sub-periton area. 0.1 mL of GNP + PEG containing 0.01 IU/10 gm of mice weight, and the experiment go on (60) days. It was observed from the results of the statistical analysis of renal function test, which includes urea and creatinine that there is a significant effect when injecting GNP, especially after extending the dose to (45 and 60) days, while the effect was less on both analysts when injected the mice with a coated form of GNP + PEG.

4. Phytochemical Investigation of Some Active Components in Iraqi Conyza canadensis (Syn. Erigeron canadensis)
Mais A. Abood,* Enas J. Kadhim
This study aimed to explore and separate the phytochemicals of the whole plant Conyza canadensis, a naturally growing plant in Iraq, since no phytochemical research was done previously in Iraq. The whole plant of C. canadensis was defatted by maceration in hexane for 24 hours. The defatted plant materials were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus, the aqueous ethanol 85% as a solvent extraction for 9 hours, and fractionated by petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their steroids, alkaloids, and polyphenolic (phenolic acids and flavonoids) contents. One alkaloid was isolated from chloroform fraction by HPLC, and three polyphenolics compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction by preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC), then identified by HPLC and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The different chromatographic and spectroscopic results revealed stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in petroleum ether fraction, harmine alkaloid in chloroform fraction, quercetin, quercitrin, apigenin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid in ethyl acetate fraction of C. canadensis. Three polyphenolics compounds (p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, apigenin), and harmine alkaloid were isolated from the whole plant and matched their retention time with the related standards by HPLC and by measuring their max Rf values by HPTLC analysis.

5. Preparation and Evaluation of Meloxicam Nanoparticles as Oral Thin Film
Malath H. Oudah, Fatimah M. H. Wais, Mohammed S. Al-lam
The principal objectives of this research were to prepare and evaluate Meloxicam nanoparticles loaded fast dissolving film, and nanoparticles were used to permit for enhancing dissolution of the drug, while the films were used to fasten the onset of action Meloxicam nanoparticles were fabricated by solvent/antisolvent method and then formulated as the oral thin films by casting method. The Meloxicam nanoparticles were prepared at selective polymer: drug ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 using various polymers and specific grades of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose as stabilizers. The effect of polymer, ratio, and stirring rate on the size of the particulate, were studied, and found to have a significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect. The best formula (FMx1) was obtained with a minimum average particle diameter of 59.5 nm and surface area 37.34 m2/g contained 1:1 of HPMCE-50LV: Meloxicam. This formula was freeze-dried and studied for surface morphology by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), crystalline state by XRPD, and compatibility by FTIR and DSC. Then Meloxicam nanoparticles were formulated into an oral thin film. The obtained film Meloxicam content of 7.4 ± 0.02 mg per 4 cm2 of film and disintegrated in 29 seconds. The Meloxicam nanoparticles film was illustrated a faster in vitro dissolution rate than the film prepared from pure Meloxicam, and the FESEM images indicated that Meloxicam nanoparticles were greatly distributed into the films. These results indicated that the oral film prepared from Meloxicam nanoparticles could be a favorable system to improve the dissolution and fasten the action.

6. Association Between Some Risk Factors with Hormonal State in a Sample of Infertile Iraqi Women
Rana H. Saeed, Asmaa M. S. Al-Mohaidi, Nadia K. Ismail
Background: Infertility is a reproductive system disease affecting about 8–12% of couples worldwide. Although IRAQ, in the last thirty years, has faced several instability crises in health problems and one of these problems is fertility status, few studies exist on women infertility in Iraq. Aim of the Study: To examine the hormonal state of infertile Iraqi women. Patients and Methods: The study included one hundred and eight women, fifty-one women with a history of infertility period of more than one year, in Al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from September 2020, to April 2021 Results: The results of analysis showed that primary infertility was 61% and 39% secondary infertility, most cases in the age >25, PCOS where the main of female infertility causes, there was a significant relation between T4, T3, FSH, LH, Prolactin, E2, Testosterone, menarche, egg size and infertility in infertile Iraqi women. Conclusion: This study’s main findings were a high rate of primary infertility, effect of sex stroied hormones and menarche, and egg size. Future research should focus on the genotype of infertile family history and why Iraqi women seek to consult very late.

7. In-vitro Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare against Candida albicans
Shrouk A. H. AL-Ibraheem
This study aimed to assess the antifungal efficacy of essential oils extracted from Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris against C. albicans isolated from oral candidiasis patients in-vitro. Basra General Hospital was diagnosed based on the cultural and microbiological phenotypes and using Vitek2 Technique to the identification. The study including a comparison of the inhibitory efficacy resulting from the use of EOs extracted from O. vulgare and T. vulgaris versus C. albicans was performed using the Agar well diffusion method of, used seven concentrations of each essential oil: (crude,1.5,1, 0.8,0.5, 0.2,0.1 ) mg/mL, as well as estimation of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) which is 0.2 mg/mL for O. vulgare and 0.1 mg/mL for T. vulgaris. The highest effect was to O. vulgare oil crude extract, which reached 3.26 cm, while the inhibtion zone of crude T. vulgaris oil was 2.53 cm which is highly significant (p < 0.05). On the other side the study aimed to evaluate the activity of T. vulgaris oil store for one year comparing with freshly extracted oil found that the fresh oil has more activity reached to 2.53 cm and the activity of old oil reached to 1.51 cm was significant (p < 0.05), also using two typs of antifungal nystatin and fluconazole to compare with the activity of O. vulgare oil found that no effect of fluconazole and the activity of nystatin reach to 2.5 cm wich is less than the activity of O. vulgare oil wich reached to 3.26 cm comparing with the activity of antifungal highly significant p-value reached to 0.005, observed in-vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis. The antifungal sensitivity occurred to C. albicans, which record against fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, amphotericin B, and Flucytosine. also The study including investigation of the chemical compounds of (EOs) of O. vulgare using the chromatographic analysis (GC-MS) revealed that the main compounds present in the O. vulgare essential oil wich is the best activity againest C.albicans, revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were methyl-5-(1-methylethyl; 1-Pentacontanol; 2-Hexyl-1-octanol; sulfurous acid, ester; oxalic acid, 6-ethyloct-3-yl isohexyl ester 2-Hydroxy-p-cymene, and 2-Methyl-5-isopropylphenol.

8. Association of Vitamin D levels in Multiple Myeloma Iraqi Patient with ABO Blood groups
Suad A. Hassan, Ali I. O. Al- Saadawi, Saad A. K. Mohammed, Abbas T. Dwayyikh
Multiple myeloma (MM) is designated as the neoplastic proliferation of a plasma cell clone that leads to monoclonal antibody production. The skin that is subjected to UV radiation normally reproduces vitamin D. Generally, vitamin D’s key functions are related to minerals absorption such as calcium and bone health. An enhanced probability of having rickets or osteomalacia is present in children and adults with vitamin D insufficiency. Besides, recent findings from observational studies suggest that vitamin D levels are inversely linked to the risk of Coronary heart disease, diabetes.

9. Interleukin-33 Level in Biological Fluids for Periodontitis Patients in Al-Najaf City, Iraq
Suhair A. K. Habeeb, Siham J. M. Al-Kaabi
Background: The study’s purpose was to compare the levels of interleukin-33 (IL-33) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva, and serum of periodontal disease patients and periodontally healthy subjects, as well as the relationship between these levels in biological fluids and age. Methods: In this study, there were 88 participants: 60 stable, non-smoking persistent periodontitis cases and 28 systemically and periodontally healthy, non-smokers. Both participants had their GCF, entire saliva, and serum samples were taken. IL-33 was measured using enzyme-associated immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results: The GCF IL-33 concentration had significantly higher in the periodontal diseases group than in the stable group (p = 0.01). GCF and serum IL-33 concentration significantly positively correlated with age. There was a significantly positively correlation between G C F and serum concentrations of IL-33. Conclusions: The IL-33 appears to play a part in periodontal disease pathogenesis. They may be used as diagnostic biomarkers in saliva or GCF for chronic periodontitis.

10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity for a New Ligand 2,5-bis[(butan-2-ylidene)hydrazinyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole with Some Transition Metal Complexes
Weaam A. Salman
The new transitional metal (Fe (III), Co (III),Cr (III),Cu (II), and Ni (II) complexes of ligand 2,5-bis[(butan-2-ylidene)hydrazinyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole were prepared. All the prepared complexes were diagnosed by IR, elemental analyses, H-NMR, and mass spectral. The electronic behavior of their link data has been confirmed. It was concluded that ligand had coordination through nitrogen (N) and (NH). The ligand coordinated through the [11NH] and the nitrogen atom of shiff base (N3) The appearance of a band more supports this view returned to the metal–nitrogen stretching vibration at 500–513 cm-1 in the complexes. From the results obtained, we suggested the tetrahedral geometry for Cu (II) and Ni (II) complexes, while) Fe(III), Cr(III) and Co (III) [complexes were represented octahedral geometrics. All the synthesized complexes have been screened for anti-bacterial by using spread method and measurement inhibition zone with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus under dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

11. A Nanotechnological Approach for Enhancing the Topical Drug Delivery by Newly Developed Liquid Crystal Formulations
Wesam R. Kadhum, Saeed A. S. Al-Zuhairy, Masar B. M. Mohamed, Ammar Y. Abdulrahman, Mustafa M. Kadhim, Zeid Alsadoon, Teow C. Teoh
Transdermal drug administration is a great substitute to oral medication administration. Inadequate penetration of active pharmaceuticals via the skin, on the other hand, is a common phenomenon. As a result, we investigated the ability of liquid crystal (LC) topical formulations to improve skin penetration in the current study. LC-forming lipids are a significant class of biocompatible amphiphiles with applications in cosmetic, dietary, and medicinal technologies. Just a few experiments have looked into how the concentration of LC-forming lipids affects the ability of drugs to reach the skin following topical application. We initially prepared LC formulations of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a hydrophilic drug model (The homogeneity and viscosity of the prepared formulations is determined). Additionally, we used a Zetasizer to determine the zeta potential and particle size of LC formulations. The dialysis procedure was used to determine the liberation of drugs from LC formulations. In vitro skin penetration tests were conducted to decide if LC formulations could increase skin penetration and concentration. By understanding the influence of the LC-forming lipid concentration used in the LC preparation, researchers might establish LC formulation methods that increase drug skin penetration.

12. Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction (DLLME)-Spectrophotometric Determination of Procaine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations
Wijdan S. Khayoon
An efficient, simple, fast, economical, and selective dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupling with the spectrophotometric determination of Procaine hydrochloride (Pro.) in pharmaceutical preparation was introduced. The developed method is based on Schiff’s base condensation reaction in an alkaline medium between sodium 1,2-naphthaquinone-4-sulfonate and the amino group of pro. To give an orange-red color (λ=485 nm). The method permits the determination of Pro. Over a concentration range of 0.0005–0.2 μg.mL-1. Moreover, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.0003 μg.mL-1 and 0.01μg.mL-1 for Pro. Std, respectively. Good recoveries of Pro. Std., and drugs ranging from 95.4 to 102.4% were obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Pro. In pharmaceutical preparations.

13. Metal Complexes of Ligand Derived from Amine Compound: Formation, Spectral Characterization, and Biological Evaluation
Wisam A. Abdulrahman, Iman A. Othman, Enass J. Waheed
A new set of metal complexes by the general formula [M(C)2(H2O)2]Cl2 has been prepared through the interaction of the new Ligand [N1, N4-bis(4-chlorophenyl)succinamide] (C) derived from succinyl chloride with 4-Chloroaniline with the transition metal ions Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Hg(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II). Compounds diagnosed by TGA, 1H, 13CNMR and Mass spectra (for (C)), Fourier-transform infrared and Electronic spectrum, Magnetic measurement, molar conduct, (%M, %C, %H, %N). These measurements indicate that (C) is associated with the metal ion in a bi-dentate fashion by nitrogen atoms (the amide group) and the octahedral composition of these complexes is suggested. The anti-bacterial action of the compounds towards three types of bacteria Pseudomonas (+), Staphylococcus aureus (+), and Escherichia Coli (-) were studied.

14. Synthesis, Characterization of Some Metal Complexes with 3-(Benzo[d]Thaizole-2-Yl)-9-Oxo-6,7,7a,9-Tertrahydro-2H-2,10:4, 7-Diepoxyfuro [3,2-f][1,5,3] Dioxazonine–2,4 (3H)–Dicarboxylic Acid, Hydrochloride (L–as–am) and Study their Biological Activity
Yasamen A. Badeea, Waleed K. Mahdi, Yousif Ibrahim, Falih H. Musa
The reaction of 2-amino-benzothiazole with bis [O,O-2,3,O,O – 5,6 – (chloro(carboxylic) methiylidene) ] – L – ascorbic acid (L-AsCl2) gave new product 3-(Benzo[d]Thaizole-2-Yl) – 9-Oxo-6,7,7a,9-Tertrahydro-2H-2,10:4,7-Diepoxyfuro [3,2-f][1,5,3] Dioxazonine – 2,4 (3H) – Dicarboxylic Acid, Hydro-chloride (L-as-am)), which has been insulated and identified by (C, H, N) elemental microanalysis fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis, mass spectroscopy and H-NMR techniques. The (L-as am) ligand complexes were obtained by the reaction of (L-as-am) with [M(II) = Co,Ni,Cu, and Zn] metal ions. The synthesized complexes are characterized by UV-visible (Ft –IR), mass spectroscopy molar ratio, molar conductivity, and Magnetic susceptibility techniques. (L-as-am) ligand analysis exhibited that metal ions coordinated with (L-as-am) thought the bidentate carboxyylate, sulfur atom from one side and the other side with bidentate carboxylate and nitrogen atom forming binuclear six coordinated metal ions in an octahedral geometry. The purity of (L-as-am) ligand and their complexes were screened using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Also, the study of the biological activity has been conducted for (L-as-am) ligand and its complexes, which showed diversity in its activity towards two types of pathogenic bacteria, (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus) and also against (Candida albicans) fungi.

15. Relationship between Co-infection and Secondary Bacterial Infection with Opportunistic Fungi in COVID-19 Patients
Zahrah A. D. Al-Shammarri
The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (2019-nCOV) in Wuhan city, China, by January 30, 2020. Iraq is one of the countries that diseases have been spread special in Misan province, Iraq. One hundred twenty-five patients suffer from COVID-19 disease with signs and symptoms as high fever, headache, chest pain, dry cough, diarrhea, short breathing, and another complicated lung, renal failure, and death. All samples were collected from Al-Sadder Educational Hospital and depended on auxiliary examinations such as chest X-ray examinations and chest CT-scan. Other diagnoses were taken from throat swabs from throat swabs as sputum, lower respiratory tract secretion, and blood was positive for 2019-nCov. The aim of study and diagnosis of infected with COVID-19 disease by serological tests and biochemical tests as ferritin, c-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Platelets count, and Lymphocytes count. Determinate a secondary bacterial and co-infection with opportunistic fungi in COVID-19 diseases. Detection of the relationships among some parameters associated with COVID-19 and which causes secondary and co-infection. SPSS program version (20) has been used in statistical analysis using different parameters related to COVID -19 diseases.

16. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Zinc (II) Ion Adsorption on Flint and Attapulgite Iraqi Clays
Abdul M. A. Karim, Ahmed N. Abd, Salam M. Malih
In the current work, the adsorption of zinc (II) from synthetic solutions by flint and attapulgite clays as natural adsorbents was studied in batch experiments under various experimental conditions. The effect of temperature, solution pH, clay dosage, and contact time were investigated onto adsorption of metal under studied by flint and attapulgite clays, then perfect conditions were determined and applied on industry waste. The adsorption capacity for zinc ion increased with time, and equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes in both systems, and the maximum capacity was at pH 4. The adsorption results were assessed by two kinetic models (pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order) and three isotherms (Freundlich, Langmuir, and D-R). The results revealed which Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order model agreed with the adsorption process. ΔG° values in both systems were negative and ranged from (-30.7362 to -26.7212) kJ/mol, indicating that both systems’ adsorption processes were spontaneous and physisorption. ΔS° and ΔH° values in both systems were positive, indicating increasing randomness and an endothermic system. Perfect conditions were applied on the Al-Quds Power Station sample and showed that the removal percentage by attapulgite clay (%R = 99.18) was higher than the removal percentage by flint clay (%R =72.08).

17. Effect of Disintegrants on Spironolactone Tablet Stability
Abdulrazaq Almiahi, Noor Y. Fareed, Mohammed Sattar, Malathe A. Alshawi, Mazin N. Mousa
Introduction: Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic, marketed as a tablet dosage form. Because of high lipophilicity, the bioavailability of spironolactone is affected by the type of excipients used in the formulation. The physical properties of the tablets, including disintegration and dissolution time, have a direct relationship with the bioavailability of spironolactone and its therapeutic activity. The current study aims to formulate a spironolactone tablet dosage form using different disintegrants and assess the disintegration and dissolution behavior upon storage at high temperatures and humidity. Materials and methods: Spironolactone tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method in two doses (25 and 50 mg) using two disintegrants (starch 1500 and croscarmellose sodium). The resultant tablets were stored at 30°C ± 2°C and 65% ± 5% RH. The disintegration time and dissolution after 45 minutes (D45) were used to assess the stability. Results: The prepared formulas were within the pharmacopeial specifications of spironolactone tablet. The disintegration time and dissolution of formulas prepared with croscarmellose were faster than those prepared with starch 1500. Additionally, disintegration time and D45 for formulas prepared with starch 1500 showed significant change upon storage, whereas formulas prepared with croscarmellose did not show such changes. Conclusion: Selection of the proper disintegrant is crucial in designing the formula for lipophilic drugs as it affects the disintegration and subsequently affects dissolution and bioavailability. Furthermore, it is necessary to study the behavior of disintegrants upon storage at stress condition to examine the ability to disintegrate tablet after exposure to environmental conditions.

18. Bioequivalence and Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Two Levofloxacin Oral Formulations in Arabic Healthy Men
Afaq M. Ammoo, Duaa J. Al-Tamimi, Mustafa I. Al-Mahroos, Mariam J. Al-Tamim, Jaafar J. Ibraheem
Levofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent with a broad-spectrum activity. A comparative bioavailability (bioequivalence) study was conducted between a newly developed tablet formulation containing 500 mg levofloxacin against the brand product Tavanic® tablet. Both drug products were given as a single dose to 32 healthy male adult Arabic subjects applying fasting, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, randomized cross-over design, separated by one-week washout interval between dosing. Nineteen serial blood samples were collected from each subject before drug intake (zero time) and up to 36.0 hours post-dosing. Levofloxacin concentrations were measured in the plasma samples obtained from each subject to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, Thalf, and mean residence time (MRT) applying non-compartmental data analysis. The parameters mentioned above were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Ln-transformed values of the primary parameters used for bioequivalence testing, namely Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ were also statistically analyzed by ANOVA and 90% confidence interval tests. Based on functional data analysis (FDA) and european medicines evaluation agency (EMEA) criteria on bioequivalence, the results obtained from the current investigation demonstrated bioequivalence between the newly developed levofloxacin tablet and the brand product Tavanic® tablet. All subjects well tolerated both drug products. Therefore, both drug products can be considered interchangeable in clinical practice.

19. The Possible Protective Effect of Safranal on the Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
Alaa T. Sadiq, Munaf H. Zalzala
Experimental evidence suggests that safranal, an organic compound, isolated from saffron (Crocus sativus) had anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of safranal on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury acute lung injury (ALI) model. Sixty albino BALB/c male (20–30g) mice were divided into five groups: control group (vehicle administration), an induction group received vehicle for 7 consecutive days then LPS 5 mg/kg as a single dose on day 7, two treatment groups received safranal IP (300, 150 mg/kg) respectively for 7 consecutive days then LPS 5mg/kg as a single dose administrated at day seven, and the final group received safranal 300 mg/kg without LPS stimulation. The experiment ended on day eight, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood and lung tissue were and differential cell count, lung wet/dry ratio, tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-33, and serum IgE levels were significantly (p < 0.05) increased after LPS administration and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly decreased. In contrast, safranal 300 mg/kg could ameliorate ALI by decreasing the levels of (total and differential cell count, wet-dry ratio, and IgE) and the treatment with safranal 150 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in (differential cell count, TNF-α, IL-33, and IgE). And a significant increase in GSH levels. Histopathological scoring levels showed a significant reduction of inflammatory signs in all safranal treated groups when compared to the LPS model group. These results suggest that safranal has a protective effect on LPS induced ALI in mice likely through the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect.

20.In-vivo, In-vitro Analysis of Formulated Colon Targeted Ornidazole Matrix Tablet
Chandrashekar C. Patil, Akram Naikwadi, Prashant Jorapur, Sayed Samiullah, Santosh Karajgi
In the existing study, using multiple natural and unnatural polymers an endeavor was made to manufacture and analyze the matrix tablet of Xanthan Gum and certain other polymers for colon-directed drug delivery systems. “The dry granulation technique was used to prepare matrix tablets, and further were coated with Eudragit S100”. When weighed and analyzed for drug content, the Standard Deviation values were considerably low and negligible. As per the stipulated norms the compressive strength and friability wherein proper range. The consideration from Fourier Transforms Infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) determined that drug formulation is well built, and the formulated drug was homogenously diffused in the polymer matrix, which was analyzed by XRD studies. The F5 was one of the optimized tablets used to carry out in-vitro drug release studies in replicated gastric and intestinal fluids. F5 showed a good response to the stomach and small intestine environment and thus released the maximum amount of drug in the large intestine in 5 hours. While other formulations showed a large amount of release in the stomach and small intestine, they are not considered optimum for colon targeting. The F5 tablets were then used to carry out a Roentgenography study in Rabbit, which showed that the manufactured tablet had achieved the transit time and was well conserved for 11 hours straight. All the drugs followed non-Fickian transport. All these properties of F5 was found to be good for Colon targeting.

21. Zero-crossing Derivative Spectrophotometry for Simultaneous Determination of Amoxicillin and Diazepam
Rokayia S. Al-Khalisy, Husam S. Khalaf, Samar A. Darweesh
An unpretentious, cheap, and perfect spectrophotometric technique institute advanced for synchronous placement of amoxicillin and diazepam in the mixture contend them utilization first and second zero-crossing derivative technique. First zero-crossing derivative technique (D1) amplitudes at 238 and 285 nm and amoxicillin at 227, 258, 273, 344, and 384 nm for diazepam. The second zero-crossing derivative (D2) amplitudes at 249.5 nm for amoxicillin and 222.5, 238, 264.5, and 383 nm for diazepam. The linearity was recognized over the variety of (10–150 mg/L) and (1–40 mg/L) for amoxicillin and diazepam, and correlation coefficients R2 are estimated. The accuracy and precision of the determination method of amoxicillin and diazepam were evaluated. The method has been successfully applied to estimate amoxicillin and diazepam in their mixtures.

22. Spectrophotometric Determination of Vitamin B6 in Pure and Pharmaceutical Formulations with Diazotized Metoclopramide Hydrochloride
Zakaria S. Abdul-Aleem, Zakaria R. Abdul-Aleem, Othman N. Sabeeh
A rapid, simple, and spectrophotometric method has been worked out to determine pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B6) in pure form and in its pharmaceutical preparations. The primary reaction of the suggested method is the coupling reaction of pyridoxine hydrochloride with diazotized metoclopramide hydrochloride in an alkaline medium to form an intense yellowish-orange azo dye which is a water-soluble dye and has good stability. The maximum absorption of the dye is at 464 nm. A graph of the absorbance of formed azo dye versus concentration of pyridoxine hydrochloride demonstration that the linearity according to Beer’s law is from 10 to 600 μg / 25mL (0.4–24 ppm). The method’s sensitivity was expressed by calculating the molar absorptivity (2.261×104 L.mol-1 cm-1) and Sandellʼs sensitivity index (0.009 μg/cm2). The results of the latter two variables indicated that the suggested method could be considered a sensitive method. Pyridoxine hydrochloride has been presented in various pharmaceutical formulations, and the application part for determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride in tablet and injection as a formulation gave satisfactory results.

23. Formulation of Transdermal Drug Delivery System of Piper Nigrum
Rajalakshmi G, Sundhararajan R, Jeevitha A
Objective: In this study an attempt was made to formulate transdermal patches using Piper nigrum to treat pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis. P. nigrum contains piperine, an alkaloid which is known for its anti-inflammatory properties from long time and RA is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of inflammatory mediators such as TNF α(Tumor necrosis factor‐alpha), IL-1,(Interleukin) IL-6, which are known to aggravate the inflammation and bone destruction. Piperine is found to have Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) activity similar to NSAIDS. The activity has been attributed to inhibition of TNF α secretion and prevention of proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. The main objective of the present work was to find an alternative to the existing NSAIDs and minimize the side effects caused by them. Methods: P. nigrum was extracted with dichloromethane, and Piperine alkaloid was separated and purified. The two methods of transdermal patches of P. nigrum were developed using two polymers of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Ethylcellulose (EC) and evaluated for various physicochemical factors like weight variation, moisture uptake, thickness, moisture content, and folding endurance. Results: Transdermal patches prepared using HPMC by solvent evaporation method showed better results in all parameters comparatively with EC. The folding endurance of the formulation F2 (prepared with EC) was less than F1 (prepared with HPMC), as F2 was brittle. The drug content of both formulations was above 90%w/w. Thickness, weight variation, percentage moisture absorption, and loss were within the specifications for both formulations. Conclusion: Piperine can be formulated as transdermal patches with HPMC as polymer by solvent evaporation method and can be selected for further studies like pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic in the future.

24. Potential Approaches of Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy: An Insight
Vijay Mishra, Pavani Sriram, Ashish Suttee
Cancer is one of the most severe threats to people all over the world. Cancer incidence and mortality are also on the rise. Chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy are examples of traditional cancer treatment methods. Chemotherapy has been widely used in clinics due to its simple and effective process; however, the therapeutic potential of cancer chemotherapy is severely unsatisfactory due to side effects and drug resistance, non-specific distribution of medicines, multidrug resistance (MDR), and cancer heterogeneity. A drug delivery system (DDS) that combines chemotherapy with supplementary cancer management is required to overcome these limitations and improve cancer therapeutic efficiency. Because of nanomaterials’ distinct physicochemical and biological properties, nanotechnologies have presented high potential in cancer therapeutics in recent years. Nanocarriers such as nanodiamonds, quantum dots, high-density lipoprotein nanostructures, liposomes, polymer nanoparticles, dendrimers, nanoconjugates, and gold nanoparticles are used in drug delivery of their physicochemical and optical properties, adaptability, sub-cell size, and biocompatibility. They provide an efficient means of transporting small molecules and biomacromolecules to diseased cells/tissues. In context to cancer, it provides a unique approach and comprehensive technology for early diagnosis, prediction, prevention, personalized therapy, and medicine. As a result, combinational therapy based on chemotherapy facilitated by nanotechnology is the current trend in clinical research, resulting in significantly improved therapeutic efficiency with minimal side effects to normal tissues. The review focuses on recent developments and approaches in nanotechnology for cancer treatment.

25. Levels of Some Cytokines in Pregnant Women with COVID-19 Infection
Iman S. Hassan
The current work was objective to estimate the levels of some cytokines in pregnant women with COVID-19 infection. A total of 58 blood samples were obtained from infected pregnant women with COVID-19 and 30 healthy pregnant women (age range: 18–40 years). The blood samples collected (at a period June 2020 to January, 2021) from Al Shifa Medical Center, Azadi Teaching Hospital, Kirkuk, Iraq. The findings of current work showed that the levels of D-dimer in infected pregnant women significant elevated compared with healthy pregnant women. On the other hand, the findings showed that the levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in infected pregnant women significant elevated compared with healthy pregnant women. Therefore, it is concluded from the current work that infection with the COVID-19 cause higher levels of cytokines that have been studied in infected pregnant women compared to healthy pregnant women.

26. Influence of Platelet-rich Plasma and Ascorbic Acid on Carboplatin-induced Hematotoxicity in Male Albino Rats
Intidhar I Yaseen, Hanady S. Al-Shmgani, Ahmed Hafidh
There has been inclusive concern to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment in degenerative medicine in recent years due to its valuable properties. This study aimed to assess the effect of PRP alone or in combination with ascorbic acid on carboplatin-induced hematotoxicity. Thirty male albino rats were divided into five equal groups; The first group served as control. The second group was injected with a single dose of carboplatin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on day 1. The third group was injected with AA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) on days (0–7) and carboplatin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on day1. The fourth group was injected with PRP extract (150 μL/Rat, s.c.) on days (0, 2, 4 and 6) and carboplatin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on day1. The fifth Group was injected with AA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) on days (0–7) in combination with PRP extract (150 μL/rat,s.c.) on days (0, 2, 4, and 6) and carboplatin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on day1. The results showed that carboplatin treatment indicated a significant decrease in body weight. Blood analysis showed a significant decrease in white blood cell (WBCs), red blood cell (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), and packed cell volume (PCV) compared to the control group. Treatment with PRP or AA or AA+PRP showed improvement in rat weight and some blood parameters.

27. Role of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus as a Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis in Mice
Israa M. A. AL-Khaliq, Abdullateef J. Nasser, Moayad M. Ghadban
Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic activity of probiotics mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus towards Cryptosporidium infection in experimentally infected mice. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium were separated from the stool of humans to infect mice. Methods: Forty male albino mice were split equally into four groups, every group contained 10 mice, the group I (early treated group), were treated from the 1st day from infection to the 11th post-infection, group II (late treated group), were treated from the 4th day from infection to the 15th post-infection, and group (III) (untreated group), were mice considered as a positive control group. Results: It was showed that daily application of a mixture of L. plantarum with L. acidophilus could reduce the parasitic infection in mice as compared with the untreated group, and it was confirmed that the using of these probiotics in the early treated group was more efficient than the using of these probiotics in the late treated group. Conclusion: A mixture of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus are good therapeutic agents for cryptosporidial infection.

28. Characterization of the Antibacterial, Antibiofilm Activities, and Genetic Structure of Endolysin Extracted from Enterococcus faecalis Phage
Jassas M. N., Hafidh R. R.
Background: The multidrug-resistant enterococci (MDR), Enterococcus faecalis, is considered a major medical problem in recent times and has been reported increasingly worldwide. Scientists applied phage therapy to induce lysis of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in various environments. Alternative to conventional antibiotics, the lytic enzymes (endolysins) produced by bacteriophages were employed to lyse MDR bacteria. These enzymes hydrolyze the cell wall peptidoglycan, resulting in the lysis of the host cell. Objective(s): This study investigated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the extracted endolysin from Enterococcus faecalis phage that can be used as an alternative approach for the treatment of MDR enterococci in Iraq, together with its phylogenetic relationship. Materials and Methods: The endolysin was extracted using gel filtration chromatography (Sepadex G100) from E. faecalis phage. The elutes with the highest absorbance at 280 nm were tested by spot analysis assay on MDR E. faecalis lawns isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection. The endolysin concentration was measured by Bradford protein assay. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Accordingly, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracted endolysin was verified.The ability of E. faecalis isolates to form a biofilm was evaluated by Congo Red Agar (CRA) method. Furthermore, the microtiter plate method was used to quantify the antibiofilm activity of the extracted endolysin. Phage DNA was extracted for sequencing using the automated Sanger method, and further genetic analysis by NCBI-BLAST program was done. Results: The antibacterial activity of the extracted endolysin was evaluated with a clear decline in bacterial growth.The endolysin concentration was (256 μg/mL) with (>64 μg/mL) MIC and (>128 μg/mL) MBC. Black colonies with dry crystalline consistency were developed on CRA after overnight incubation which indicated the ability of E. faecalis isolates to form a biofilm. About (90.04%) of the bacterial biofilm was reduced after the incubation ofthe extracted endolysin with E. faecalis mature biofilm. Sequencing of the Endolysingene obtained from the conventional PCR method uncovered (1257) base pairs. The amino acids translation showed a total number of (419). The phylogenetic analysis of the extracted E. faecalis phage endolysin gene revealed a 100% similarity with Enterococcus phage phiEf11 endolysin gene. Conclusion: The current study discovered the promising ability of the extracted E. faecalis phage endolysin to eliminate the growth of MDR E. faecalis and reduce its mature biofilm. The easy and inexpensive method to extract this enzymobiotic agent encourages further studies to use it as an alternative antibacterial agent on such MDR bacteria. The phylogenetic study of its genome clarified a complete description of the genetic sequence that could enhance further molecular studies to produce a cloned endolysin.

29. The Possible Hepatoprotective Effects of Combination of an Oral Krill Oil and Silymarin against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced Liver Fibrosis/Injury in White Albino Rats: Histopathological, and Biochemical Studies
Kassim H. Ali, Faruk H. Al-Jawad, Haitham M. Kadhim, Mohammad A. H. Al-Dabagh
Liver fibrosis represents the final consequences of repeated occasions of hepatocellular necrosis and hepatic inflammation, regardless of the underlying causes of chronic hepatic disorders. It is manifested as a massive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECMs) within the damaged liver of different chronic hepatic disorders. Moreover, increase in the releases of radical moieties, e.g., superoxide, hydroxyl, and hydrogen peroxide radicals in living cells resulted in homeostatic deregulation and oxidative stress (OS) consequently damaging the biological molecules such as membrane lipids. Changing in cellular composition and level (amount) of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) due to increased OS might result in chronic liver diseases. Hepatic fibrosis has been documented to be correlated with OS in numerous researches. In the current study 50 white albino rats were allocated as follows: Group I (Healthy Control): 10 rats received 1 mL/kg intraperitonealy (IP) olive oil (vehicle only group) twice a week for 6 weeks. Group II (CCl4; Induction Group): 10 rats received 1 mL/kg of 50% CCl4 solution in olive oil IP twice a week for 6 weeks. Group III (Silymarin Group): 10 rats received 1 mL/kg of 50% CCl4 solution in olive oil IP twice a week + Silymarin (hepatoprotective agent) (100 mg/kg). Once daily orally for six weeks concurrently with CCl4. Group IV (Krill Oil Group): 10 rats received 1 mL/kg of 50% CCl4 solution in olive oil IP twice a week + krill oil (400 mg/kg) once daily orally for six weeks concurrently with CCl4. Group V Combination of (Krill oil+ Silymarin Group): 10 rats received 1 mL/kg of 50% CCl4 solution in olive oil IP twice a week + (krill oil (400 mg/kg) + Silymarin (100 mg/kg)) once daily orally for six weeks concurrently with CCl4. This study reveals that orally administered krill oil in combination with oral Silymarin significantly (p < 0.001) increase the hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in white albino rats through improvements in both liver tissue oxidative stress parameters, and histological features in both MT, and (H&E) stained sections.

30. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel γ-Lactams, and Study of Their Antioxidant and Biological Activities
Alhamzah D. Hameed, Anees A. Y. Al-Fatlawi, Atheer A. Y. Al-Fatlawi
Background: This review focuses on the synthesis, classification, and the examined behaviors of antioxidants and the biological activity of γ-lactams (2a-3d). In this reaction, succinic Anhydride interacts with different Schiff bases to synthesize γ-lactams (all of which have high yields). FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and CHN spectral analysis formed the foundation for spectral analyses of γ-lactam structures. The antimicrobial activity was checked on the γ-lactams (2a-3d), resulting in successful findings on both staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Additionally, the behaviors of the antioxidants (2a-3d) were investigated by examining how “2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl” [DPPH] was influenced by the compound (2a-3d).

31. The Synthesis of a New Aliphatic Polyamide Based on Some Adamantane’s Derivatives
Ali K. Habib, Sadiq A. Karim
Condensation polymerization technique has been used to synthesis 15 a new aliphatic polyamide with thermal stability. The synthesis process starts with Adamantane’s acetanilide by reaction of 1-adamantanol with (acetanilide, 2-methylacetanilide and 2,6- dimethylacetanilide), then hydrolysis with the basic medium to form the corresponding adamantane’s monomers. These polyamides were synthesized by condensation reaction between [1,3-Bis(4-aminophenyl)adamantane(B1), 1,3-Bis(3-methyl-4-aminophenyl)adamantane (B2), and 1,3-Bis-(3,6- dimethyl-4-aminophenyl)adamantane (B3)] monomers with aliphatic dicarboxylic acid (oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, glutaric acid). All compounds salts, monomers and polymers were characterized using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and (1H, 13C)NMR beside to mass spectrometer for adamantane’s acetanilide and monomers.

32. Screening COVID-19 in Apparently Healthy Individuals
Alyaa K. Abood, lkbal K. Al-Joofy
Background: A pneumonia outbreak with an unknown etiology broke out in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread worldwide. Coronavirus 2 is a new coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). This study will look at coronavirus in people who don’t have any symptoms and test the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the tests used to detect COVID-19. Methods: This study included 300 people who appeared to be in good health. Nasal swabs were taken and placed in a viral transport media (VTM), which was then tested using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a rapid test for anti-COVID-19 antibody (IgM, IgG). The reverse method was used to look at blood groups. Finally, a Hemolyzer III was used to count total leukocytes and granulocytes in peripheral blood. Results: The present study included 176 males (58.7%) and 124 females (41.3%). The age range was between 10 to 69 years. There is a non-significant difference (p ˃ 0.05) between the blood group and carry coronavirus in apparently healthy individuals. There was a highly significant decline (p ≤ 0.01) in total leukocytes count in positive RT-PCR subgroup was 4.1 ± 0.1*10⁹. Also total leukocytes count significantly decline (p ≤ 0.05) in positive of both RT-PCR and the rapid test was 4.5 ± 0.1*10⁹/L, a non-significant difference (p ˃ 0.05) between total leukocytes count and favorable rapid test subgroup comparison with negative test subgroup. This result shows a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in granulocyte count in the positive RT-PCR test subgroup and in the positive of both RT-PCR and rapid test subgroup was 4.07 ± 0.11*10⁹/L, 4.1 ± 0.10*10⁹, respectively. There is a non-significant difference (p ˃ 0.05) in the positive rapid test subgroup 4.5 ± 0.12*10⁹/L and compared with the negative test subgroup.

33. Preparation and In-vitro Hematological Evaluation of Chlorambucil Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles
Ameer S. Sahib, Shaimaa N. A. Alhammid, M. Akrami, Hussein A. Muhammed
Chlorambucil (CBL) is an orally administered anticancer drug currently utilized in the therapy of lymphomas, breast, and ovarian carcinomas. CBL was a candidate to be loaded inside lipid nanocarrier for parenteral administration to eliminate its serious adverse effects. Six formulas were prepared using the homogenization-ultrasonication method. Distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) and soybean oil were the best lipids selected for CBL solubility and incorporation inside the nanoparticles. Poloxamer F68 ratio (1:2) relative to the total amount of lipids used and soy lecithin to surfactant ratio of 1:2 were the best ratios to get the best results of zeta potential (ZP), particle size (PS), and polydispersity index (PDI). Formula F5 was the best selected one with 85 ± 8 nm PS, 0.26 ± 0.01 PDI, and -35 ± 1.3 mV ZP. These results reveal an acceptable size for parenteral administration and good surface potential stability for colloidal dispersion. Drug entrapment efficiency (88.7 ± 3.7) and loading capacity (4.25 ± 0.03) were high concerning CBL solubility in the lipids. Particle morphology was studied by transmission electron microscopes (TEM), and appeared the spherical shape of the particle. Some erythrocyte hemolysis and high protein corona (34.59%) with plasma protein led to particle size enlargement to about 327 nm and decreased absolute ZP to about -28.5 mV.

34. Transdermal Dissolvable Microneedle-mediated Delivery of Controlled Release Ondansetron Hydrogen Chloride Nanoparticles
Amjed H. Noor, Mowafaq M. Ghareeb
Objective: Ondansetron HCl (OND) is a potent antiemetic drug used for control of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. It exhibits only 60–70% of oral bioavailability due to first pass metabolism and has a relative short half-life of 3–5 hours. Poor bioavailability not only leads to the frequent dosing but also shows very poor patient adherence. Hence, in the present study an approach has been made to develop ondansetron HCl nanoparticle loaded microneedle patch to control release of ondansetron HCl for transdermal delivery and to improve patient compliance. Methods: Three formulas of OND (NPs) were prepared using nanoprecipitation technique. The particles sizes and zeta potential were measured using zeta-plus analyzer. The particle morphology was also studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in-vitro release of the drug from the nanoparticles was conducted in phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. Microneedle (MN) patches of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVP-K30 was prepared using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micromolds. The ratio of PVA to PVP-K30 of matrix solution was optimized to attained maximum needle strength. The optimized strip was evaluated for in-vitro dissolution, drug release, and ex-vivo skin permeation. Results: OND-nanoparticles particle size were in nano size ranged from 95.34 nm to 246.43 nm with positive zeta potential. The drug entrapment efficiency (%EE) was varied with the drug polymer ratio from 48.93–78.45%. The SEM showed uniform shape and regularly distributed particle size. The in-vitro drug release study of nanoparticles exhibited sustained release of OND with burst release. The axial fraction force of manganese (MN) increases with the decrease of PVP ratio. Also, the transdermal permeation study show that microneedles permeate more efficiently than simple ordinary patches of the drug through the skin by approximately 4.69 folds. Conclusion: OND nanoparticles were prepared successfully using nanoprecipitation method. The controlled drug release aimed for transdermal drug delivery can reduce dosing frequency, decrease side effects, and improve patient compliance. The microneedle patches loaded with ondansetron HCl nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated.

35. In-vitro and In-vivo Therapeutic Effects of Vancomycin on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Anees A. Y. Al-Fatlawi, Atheer A. Y. Al-Fatlawi, Alhamzah D. Hameed, Mohammed S. Hasan, Wejdi A. Al-Fatlawy
The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic influence of vancomycin on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in-vitro and in-vivo. Thirty rabbits were divided equally into three groups; group A served as a negative control, group B serve as positive control given MRSA at 2.7 x 106 CFU/mL, group C infected with 2.7 × 106 CFU/mL MRSA isolates that treated by Vancomycin (40) mg/kg-S/C daily after two days of infection for five days. The results showed that different vancomycin concentrations different degrees of inhibition against areas MRSA were applied on media well diffusion. The inhibition zone scale was varied according to antibacterial agent concentration and, when the agent concentration increased, the inhibition zone increased proportionally. The gross examination was performed on all groups for five days post-infection. Subcutaneous injection with MRSA resulted in pus-filled lesions after 24 hours of infection with a mean diameter (5.7 cm3) in all infected groups following the lesions reaching maximum diameter (8.3 cm3) after10 days post-infection in the infected non-treated group. The treated group with vancomycin showed decreased lesion volume but not a significant difference compared with the untreated group after 48 hours of treatment. Gross inspection of sacrificed animals of infected untreated classes, five days after infection, showed shin area with MRSA with severe ulcerative pyogenic lesions and a significant increase in lesion volume. In conclusion, Vancomycin showed good activity against MRSA in-vivo and in-vitro.

36. Isolation of Cardioactive Glycoside Peruvoside, and Phytoalexin Scopoletin along with Phytochemical Investigation of Euphorbia Milii Cultivated in Iraq
Ayah F. AL-Qrimli, Enas J. Kadim
Euphorbia milii is an ornamental and medicinal plant species used widely in folk medicine in the treatment of cancer and hepatitis in China, Nepal, Brazil, and other tropical areas. Various research reported many pharmacological properties for this species related to its phytoconstituents. This study will aim to provide a complete phytochemical profile for E. milii cultivated in Iraq. The methanolic crude extract was partitioned using different solvents with varying polarities for further analysis. The phytochemical analysis revealed cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, sterols, terpenoids, and alkaloids. In the scope of this study, the compounds isolated from E. milii in this study are Peruvoside and Scopoletin. These compounds were detected and isolated by analytical thin-layer chromatography and preparative layer chromatography, respectively. The isolated compounds were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the corresponding standard, and the spectral method fourier transforms infrared spectra (FTIR) further confirmed the result. This study is the first to isolate the cardioactive glycoside Peruvoside from E. milii. In addition, this study is considered the first to detect and isolate the phytoalexin coumarin Scopoletin from Iraqi E. milii, highlighting the role of Iraqi flora in provoking secondary metabolites in the plant species. This suggests that E. milii is a good source of novel bioactive compound isolation. Furthermore, the compounds isolated were reported to have hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, and many pharmacological potentials that can justify its traditional use, which must be studied in future in-vitro studies as a part of drug discovery and development.

37. Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Benzoxazepine Thiourea New Derivatives
Bassam A. Hassan, Farqad M. Baqer, Maitham M. Abdulridha
The thiosemicarbazide reacted with aromatic heterocyclic aldehyde like pyridine-3-carbaldehyde, 1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde, furan-2-carbaldehyde in the presence of ethanol with a glacial acetic acids to produce the imine group known as Schiff bases. Which were treated with phthalic anhydride in the presence of dry toluene to produced benzoxazepinethiourea 1-[3-(furan-2-yl)-1,5-dioxo-1,5-dihydro-2,4-benzoxazepin-4(3H)-yl]thiourea IVA, 1-[1,5-dioxo-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1,5-dihydro-2,4-benzoxazepin-4(3H)-yl]thiourea IVB, 1-[1,5-dioxo-3-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-1,5-dihydro-2,4-benzoxazepin-4(3H)-yl]thiourea inferior vena cava (IVC), as seven-member heterocyclic ring. The synthesised benzoxazepinethiourea derivatives IVC identified by on fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), mass spectral, moreover C,H,N, elemental analysis the structures of synthesized and benzoxazepinethiourea have determined. TLC was used to validate the purity of the compounds.

38. The Effect of Long-term Administration of Withania Somnifera on the Expression of Brain P-glycoprotein Transporter Gene (ABCB1a)
Esraa S. Hassan, Selman M. Selman, Alaa J. Mahrath, Zahraa S. Mangi
Depression is among the most serious medical conditions worldwide. Increasing incidence of treatment-resistant depression is a serious problem nowadays. Since extensive P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in the blood-brain barrier is already identified as a major obstacle to the effective treatment of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including depression. This study aims to show the effect of long-term administration of the herbal plant Withania somnifera on the expression of P-gp gene and hence its effect on brain paroxetine concentration. Sixty male Albino rats were utilized and allocated into 6 groups: group 1 received no treatment and saved as control, group 2 received only a single dose of 10 mg/kg paroxetine, group 3 received 40 mg/kg of verapamil for 10 days and a single dose of 10 mg/kg paroxetine and groups 4, 5, and 6 received (50, 100, and 200) mg/kg of W. somnifera for 21 days respectively and a single dose of 10 mg/kg paroxetine on day 22, all were given treatment orally by using gavage tube. The influence of W. somnifera on the paroxetine antidepressant activity was evaluated in forced swimming test. Then, the expression of the ABCB1a gene, which encodes P-gp, in the brain was measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. As a result, the mean immobility time and gene fold expression of the groups that received W. somnifera significantly decreased as compared to the control group. So, twenty-one days of administration of 50, 100 and, 200 mg/kg W. somnifera led to a noteworthy decrease in the mean immobility time in forced swimming test and a significant inhibition of P-gp gene.

39. Synthesis and Characterization of New Graphene Oxide Nano Derivatives, and Study of their Biological Activities
Ghufran A. Hamoad, Sanaa A. AL Sahib
Preparation of graphene oxide and react it with many compounds by forming an amide group because graphene oxide (GO) Its molecular structure is saturated with carboxylic groups, making it an ideal for esterification and amidation.We exploit graphene oxide’s capacity to interact with many compounds because of the carbonyl, hydroxyl, and epoxide functional groups in GO to create new products by reacting graphene oxide with those compounds (2-aminopyrmidine, dithiazone, sulfamide, and 1-amino-2-naphthol-4sulfonic acid). Using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the derivatives. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was estimated using two-particle size equations and compared between them. Furthermore, studying the antimicrobial activities of graphene oxide derivatives, inhibition zone illustrates the potency of compound on bacteria and fungi.

40. Pulmonary Aspergillosis Associated with COVID-19
Neeran O. Jasim, Mohamed Klaaf
Among the potential pathogens in patients with COVID-19 that we should pay more attention to is Aspergillosis, as pulmonary Aspergillosis is a critical complication of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially those with severe pneumonia. In this study, Aspergillus sp. was isolated from patients with COVID-19 from the respiratory tract, and its presence was surveyed as a co-infection with a viral infection. The results showed that Aspergillosis constituted a relatively high percentage in patients 10.8% of the total infections, represented by four species (Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus candidus, and Aspergillus niger). Also, the most susceptible age to infection with co-infections is the elderly, where the age of more than 60 years, and that diabetes is the most risk factor for infection with Aspergillosis accompanying the virus. Males were also more susceptible to co-infection than females.

41. The Physiological and Histological Effect of Infected Wheat and Rice (with Aflatoxin and Benzoquinone) on Rat Kidneys
Hayder A. H. Al-Janabi, Mohammed J. Mohammed
The current study aimed to estimate the physiological and histological effect of rat kidneys feeding infected wheat and rice. Samples were collected in Kirkuk city and included Kirkuk silo, Riyadh Al-Makhzani complex, and Taza Grain Center of the General Company for Grain Trade, one of the Iraqi Ministry of Trade branches. 10 samples of wheat and rice were collected from 2 kg for each sample of grains from 1 to 22 September 2019. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (6 rats in each treatment). It included the following: The first treatment (T1): a group of control rats for normal wheat, the second treatment (T2): a group of control rats for normal rice, the third treatment (T3): a group of rats given orally 50% of normal wheat and 50% of the infected wheat contains different concentrations of aflatoxin and benzoquinone. The fourth treatment (T4): the group of rats given orally 25% of normal wheat is 75% of the infected wheat, containing different concentrations of aflatoxin and benzoquinone. The fifth treatment (T5): The group of rats given orally 100% to the infected wheat contains different aflatoxin concentrations and benzoquinone. The sixth treatment (T6): 100% infected rice. The current results showed that there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between the study groups. The current results showed that the group given infected 100% wheat showed a significant increase in creatinine and urea levels compared with control group. On the other hand, it was observed that the group given infected 100% rice showed a significant increase in the levels of creatinine and compared with the control group given regular rice. Different histological lesions were diagnosed in the histological study, including damaged glomerulus and urinary tubules with lymphocytes infiltration and the thickening wall of blood vessels.

42. Microbiological Decolorization of Crystal Violet Dye and Amylase Production by Iraqi Isolate Geobacillus thermoleovorans Strain Ir1 (JQ912239)
Hiba K. Ibrahim, Mayaada S. Mahdi, Mohanad H.Hussein, Ahmed A. Mhawesh
Alpha amylases hold a variety of capabilities into distinctive industries. Immobilization regarding alpha -amylase evolved via a pressure regarding Geobacillus thermoleovorans Ir1 isolated beyond hydrocarbons filthy soils about Iraq used to be studied. A partially clean enzyme with 189 U/mL undertaking used to be old because immobilization instruction using sodium alginate and agar, the immobilized enzyme was very effective in increasing the enzyme activity to be (10.7,14.8 U/mL) respectively for the sodium alginate and agar. This immobilized enzyme performs stand-old commercially like a replacement on free enzyme because that has proven larger operational give then higher enzymatic activity. The G. thermoleovorans strain Ir1 shows high decolorization (99%) of crystal violate toxic dyes in the concentration 0.25 mg/mL for three days while (98%) decolorization in the concentration 0.5 mg/mL for ten days.

43. Assessment of Some Clinical and Biochemical Parameters after Combining Coenzyme Q10 to Statin in Dyslipidemic Patients
Aya N. Yasser, Manal K. Abdulridha, Mustafa A. Shafek
Background: Statins are the most popular treatment for the primary and secondary causes of cardiovascular diseases. Many controlled trials have demonstrated significant depletion of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) serum levels secondary to statin therapy. Objectives: The current study was designed to investigate the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplement in hypercholesterolemia patients receiving conventional atorvastatin treatment based on objective clinical and laboratory assessment. Methods: This interventional prospective randomized controlled, open-label study, enrolled 52 dyslipidemic patients diagnosis with statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) randomized into; Group 1: (n=20) received 200 mg/day of CoQ10 adjuvant to atorvastatin therapy. Group 2: (n=19) on atorvastatin only, both followed up for 12 weeks. Laboratory assessment of serum CoQ10 level, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lipid peroxidation, SAMS, lipid profile, liver enzymes, and metabolic parameters was assessed. Results: CoQ10 adjuvant therapy produced restoration and increased serum CoQ10 level (86.73%) compared to a notable decrease in mean serum CoQ10 end line level (-19.21%) in the control group on atorvastatin therapy alone. Also, CoQ10 adjuvant therapy produced a significant decrease in serum CPK, IL-6, MDA levels, TG, and a marked increase in serum HDL-C among intervention group patients only (p ≤ 0.01), and they were negatively correlated with increased serum CoQ10 in those patients (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusions: CoQ10 adjuvant therapy benefits various clinical and biochemical outcomes in statin-associated muscular complaints dyslipidemic individuals.

44. Removal of Pharmaceutical by Adsorption Process; Study Effect of Various Parameters and Determination of Pharmaceutical by Oxidative Coupling Reaction
Aseel M. Aljeboree, Nadher D. Radia, Layth S. Jasim, Ayad F. Alkaim
Pharmaceutical pollutants are among the most dangerous water pollutants, so a simple and expensive method was used to remove these pollutants, which is the adsorption method that relies on inexpensive and environmentally friendly surfaces. We studied different parameters like the effect of the weight of AC effect of concentration of the drug and adsorption isotherms. It was found that they are fitting Frendlich model, where the residual concentration after the adsorption process was measured using the coupling oxidation method to obtain the colored product with a wavelength 550 nm, where several factors were studied, including the influence of the volume of the reagent and the influence of the volume of the acid.The linearity range for Amoxlline was (1–10 mg/L) while the (LoD = 0.004) and (LoQ = 0.03 μg/mL).

45. Rapid Methods for Detection of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Wasit Province, Iraq
Rana H. Raheema
Background: Currently, the most important clinical challenge is Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), it has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen in the community and hospitals. The study was performed in the laboratory of microbiology, college of medicine, to investigate the effectiveness of molecular assay in detecting MRSA compared with congenital cefoxitin disk diffusion with antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Wasit Province, Iraq Methods: one hundred and twelve clinical specimens were cultured to isolate the MRSA. Results: Among 53 isolated from S. aureus, 42 (79.27%) isolates were developed an inhibition zone ≤ of 21 mm that indicates MRSA by cefoxitin disk diffusion method, and 50 (94.33%) isolates were positive for the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. MRSA was highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamycin. Conclusion: Wounds infection are the most common sites for MRSA isolates followed by urine and blood; cefoxitin disk diffusion testing is not reliable for detecting MRSA, molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction should be applied as a surrogate for disk diffusion testing. The results of this study indicated molecular assay is simple and valuable tools for the identification of MRSA in patients and carrier individuals. MRSA strains were highly resistant to different antibiotics used in this study.

46. Development and Evaluation of Taste Masked Azithromycin by Crystal Engineering
Kanchan P. Upadhye, Chetana S. Dhakate, Gouri R. Dixit, Suparna S. Bakhle
Purpose: Cocrystallisation is a promising technique for altering important physicochemical properties of drugs such as solubility and dissolution. The present study thus aims to utilize this technique to improve the drug solubility and study its effect on taste masking. Method: Azithromycin co-crystals were formulated by solvent evaporation technique utilizing a synthetic sweetener neotame as the coformer. The study of microscopic characters characterized the formulated co-crystals, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Xray diffraction studies (XRD). Other evaluation parameters included taste evaluation, drug content determination, solubility, angle of repose, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and dissolution studies. Results: The study revealed that the prepared co-crystals showed a marked improvement in taste and physicochemical properties. Co-crystals prepared in the ratio of 1:1 of drug and neotame displayed a nearly two-fold increase in solubility, improvement in flow properties, and a tremendous improvement in the taste as compared to the pure drug Conclusion: Thus, co-crystallization can be effectively used for solubility improvement and taste masking of poorly soluble bitter drugs such as azithromycin.

47. Amphiphilic Polymer for Formulation of Ethanol Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves as Solid Dispersion: Formulation, Evaluation, and Stability Studies
Harith J. M. Alsammarraie, Nurzalina A. K. Khan, Roziahanim Mahmud
Objective: Moringa oleifera Lam. has many reported ethnopharmacological uses, including treating arthritis, joint problems, and pain. Like other medicinal plants, using crude or processed plants are accompanied by several drawbacks like dose-to-dose variability of concentration of active ingredient(s), fluctuation in pharmacological activity and uncertainty of chemical stability, shelf life, and suitability for human consumption. The current study aimed to formulate the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves into a standardized solid dispersion oral dosage form that is stable and can elicit high pharmacological activity. Methods: Different types of polymers, as an adsorbent and as matrices, were tested, and different solid dispersion manufacturing methods were evaluated. The formulated Moringa solid dispersion was then evaluated for organoleptic properties and physical characteristics, in vitro dissolution test, compatibility, thermal behaviour, drug content, heavy metal tests, microbial limit tests, and accelerated and long term stability studies. Results: 95% ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves was successfully formulated as standardized self-emulsifying solid dispersion with a mixture of polymers include an amphiphilic polymer, gelucire 50/13, and a crystal growth inhibitor HPMC utilising simple and low-cost techniques. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this work was the first to use gelucire 50/13 in the formulation of a standardized botanical pharmaceutical dosage form based on whole crude plant extract.

48. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Studies of New Complexes Derived from 2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl) Aniline
Bahaa A. Al-Hadi, Eman A. Othman, Lekaa K. A. Karem
The Schiff base (E)-2-(((2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl) imino) methyl)-4-methylphenol (Lb) ligand with some metals(II) ion such as; Co, Cu, Cd, and Hg, were synthesis and characterized by the mass and 1HNMR spectrometry for ligand Schiff base, the fourier-transform infrared spectroscop (FTIR), UV-visible and the flame atomic absorption (AA) spectrum, the CHN analysis, and the chlorine content, in addition to measuring the magnetic sensitivity of the complexes. All the complexes had octahedral geometry. The bioactivity activity for compounds against; Rhizopodium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli showed different efficacy towards these microorganisms.

49. Synthesis and Characterization of New Derivatives of Curcumin and Study of their Biological Activities
Hiba S. Mahdi, Sana H. Awad
Curcumin, a charity for centuries in traditional medicine, was newly shown to possess a broad spectrum of desirable activities. It was creating to be an actual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Chitosan and its derivatives have several unique properties important in the field of pharmaceutics and medicinal chemistry. The imine or azomethine (–C=N–) functional group is found in Schiff bases. Hugon Schiff was the first to report these compression products of primary amines with carbonyl compounds. Schiff bases are a kind of organic compound with a wide range of uses in analytical, biological, and inorganic chemistry, to name a few. All compounds were studied using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) apparatuses to determine the thermal stability of derivatives.

50. Study of Correlation Between TLR-2 Serum Level, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Development of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Hind F. Al-Hammami, Mahdi H. Al-Ammar
Objective: The study’s main goal is to evaluate streptococcal serology and investigate the involvement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) in the development of Rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A total of 35 RA patients admitted to hospital from November 2018 untill end of January 2019 were enrolled, including 4 males and 31 females with age ranged 30 to 69 years and 15 healthy participants from the Medical Examination Center of hospital were chosen as the control group with same age. The two groups were examined by anti-streptolysin O (ASO) test to confirm the bacterial infection, immunologic parameters of arthritis; rheumatoid factor (RF), C reactive protein (CRP) were measured and Cell surface. toll-like receptors (TLR-2) level were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELIASA). Results: Elevated ASO levels have also been found in patients suffering from acute rheumatoid arthritis and other streptococcal infection. The finding of this study revealed that (30) (85.7%) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient serum samples was positive for this test, positive results may indicate an acute streptococcal infection compared with control blood samples.The level of TLR-2 in serum of RA patients was significantly higher than that in the control group. Conclusion: Streptococcus pyogenes could be important role in the etiopathogenesis of RA, these observations support the notion of a potential role for activation through TLR-2 in the inflammation and joint destruction of RA.

51. Antileishmanial Activity of Formycin Analogs on Promastigotes of Leishmania Donovani and Leishmania Tropica
Husain F. Haassan, Rana A. Ahmed
The analogs of formycin have growth inhibitory effect on the Leishmania tropica and Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The formycin B was found to be more active than formycin A, allopurinol riboside, thioformycin B and tubercidin. Treatment of promastigotes of leishmanial species with formycin analogs (except tubercidin) decreased protein amounts by more than 50% and nucleic acid synthesis by 25–50%. The formycine analogs also resulted in inhibiting the enzymes adenylosuccinate lyase, adenylosuccinate synthetase and nucleoside kinase. The postulated possibility of the inhibitory effect of formycin analogs may be due to the ability of promastigotes to convert these analogs to their nucleotide triphosphates which are incorporated into RNA resulting in blocking of the synthesis of protein and in causing death of the parasite.

52. Nanosponge Based Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System of 5-Fluorouracil for Gastric Cancer Targeting
Ihsan K. Jasim, Alaa A. Abdulrasool, Shaimaa N. Abd-Alhammid
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antimetabolite of the pyrimidine analog class widely used alone or in combination chemotherapy regimens However, it metabolizes so fast that the biological half-life is only 10–20 minutes. Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (NS) are a novel class of cross-linked derivatives of cyclodextrins. They have been used to improved anticancer activity increase the solubility of drugs and control their release. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the interactions of 5-FU with NS. Also, XRD showed that the crystallinity of 5-FU decreased after loading into nanosponges (5-FUNS). The formula 5-FUNS2 had shown a highest encapsulation efficiency 46% w/w. The particle sizes of the loaded NS formulations were between (253.75–721 nm). The zeta potentials 5-FUNS2 was sufficiently high (-26.64 mV) to obtain a stable colloidal nanosuspension. The cytotoxicity studies on a gastric cancer cell line (MKN45) showed that the 5-FU nanosponges were more cytotoxic with lower IC50 than plain 5-FU after 72 hours of incubation. The floating nanosponge tablet prepared using HPMC.

53. Utilization of Ultrasonication Technique for the Preparation of Apigenin Nanocrystals
Mahmood A. Haiss, Nidhal K. Maraie
Background: Different techniques had been used to affect particle size and morphology. In this work, the ultrasonication technique was applied to prepare apigenin nanocrystals and study the potential of this technique on the particle size, crystallinity, solubility, and dissolution rate that might improve drug activity. Method: Ultrasonication method was used to prepare apigenin nanocrystals suspension using two stabilizers, tween 80 and poloxamer 188 and optimizing the procedure by using different sonication time, power, and different concentration of stabilizers. The apigenin suspension was characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD), fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, saturated solubility and drug dissolution. Results:The prepared apigenin nanocrystals using tween 80 and poloxamer 188 as stabilizers showed high crystallinity than the pure drug powder with a particle size of 88.7 nm and 89 nm, for nanocrystals prepared by using polymeric and surfactant stabilizers and about 35 times increment in water solubility in room temperature at 37°C as well as about 31 times and about 41 times solubility increment in simulated gastric, and intestinal media and significantly higher dissolution rate (98% within 120 minutes) in comparison to the pure drug which showed only 20% release. Conclusion: This study provides the successful utilization and optimization of ultrasonication technique to prepare nanosized stable apigenin nanocrystals using surfactant and polymeric stabilizers with fast dissolution rate and better physical properties compared to other reported methods. It suggests the potential of utilizing these nanocrystals to prepare an oral formulation with a fast onset of action and bioavailability improvement.

54. Long Term Stability and In-vitro Release Study of the Telmisartan Complex included by Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in Directly Compressed Tablet Using Ion-pair Reversed Phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography
Kahtan J.Hasson, Mowafaq M. Ghareeb
Telmisartan is widely used angiotensin ІІ type antihypertensive drug. It poses a poor solubility in water which leads to low bioavailability in blood stream so that; this problem guides many scientists to work for improvement of Telmisartan dissolution. The objective of this work is improving stability and dissolution of Telmisartan tablets using a safe and potential solubilizing agent (hydroxy propyl betacyclodextrin) in comparison to sodium hydroxide or Meglumine. Ten formulas were prepared using cyclodextrin (CD) at different ratios with formula contains sodium hydroxide and another contains Meglumine by direct compression method. The prepared formulas were evaluated for friability, hardness, drug content, disintegration, dissolution, FTIR, and DSC, in addition to short term and long shelf stability study for three years utilizing developed ion pair HPLC technique. The results indicated as the ratio of cyclodextrin to drug increase the dissolution increased and best ratio is 3:1 and significantly (p<0.05) higher than other ratios and formula used NaOH or Meglumine with confirmed stability for three years in addition to that FTIR and DSC analysis indicate no chemical interaction was observed. It can be concluded that the prepared telmisartan tablet by simple direct method using safe inclusion complex is good candidate for easily prepared stable telmisartan tablet

55. Synthesis and Characterization of New Compounds Derived from Amoxicillin and Evaluation of its Biological Activity
Nawar J. Abdulrada, Saja A. Almsjmaie, Faqad T. Ahmed, Tareq K. Ibraheem, Ziad T. I. Alkayar
Amoxicillin 1 was treated with thiosemicarbazide and Phosphoryl chloride to obtain a new derivatives that contains 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety 2. Schiff bases compounds were synthesized by the reaction of compound 2 with different aldehydes such as benzaldehyde and some substituted Benzaldehyde; p-hydroy, p-Chloro, p-Nitro, p-Dimethylamino, p-Methyl, p-Methoxy, p-Ethoxy to give compounds 3a-h. The obtained compounds have tested towards gram -ve and gram +ve bacteria. The compound shows good to moderate result towards the bacteria.

56. Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles using Aqueous Extract of Beta Vulgaris and the Seed of Abrus precatorius
Manal. J. Mohammed, Waleed. K. Mahdi, Falih. H. Musa
Development of improved methods for the synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles are of high priority for the advancement of material science and technology. Herein, the biosynthesis of ZnO using hydrahelix of beta vulgaris and the seed of abrus precatorius as an aqueaus extracts adduced respectivily as stablizer and reductant reagent. The support are characterized by spectroscopic methods (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-vis)). The FTIR confirmed the presence of ZnO band. The Uv-visible showed absorption peak at corresponds to the ZnO nanostructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scaning electron microscopy (SEM), dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques are taken to investigation the size, structure and composition of synthesised ZnO nanocrystals. The XRD pattern matching that of (JCPDS-36-1451) card for ZnO confirmed the presence of pure ZnO NPs. SEM analysis displayed the shape of NPs to be hexagonal. The EDX revealed the composition of ZnO and a good peaks intensity are due to zinc and oxygen which indicated the formation of ZnO. The aqueous extract of beta vulgaris and the seed of abrus precatorius mediated ZnO showed various antimicrobial activity against (G-) negative of Escherichia Coli and (G+) positive Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal activity was also tested against Candida albicans fungi with all of these clinical pathogens compared to the standard drug, suggesting that the plant based synthesis of NPs can be an excellent strategy to develop versatite and eco-friendly biomedical product.

57. Comparison Between Conventional Gel and Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Gel of Zaltoprofen: Preparation and In-vitro/Ex-vivo Evaluation
Mays A. Al-Sarraf, Ahmed A. Hussein, Zaid A. Al-Sarraf
This study aimed to compare conventional gel and loaded nanostructured lipid carrier gel of zaltoprofen (ZPF) to be administered topically for treatment of some inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. ZPF-NLC dispersion was prepared by melt-emulsification and ultra-sonication technique, and the formula was composed of a 70:30 ratio of solid lipid (stearic acid) to liquid lipid (peppermint oil) in concentrations of surfactant (tween 80) and co-surfactant (PEG400) of 5% and 2.5% v/v, respectively. Three different gelling agents were used to convert the ZPF-NLC dispersion into ZPF-NLC gel. Six NLC gels were prepared from different gelling agents: sepineo, carbopol 396, and carbapol 934 in different concentrations. Many tests were done to select the optimum gel: determination of pH, spreadability, viscosity, and drug content in addition to the physical appearance assessment. Many further tests were done for the optimum gel: particle size (PS), polydispersity (PI), and zeta potential (ZP) in addition to in-vitro release and ex-vivo permeation studies of this optimum gel compared with conventional gel. A kinetic release study was also done to determine the mechanism of release. Among all the prepared formulas, formula 5 (F5) obtained from carbopol 934 as a gelling agent with a concentration of 1% is considered the optimum one. Its PS was in the nano-size range (209.2 ± 1.3 nm), and it was homogenously distributed (its poly-dispersible index was 0.231 ± 0.2), its pH was 6.38 ± 0.08, it showed good spredability of 6.3 ± 0.5 cm and viscosity of (51200 ± 2.6 at 50 rpm) with best drug content of 94.4 ± 0.2%. This gel showed good stability (its zeta potential equal to -41.32 ± 0.8 mV). Its in-vitro release profile showed prolonged release, and this would preserve drug concentration on the skin for about eight hours. It was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the conventional gel. Its ex-vivo permeability study in rat skin showed drug permeation of about 3.16 times higher than that of the conventional gel. Finally, The present study confirmed the potential of this technique for preparing the zaltoprofen as a topical gel showing the enhancement in its deposition in the skin compared to the conventional one.

58. Effects of Radiation on Mothers with Alpha-fetoprotein Levels Screening During Pregnancy at Al-Najaf Province, Iraq
Mohammed A. Assi, Ahmed Al-Obaidi, Layth A. Abdulkahaleq, Anwer Najih, Hussain S. Rebat, Assad J. Mohammed, Ali A. Sabbar, Narjis Salah, Asmaa Mousa
Background: Radiation exposure of a pregnant woman, whether by radiological medical tests such as X-rays or other means, is considered one of the threats that threaten the life of the pregnant woman and her child, as there is a near association between fetal anomalies and exposure to it. Aim: The study’s main objective is to assess the knowledge of expectant mothers in the age group of 15 to 45 years about the risks of exposure to radiation for them and their fetuses during pregnancy. Methods: The case-control study was conducted based on hospitals in two general hospitals and the primary care health sector in Najaf Governorate. The questionnaire included 150 pregnant women between the ages of 15 to 45 years. Result: In our study, 85 (56.66%) of all mothers were exposed to radiation. They needed detailed information on radiation exposures, hazards, and any fetal effects. Conclusion: Radiation’s effect on the fetus is dictated by the gestational age, and the amount of radiation received.

59. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Sulfonylhydrazide Derivatives of Etodolac
Mohammed K. Hadi, Maadh Q. Abdulkadir, Adul-Hafeedh H. Abdul-Wahab
A new series of Etodolac derivatives, aryl sulfonyl 2-(1,8-diethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-b]indol-1-yl) acetohydrazide derivatives (3a,3b and 3c) have been synthesized from etodolac hydrazide by using deferent sulfonyl chlorides in dichloromethane and triethyl amine. The anti-microbial effect of the new derivatives has been assessed in vitro against gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria and fungi activity. Compound (3c) showed the highest anti-microbial activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans compared to other compounds while compounds (3a) and (3b) were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. The structures of all final target sulfonyl-hydrazide derivatives gwere successfully synthesized and confirmed based on their spectral and analytical data. Target compounds were identified and characterized by their melting point, Thin Layer Chromatography, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and 1H-NMR.

60. Role of Saliva in Healing Process of Cutaneous Wounds
Muna A. Abdullah, Mohammed R. Ali, Bil Sheet, Ahmed Kamil, Hussam Essa
Oral sores heal more quickly and without the creation of scars that cutaneous lesions do. People generate a periodic version of histatin that has 1000 times the activity of linear histatin, making this periodic version a promising factor in the creation of a novel wound treatment. Recognizing the several functions salivary proteins play in wound healing makes saliva a viable source for the creation of novel tissue regeneration medicines. To assess the role of human saliva on healing process of cutaneous wounds of rabbits. Five rabbits were selected. Two cutaneous wounds (about 3 cm) were created on each rabbit thighs, one on the right thigh and other at the same position in the left one, the right wound washed by human saliva three times daily while the left one leaved to heal normally without managing it by saliva, the healing process was assessed clinically and compares was done between wounds that treated by saliva and that not. Wounds treated with saliva show fast healing, less complications, and early epithelization. Saliva plays a variety of roles that aid in the healing of wounds, making it a viable source for the creation of novel medicines for wound healing and tissue regeneration.

61. Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Insulin Resistance in Hyper Insulinemic and Euglycemic Persons
Muntadher H. Dawood, Taha H. Al-Yasiri
This experiment was conducted in the city of Amara in southern Iraq at Al-Sadr Hospital. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of administering Ascorbic Acid on 50 diabetic patients who had insulin resistance after they were diagnosed clinically of 25 patients were treated with Ascorbic acid at dose 500 mg twice a day for 12 days and the others 25 were considered as control. The study group demonstrated a significant decrease in the fasting patient’s blood sugar (F.B.S), insulin and fasting blood, and Insulin resistance at the end of 12 weeks (p 0.05) as compared to baseline measurements. The reduction in F.B.S, Fasting Insulin, and Insulin resistance was significantly reduced in the ascorbic acid group at week 12 of the study relative to the control group (p <0.05).

62. Evaluation of Hemoglobin level with Oxidative Stress Markers in the Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Preeclampsia
Mustafa H. Ghazi, Wurood M. Saleh, Talib A. H. Mousa
Objective: The relations between hemoglobin level with serum malondialdehyde, ceruloplasmin, vitamin C, aldosterone, albumin and urine albumin: creatinine ratio in hypertensive complication group of pregnancy. Design: Case-control study comparing the above parameters in the pregnancy-induced hyper tension, pre-eclamptic patients and healthy control. Setting: Al Samawa Maternity and Children Teaching Hospital, Samawah, Iraq Sample Size: Total 120 women divided into three categories. The first category C: 40 healthy women of which 20 women at the 2nd trimester (2C) and the other half at the 3rd trimester (3C). The second category PIH: 40 women with pregnancy-induced hyper tension, 20 of them at 2nd trimester (2PIH) and the other 20 at 3rd trimester (3PIH). The third category PE: includes 40 women with preeclampsia, out of which 20 cases at 2nd (2PE) and the other 20 at the 3rd trimester, (3PE). Main Outcome Measures: Hemoglobin (Hb), malondialdehyde (MDA), ceruloplasmin (Cp), albumin (Alb), creatinine (Creat), aldosterone (Ald) and vitamin C (Vit C), mean arterial pressure (MAP). Results: At high MAP of PIH and PE groups, the results revealed positive correlation between Hb level with serum MDA (R= 0.15), Vit. C (R= 0.16). Also found to be weak positive correlation between Hb and serum Cp (R= 0.09), Ald (R= 0.08) and Alb (R= 0.02). However, urine ACR found to be weak negatively correlated (R= -0.05) with the hemoglobin. This study demonstrated that Hb levels have significantly increased in the 2PE (11.68 g/dL) compared with both 2PIH (10.93 g/dL) and 2C (11.08 g/dL) groups. Serum MDA, Cp, and urine ACR levels have significantly increased in PE compared with PIH and C groups at the 2nd trimester (LSD of MDA, Cp, urine ACR = 0.62, 0.70, 3.76 respectively). The same results were found at the 3rd trimesters (LSD= 0.66, 0.71, 5.65, respectively). Conclusion: At high MAP of PIH and PE groups, a strong positive correlation between Hb level with serum MDA, Vitamin C, also, weak positive correlation between this blood parameter with serum Cp, Ald, and Alb were found. Urine ACR was found to be negatively correlated with Hb. Furthermore, increasing serum MDA, Cp, and urine ACR were detected in PE along with 2nd and 3rd trimesters.

63. Solubility Enhancement of Class II Drug Tenoxicam Utilizing Nanocrystallization Technique, Development, and Characterization
Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, Gailany I. Ouda, Furqan M. Abdulelah
Objective: This work was designed to prepare and characterize nanocrystals of poorly soluble class II drug tenoxicam (TNX) as an efficient, economical, and innovative technique for particle size reduction accompanied by optimized drug solubility dissolution while keeping the drug in crystalline form. Methods: A variety of stabilizing agents were screened for TNX nanocrystals stabilization. Acid-base neutralization and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) antisolvent methods were used for TNX nanocrystal preparation. Characterization used includes particle size distribution (PSD) and Polydispersity Index (PDI) using Malvern instrument, zeta potential, fourier transform infrared (FTIR), suspended particulate matter (SPM), DSC, and in-vitro release evaluation. Results: Cremophor-EL selected as stabilizing agent due to smaller particle size obtained of 884 nm + 12, good PDI value at 0.289 + 0.013. TNX/Cremophor-EL ratio was chosen at 10:6 with appropriate SI values concerning PSD and PDI at 0.94 and 0.87, respectively. TNX nanocrystals were prepared successfully after both methods with more efficient PDS and PDI after the antisolvent method (74 nm + 11 and 0.159 + 0.010). FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) reveal compatible use of cremophor-EL with TNX without any chemical interaction. SPM predict significant (P ≤ 0.05) size reduction from 1582 nm of coarse TNX into 103.5 nm + 7 and 364 nm + 11 for nanocrystals after both methods. In-vitro release profile demonstrates significant (p ≤ 0.05) faster dissolution than coarse TNX after the same duration with complete dissolution of TNX nanocrystals within 80, and 100 minutes. Conclusion: TNX nanocrystals were fabricated successfully using two different preparation methods with significant size reduction and optimized solubility.

64. Antimicrobial and Immunoprotective Potentials of Ruta chalpensis Methanolic Extract: In-vitro and In-vivo Studies
Mustafa S. Al-Salmani, Haider N. Yahya, Noor A. Oohayyed, Afnan A. Alsaeed
Plants used in traditional medicine contain a vast array of substances that can be used to treat chronic and infectious diseases. It was estimated that about 25% of all modern medicines are directly or indirectly derived from higher plants. Indeed, well into the twentieth century, much of the pharmacopeia of scientific medicine was derived from the herbal lore of native people. Ruta chalepensis are plants used in folkloric medicine as antispasmodics, digestive, and for intestinal gases. R. chalepensis, is a species of the family Rutaceae. The species is hairless, not glandular at the top, 30 to 80 cm with broad leaves. This study aimed to investigate the in-vitro (antimicrobial) and in-vivo (immunoprotective activity) of R. chalepensis methanolic extract. The Results indicated the plant’s capacity to inhibit microbial growth against Eschereshia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, and Candida albicans and stimulate immunoglobulin titer in mice damaged with CCL4 in comparison with positive and negative controls.

65. Investigation of the Effect of Variables Component on the Preparation and In-vitro Evaluation of Lacidipine as an Oral Nanoemulsion Dosage Form
Rajaa A. Dahash, Nawal A. Rajab, Yasser Q. Almajidi
Nanoemulsion (NE) is one of the prevalent techniques that has been utilized to take care of the solvency issues of numerous drugs. Lacidipine (LCDP) is a calcium-channel blocker with low water solubility and low bioavailability. LCDP was planned as a NE using oleic acid as an oil phase, tween 80 and tween 60 as surfactants and ethanol as a co-surfactant. Nine equations were readied, and various tests performed to ensure the stability of the prepared NEs, for example, thermodynamic stability, droplets size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, conductivity measurements, determination of pH, transmittance percentage (%T), drug content estimation, filter paper test, dilution test, viscosity measurements and drug release by in-vitro study. The selected formula exposed to advance examination which is Atomic force microscope (AFM). Results of characterization showed that LCDP NE (F-4) using oleic acid, tween 80, ethanol and DDW in a ratio of (10:60:30) was selected as the best formula, since it have excellent thermodynamic stability with a droplets size of 16.56 nm, low PDI 0.105 , zeta potential (-7.80 mV), efficient electrical conductivity 0.163 ms/cm, with acceptable pH value (5.5), high percentages of transmittance (99.768), higher percent of drug content (99.23%), rapid spreadability of over filter papers,dilution test revealed the high physical stability of the LCDP NE with acceptable viscosity, and complete release of the drug after (30 minutes) with significantly higher (p < 0.05) dissolution rate in comparison with pure drug powder. The Atomic force microscope (AFM) of the selected formula (F-4) confirmed spherical small particle size without aggregation.

66. Phytochemical Screening and Isolation of New Compounds
Nour R. Ismail, Enas J. Kadhim
Parthenocissus quinquefolia L. belongs to the Vitaceae family (grape family), in Iraq is known as (Makhaleb Al-Kett). Biologically act as anti-oxidant, antimicrobial /antibacterial, antidiabetic, and others. Phytochemically it’s not fully investigated. The named isolated secondary metabolites were limited in few groups of compounds (stilbenes, flavonoids, fatty acids, and Triterpenes); due to this fact, this study aimed to screen the phytochemicals of the plant and try to isolate and identify new secondary metabolites. 400 gm soxhlet with 85% ethanol until complete exhaustion, tested by preliminary methods for the phytochemical contents then partitioned to analyze the petroleum ether fraction (by high-performance liquid chromatography), chloroform, and n-Butanol fractions analyzed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate N1, N2, and N3 compounds. The three compounds were identified by attenuated total reflection – fourier transforms infrared spectra (ATR-FTIR) and by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Preliminary tests indicate inclusion of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenes, triterpenes, anthraquinones, saponins, and tannins in the plant extract. The petroleum ether fraction contain beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, N1 compound identified as a tropane glycosidic alkaloid, N2 identified as Sennoside C, and N3 compound confirmed as Rutin.

67. Synthesis and Identification of Azo Disperse Dye Derived from 4-Aminoantipyrine and Their Applications to Determine Some Drugs
Rafid Q. Kmal, Ali M. Mohamed, Aseel M. Aljeboree, Layth S. Jasim, Ayad F. Alkaim
Background: Azo dyes exemplify the most production volume of the chemistry dye this day, and their proportional significance might even rise in the future. regularly azo dyes utilized to applications in the pharmaceutical, food, paper.cosmetics, textile and leather industries. 4-Aminoantipyrine (AAP) is usually utilized of the synthesis of azo dye and in the pharmaceutical industry, in experiments biochemical and in environmental monitoring. 4AAP as an aromatic contaminant in the environment poses a great threat to human health. Methods: Synthesis of azo dye by mixture from 10 mL of HCl, (10 mL) DW and 4-Aminoantipyrine (2.0 g, 0.00984 mol) was collected in to 250 elementary flask and mixturing was cooling in to ice bath to 0oC. Then (0.676 g, 0.00984 mol) sodium nitrate in (5 mL) DW and adding dropwise in to mixture by kept the temperature at 0°C. A spectrophotometric, simple, Sensitive, accurate, and low-cost way have been proposed for the estimation of 4-amenoantypyren (4AAP) The way is based on the Deozonztion reaction of drug 4-amenoantypyren (4AAP) by diphenylamine in acid medium, and then reacts by diphenylamine to give a complex colored at (0oC) which produce a product having maximum absorption at 555 nm. Results: The data find that the order of addition, 4AAp –Acid – diphenylamine, gave the best sensitivity and absorbance; the best acid was (1N) hydrochloric acid requiring for emerging the product color and increase its stability. That compound, at 25°C, gave a best absorbance and was carefully chosen for further use in this study. Conclusion: The method used to synthesize azo dye is an easy, fast, and inexpensive method and gives high sensitivity and absorbency. Also, it was found that the color of the dye is stable and stable at room temperature.

68. Extraction and Purification of Lipopolysaccharides from Staphylococcus aureus and Their Use to Prepare New Technique
Russul A. Hassan,* Ali A. A. Mahdi
In this study, we included the production of a new technique for diagnosing Staphylococcus aureus. This study included 16 blood samples from patients infected with S. aureus, in addition to 10 samples for a healthy individual (a control). Patients attended AL-Dowaly Private Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq from January 2021 to February 2021. All infections were diagnosed by consultant medical staff at the hospital using several tests, including Vitek. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted and purified from S. aureus using a chromatography device after measuring tubes with a spectrophotometer to obtain tubes containing large amounts of bacterial components (antigens). The samples were examined using the new technique and using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The results of the samples were compared with the use of the two techniques, and the results were close indicating infection with S. aureus. The two technologies were of high sensitivity and specialization. However, the new technique was of higher sensitivity than the ELISA technique. The reason is that light transmittance through the samples as the wavelength used in the method of working for the ELISA technology is 450 nanometers while the wavelength used in the new technique is 600 nm Also, it was easier, did not require a long time in the way of work, was inexpensive, and gave higher results than the ELISA technique.

69. Estimation of Ceruloplasmin Activities and Some Biochemical Parameters in Iraqi Patients with Cholelithiasis
Shaimaa Y. Nasrallah, Saba Z. Hussein
Cholelithiasis is known as a presence or formation of gallstones in the bile duct, which is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal tract diseases. Three times more likely to develop this disease was in female than male. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the changes in Cp activities (oxidase and ferroxidase) and lipid profile in sera of cholelithiasis patients compared to healthy subjects matched in age and gender. The study was conducted on 113 individuals divided into two groups: 63 patients with Cholelithiasis (PM 26 male and PF 37 female), and 50 healthy persons as a control group (CM 25 male and CF 25 female). The Cp oxidase and ferroxidase activities were measured by spectrophotometry; serum total protein (TP), copper (Cu) and lipid profile were measured by available commercial kits. The results were indicated no significant difference in TP levels in all studied groups. A high significant increase in Cp oxidase and ferroxidase activities in patients groups (PF & PM) compared with controls (CF & CM), while no significant differences between PF and PM in Cp oxidase activity with significant differences in Cp ferroxidase activity. Furthermore, high significant increase found in Cu concentration in PF than CF and significant increase in PM than CM as well as no significant differences between PF and PM. High significant increase found in Technetium (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL in patients groups (PF and PM) as compared to their corresponding control groups (CF and CM) with significant decrease in HDL. No significant differences reported in TC, TG, HDL, LDL & VLDL between PF and PM groups. In conclusion, cholelithiasis was associated with abnormal lipid profile as well as the high oxidase and ferroxidase activity of Cp may be considered as a risk factor and development the gallstone.

70. Determination of Endothelin-1 after Treatment with Rosuvastatin in Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats
Raghad Luay, Yassir Mustafa, Huda Jaber
Aim of the study: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between rosuvastatin and endothelin-1 on endothelium and their relation to oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male wister rats are used in this research, their age about 1 month Thegrouping which are: group 1/ rats receiving normal diet pellets, group 2/ Dyslipidemic rat of high-fat diet group 3/ hyperlipidemic rats with Rosuvastain dose (0.86 mg) Group 4/ hyperlipidemic rats with Rosuvastain dose (1.29 mg), group 5/ hyperlipidemic rats with Rosuvastain dose (1.72 mg). Experiment duration was 10 weeks from induction of dyslipidemia until the end of treatment. Endothelin-1 levels were measured by ELISA technique. Results: Rosuvastatin decreases the endothelin-1 level in all treated groups (G3,G4,G5) while increases the level of endothelin-1 in control positive (dyslipidemia G2) so the results of endothelin levels are significant increases (p < 0.05) between control negative group 1 (63.08 ± 9.172) and control positive dyslipidemia group 2 (89.54 ± 39.652) and no significant differences between rosuvastatin groups (G3,G4,G5). Conclusion: The rosuvatatin improved the endothelium of blood vessel and reduced the oxidative stress that generated due to the hyperlipidemia.

71. Design, Preparation, and In-vitro Evaluation of Novel Ocular Antifungal Nanoemulsion Using Posaconazole as a Model Drug
Sanarya T. Nasser, Alaa A. Abdulrassol, Mowafaq M. Ghareeb
Fungal eye infection is considered extremely rare and can be very serious. This study aims to prepare and evaluate eye drop in nano-emulsion form to treat fungal keratitis resistant to old-type anti-fungal drugs. Posaconazole is an anti-fungal drug its mechanism is deemed to be extremely similar to that of other anti-fungal agents of the azole. Depending on drug solubility results in nano-emulsion composition, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed and nano-emulsion region detected that help to prepare 3 posaconazole nano-emulsion formulas by using isopropyl myristate as oil mixed with different ratios of surfactant labrasol) and co-surfactant transcutol p in 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 ratios. All the prepared formulas subjected to different characterization including accelerated physical stability study, light transmittance measurement, droplet size and polydispersity index determination, Zeta potential measurement, pH evaluation, and estimation of drug content. Selected formula (F2) which consist of (4%c IPM oil, 36% of (2:1 labrasol:transcutol – p) as s-mix ratio, 59% DW and 1% POZ), shows a good drug release (92.17%), drug content equal to (98.05 ± 0.012) and its particle size, PDI and zeta potential was 15.3 nm, 0.154 and 53.72 Mv, respectivly. So it was selected as the optimum nano-emulsion formula to be used as an ocular dosage form, and it undergoes further investigation. Osmolarity, permeability, irritation and microbiological studies were done, and results of all these studies indicating that F2 was nonirritant, permeable and gave a significant improvement in antimicrobial activity. The study concluded that nano-emulsion is considered an advance technique for the ocular preparation and improves solubility and permeability of insufficient water-soluble medications through the cornea.

72. Study the Effect of Some Drugs on The Serotonin Hormone and Liver Tissue in Male Rats
Raghad H. H. Al-Abbasi, Muneef S. Ahmed, Ayad H. Ibraheem
Serotonin or 5-Hydroxytryptamine is a neurotransmitter that is synthesized from the transformation of the amino acid Tryptophan. It is found in plants and animals and is involved in many physiological processes, its chemical formula is C10H12N2O, and 90% of the total serotonin in the human body can be found in the digestive system and platelets. It is synthesized in the brain’s nerve cells; serotonin is an essential neurotransmitter for the human nervous system. This study was conducted to study the negative effects of tramadol, pseudoephedrine, and codeine phosphate on the serotonin hormone in adult Albino rats, as this study used 24 animals. Of the male rats, which were divided randomly into four groups, each group included 6 animals, which is the Control group that was given regular drinking water and food daily, and the group of rats treated with tramadol at a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight for a period of 30 days, group of rats treated with pseudoephedrine at a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight for a period of 30 days, group of rats treated with drug codeine phosphate at a dose of 10 mg/Kg of body weight for a period of 30 days, the animals were dosed with drugs by the oropharyngeal tube at a dose of 1-mL and after the end of the experiment period 30 days, the animals were starved for 12 hours and then anesthetized with chloroform, then blood samples were withdrawn from the heart Directly by the cardiac heart puncture method, 5-6 mL of blood was drawn and placed in test tubes devoid of anticoagulant, then left for 15 minutes at laboratory temperature, after which the serum was separated by a centrifuge at a speed of 3000 cycles/min for a period of 15 minutes, serum was divided in Eppendorf tubes and kept at -20°C until the examination was performed, liver samples were taken and fixed in 10% formalin until histological sections were made.

73. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of New Heterocyclic Compounds Derivatives from Thiazole Derivative
Shaimaa A. Bahjat
This study involves the synthesis of new heterocycle compounds in many steps. The first is to react between 2-Amino-5-nitrothiazole with salicylaldehyde at 0oC and acid media to form azo derivative,1 then react (1) with 4-hydroxyacetophenone to get chalcone derivative (2). Third step involve react (2) with (hydrazine hydrate, phenylhydrazine, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, urea, thiourea, ethyl cyanoacetate, malononitrile, guanidine) to form pyrazole derivatives, isoxazole derivative,6 oxazine derivative, thiazine derivative, pyridine derivatives. All these compounds were diagnosed by FT-IR spectrum, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, subsequent Rf -TLC reaction, and measurement liquefaction point. Then we studied the biological action for eleven compounds towards two kinds of microorganisms.

74. Preparation and Evaluation of Microneedles-mediated Transdermal Delivery of Montelukast Sodium Nanoparticles
Nawar M. Toma, Alaa A. Abdulrasool
The objective of this study is to deliver montelukast sodium (MONT) transdermally; MONT is leukotriene receptor antagonist widely used for asthma prophylaxis, being highly labile compound constrains its formulation as liquid dosage form, in this study, transdermal delivery of montelukast sodium was made feasible by utilizing dissolving microneedles loaded with MONT polymeric nanoparticles. Polymeric nanoparticles of MONT were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using Eudragit L100 as a polymeric matrix, and evaluated in terms of physical properties, and in-vitro release. Four formulas of dissolving microneedles loaded with polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated using different water-soluble polymers by micro-molding method; moreover, morphological, mechanical strength and insertion properties of the prepared needles were studied. The polymeric nanoparticles have a size of 190.7 ± 10.15 nm with polydispersity index of 0.15 ± 0.012 and entrapment efficiency of 94.9 ± 7.6%, furthermore complete drug release has occurred within 4 hours using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as stabilizer. Among different polymers used to prepare dissolving microneedles formulas, MN1 prepared from PVA and MN4 prepared from Gantrez S97 showed excellent mechanical strength, sufficiently enough to pierce Parafilm, a widely used human skin simulant. The histological study revealed no pathological changes associated with penetration of the needles; additionally, the ex-vivo permeation study through abdominal rat skin proved the penetration enhancing effect of microneedles as the permeation increased by 5.5 folds compared with the permeation of polymeric nanoparticles dispersion through bare skin. Polymeric nanoparticles of MONT were successfully prepared and loaded within dissolving microneedles of sufficient mechanical strength to penetrate the stratum corneum and enhance the amount permeated through it to induce systemic effect transdermally.

75. Oral Liquid Self-nanoemulsion of Nebivolol: Formulation and In-Vitro Characterization for Dissolution Rate Enhancement
Lubna A. Sabri,* Ahmed A. Hussein
Nebivolol is a unique selective beta-blocker used for the treatment of several chronic cardiovascular diseases. It has poor solubility with low bioavailability (12%). Accordingly, this study improved nebivolol dissolution performance, and hence its oral bioavailability by preparation as self-nanoemulsion (SNE). Method: Saturation solubility in various semisynthetic oils and emulsification efficiency were performed to select proper SNE vehicle combination. Twelve formulas were prepared by varying the proportion of selected mixture. Moreover, proper and adequate in-vitro characterization tests were conducted to select the best formula. Results: The obtained results showed that imwitor 988, cremophor-EL, and propylene glycol (PG) mixture was provided satisfactory nanoemulsion region upon titration with water to be further loaded with lipophilic drugs. The prepared formulas with good stability under stressful conditions revealed a dramatically higher drug releasing rate than a plain drug suspension. The optimum nebivolol SNE could be attained at 10% imwitor:45% cremophor:45% PG w/w combination. This formula (A1) could rapidly form nanoemulsion under gentle agitation with 20.3nm ± 0.3 droplets size and polydispersibility index 0.196 ± 0.01, as confirmed by TEM. It also revealed three times enhancement in drug-releasing rate compared to pure nebivolol. Conclusion: Thus, the developed formula can be utilized as a nanocarrier for oral delivery of nebivolol with good solubilization capacity, higher dissolution rate, and simple manufacturing requirements.

76. Hydrotropy: Recent Advancements in Enhancement of Drug Solubility and Formulation Development
Azhar D. Khan, Mohammad Tabish, Rahul Kaushik, Vasundhara Saxena, Payal Kesharwani, Seema Gupta, Mohammad N. Alam, Vikas Sharma
Solubility can be defined as the phenomenon of dissolving a solute in a solvent to prepare a homogenous system. It is essential to get a required drug concentration in plasma to get a desired pharmacological response. More than 40% of new chemical entities developed by the pharmaceutical industry are insoluble in water practically. Low plasma concentration can be a challenge for formulation scientists to deliver drugs with low aqueous solubility. This, in turn, will affect the dissolution process and, lastly, the bioavailability of drug molecules. Dissolution may be a rate-limiting step for Bio Pharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II and IV drugs. Several techniques to enhance solubility like particle size reduction, micro-ionization, nano-ionization, solid dispersion, complexation, pH adjustment, hydrotropy etc. have been studied and successfully applied for the last decade. Solubility enhancement is done by hydrotropy deals using anionic organic salts (hydrotropic agents) to improve the solubility of poorly soluble solutes by forming weak interactions. This technique possesses various advantages like it is highly selective, non-flammable, environment-friendly, and cost-effective. Hydrotropic agents may act as drug carriers. Along these can be used in formulation development for oral, parenteral, and topical use. This review focuses on using hydrotropy as a solubility enhancement technique through a concise overview, mechanism, and different advancements towards drug delivery.

77. Use of the Erbium Yag Laser in the Treatment of Acne Scar for Male Patients
Hanaa H. Kadhim, Ali K. Mohsin, Murtadha H. Raheem
Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser wavelength (2940 nm) was used to treat acne scars to a different type. There are many different characteristics related to the skin layer, such as the stimulation of the skin. The presented article discusses the technical aspects of the utilization of the Er:YAG laser, its preferential utilization has been most common in the dermatology areas, and the possible and side effects and hazards. Below are the photographs of the patients under this study before and after Er:YAG acne scar skin resurfacing. All of the patients had mixed trophic acne scar types, including the boxcar, ice pick, and rolling scars, even though some certain type is predominating, which is why it is utilized to classify patients in accordance. The difference in the protocols of treatment in addition to the scales of the evaluation that are utilized for the determination of the acne scarring severity in numerous clinical trials have made it difficult comparing the effectiveness of the variety of the fractional lasers that exist for treating the acne scars. In addition to that, studies that investigate the role of Erbium:YAG laser as the main choice in treating the atrophic acne scars are quite limited, which included 6 patient aged 18–25 years with the atrophic facial acne scars with Er:YAG laser. Acne scarring is one of the common dermatological conditions, causing cosmetic and psychological problems.

78. Synthesis and In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity Study of Some New Azoles Derivatives as Sulfa Drugs
Hameed A. Shaalan, Riyadh J. Nahi
In the current work, new azole derivatives were synthesized as sulfa drugs. The key starting material 4-(4-(ethoxycarbonyl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)benzene sulfonic acid 1a was synthesized via 1,3-diplar cycloaddition of 4-azidobenzene sulfonic acid with ethyl acetoacetate in the presence of trimethylamine. Followed by reaction with hydrazine hydrate to give the corresponding hydrazide derivative 1b that was cyclized in the presence of carbon disulfide and potassium hydroxide (KOH) to construct the target 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring system 1c. In addition, compound 1b was reacted with phenylthioisocyanate to give compound 1d that was cyclized in the presence of basic and acidic conditions to construct 1,2,4-triazole 1e and 1,3,4-thiadiazole 1f ring systems, respectively. Moreover, the radicals scavenging ability of all the synthesized compounds against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was tested in vitro to investigate their antioxidant activity. Results revealed that the most synthesized compounds have a promising scavenging property.

79. A Novel Approach in Removing of Maxillary Teeth
Haydar M. Salih
Background: Pain-free operational is an additional advantage to the patient and assists the dentist in managing the patient in a peaceful, slow style. Injection in the palate is more painful of entirely oral cavity injections due to its abundant nervous supply and the tight binding of the palatal mucosa to its underlying periosteum. Aim: This current research aimed to assess the efficacy of 2% lidocaine and 1:80,000 epinephrine with buccal vestibular infiltration injections without palatal infiltration injections compared with the buccal vestibular infiltration injections with palatal infiltration injections. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the College of Dentistry at the Iraqi university through 2021. The study sample included 100 patients, age range from 17 years old to 69, and all Iraqi nationality. There were 23 females and 77 males, with the diagnosis for any cases that indicated for extraction (necrotic pulp, chronic pulpitis etc.). It was splinted into two groups group 1 (50 patients, 11 female, and 39 male), which receive only full cartilage (1.8 mL) labial/buccal anesthesia injection and waiting for 8 minutes before extraction and didn’t obtain palatal injection in the palate for removal of long-lasting teeth of maxillary and group 2 (50 patients, 12 female, and 38 male) which receives labial/buccal and palatal anesthesia for extraction of permanent maxillary teeth. All patients receive local anesthesia 1.8 mL carpule lidocaine local anesthetic agent concentration 2% with epinephrine vasoconstrictor concentration 1:80,000. Results: In this study, deposition of lidocaine HCl to the buccal vestibule and 8-min latency period without palatal injection showed similar statistical results with using palatal injection n extraction of permanent maxillary teeth. Conclusion: Pain control during a surgical procedure is one of the most important factors for reducing the fear and anxiety associated with a dental procedure. This approach reduces the discomfort and can be used as an alternative to palatal infiltration as the LA can diffuse through tissues more efficiently and give clinicians a chance to avoid painful palatal injections. It is recommended to use in all cases of uncomplicated maxillary exodontia to improve the patient’s experience.

80. Effect of Alcoholic Extract, Polyphenol, Tannin, and Flavonoid of Cynomorium coccineum L Plant on Pathogenic Bacteria: A Comparison Study
Ahmed A. Dhahir, Husam M. Kredy
Cynomorium coccineum L is one of the plants belonging to the family of Balanophoraceae. The antibacterial activity was evaluated for the groups of compounds isolated from the C. coccineum L plant. At the beginning for the alcoholic extract, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids were extracted from the plant with a yield of (10.211%w/w, 8.6%w/w, 6.4%w/w, 1.2%w/w) respectively. The activity of these groups was evaluated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Results showed that the four isolated groups significantly differed at p ≤ 0.05 between C. coccineum L extract concentration and control for (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Streptococcus agalactiae) as these isolated groups demonstrated efficacy against bacteria in multiple concentrations.

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