1. Analysis of Molecular Modeling and Molecular Docking of Beta-glucanase from Metagenomic Expression Library as Candida
Kurniawati Maris, Amak Y. E. Prasetyo, Subandi, Suharti
Overgrowth of Candida
tends to produce high levels of secondary metabolites affecting the immersion of infectious and degenerative diseases. Biofilm’s existence as a virulence factor of Candida
makes it challenging to overcome causing multidrug-resistant issues. Studies on the effectiveness of Candida
antibiofilm drug candidates should be supported by data related to model structure and molecular interaction within the eradication process of biofilm through homology modeling and in-silico
docking. This study aims to determine molecular interactions between 1,3-β-glucanase Achatina fulica
in which the substrate is, through homology modeling and docking studies within the biofilm matrix eradication process. The alignment results show that mkafGlu1 is a new representative of the Glycoside Hydrolase 16 family (GH16) with EC 184.108.40.206. MKAFGlu1 enzymes are 1,3-1,6-β-glucanase able to cleave 1,3-β- dan 1,6-β-glycosidic bonds. This in-silico
docking study also shows that mkafGlu1 has high specificity towards laminarin (substrate 1,3-1,6-β-glucanase) and that the enzyme of MKAFGlu1 works based on a retention mechanism in its reaction to the substrate. The result of the recombinant enzyme of 1,3-β-glucanase novel genes can hydrolyze the substrate of 1,3-β-glucan as one of the biofilm matrix components, opening up an opportunity for new medicine as an antibiofilm candidate.
2. Isolation, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Plumbago indica
Gayatri Khosla, Vikram Sharma, Vikesh K. Shukla
The studies aimed to evaluate the preliminary parameter and Antioxidant potential of Plumbago indica
. Standardization using various analytical techniques was also performed. P. indica
was collected and studied for preliminary analysis and antioxidant activity and analyzed using the standard protocol using different analytical techniques. DPPH free radical scavenging activity was used to assess the antioxidant potential. The microscopy indicated the presence of periderm, cork and cortex, sclereids, cork, secondary xylem and medullary rays bordered pitted vessel, calcium oxalate crystal, starch grain, and cork with resin cell. The total ash, moisture, water-soluble, acid soluble ash, water soluble extractive and the alcohol soluble extractive value was 1.388, 5.146, 0.674, 0.19, 3.88, 3.6%, respectively. The presence of variety of phytoconstituents was discovered during phytochemical analysis. The total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of the ethanolic and hydroalcoholic extract was 533.83 and 46.667 mg/gm, respectively and 132.66 and 219.00 mg/gm, respectively. The thin-layer chromatography (TLC), fluorescence in suspension hybridisation (FLASH), ultraviolet (UV), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), analysis illustrated the presence of Plumbagin and antioxidant activities because of its bioactive compounds. The ethanolic extract gives higher antioxidant potential by DDPH free radical scavenging activity. The findings of this study may be useful in establishing botanical and analytical grades for the root of P. indica.
3. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New Derivatives of Thiazolidine and Oxazepine-Linked to Pyridine Moieties
Mohaned M. Sahb, Zeina M. Kadam
This research includes reaction and condensation between substituted 4-aminopyridine and 4-(N, N-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde) to produce Schiff base derivative (3), the compound (3) was selected to react with a different compound such as Thioglycolic acid, Phthalic anhydride, and maleic anhydride, to produced new ring of Thiazolidine derivatives and oxazepine derivatives structures (4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12), respectively. The final compound was characterized the structure by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, H-Nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) in addition to the Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen (CHN) analyzer. Biological activity has been considered for the final structures and achievements of multi drugs.
4. Decolorization of Rhodamine B Dye by Hydeogel Nanocomposite: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies
Layth S Jasim, Aseel M Aljeboree, Ayad F. Alkaim, Mohammed B. Alqaraguly, Dunia A. Khudhair, Usama S. Altimari, Firas H. Abdulrazzak
Rhodamine B is used extensively in textile dyes and agricultural pesticides as fish pests. Hydrogel is a type of sorption technique used as a sorbent. As of now, adsorption is viewed as a cost-effective method that may be used as an alternative to traditional contamination treatment methods. Several techniques were utilized to determine the surface characteristics before and after the adsorption method, like fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The effect parameter of the adsorption method was studied, such as the effect of equilibrium time and weight. The data showed that the best removal percentage was (E%=96.546%) and adsorption capacity (188.0 mg/g) in the same order. Thermodynamic factor studies have shown that the reaction is spontaneous, exothermic, and convenient. The sorption isotherm of Rhodamine B onto sodium alginate-g-poly (acrylic acid)/GO composite hydrogel was analyzed utilizing two models First order and second order. The second order was the poorest in a fit of the liner curve and the better.
5. Removal of Rose Bengal Dye from Aqueous Solution using Low Cost (SA-g-PAAc) Hydrogel: Equilibrium and Kinetic Study
Nadher D Radia, Ahmed B. Mahdi, Ghufran A. Mohammed, Abeer Sajid, Usama S. Altimari, Marwah A. Shams, Aseel M. Aljeboree, Firas H. Abdulrazzak
Hydrogels are considered one of the most important polymers, with very low economic costs for treating dyes from an aqueous solution. In this study, sodium alginate (SA), a kind of polysaccharide, and acrylic acid is an organic compound, N’-Methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as a cross-linked agent, were used to prepare the hydrogel by free radical method. Studies have shown that sodium lignite-based nano-hydrogel is environmentally friendly, more cost-effective and highly efficient in remove dye in aqueous solution. The hydrogel adsorption characteristic was analyzed via
scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data appear that the surface contains many pores and has a sponge-like structure. also the results showed that the hydrogel is the XRD of (SA-g-PAAc) a wide band at 2θ = 20.52° within the calculated d = 4.21A°. Study isotherm adsorption the highest (R²=0.9903) related to the isotherm Freundlich and Kinetic model the adsorption process of Rose Bengal dye on the SA-g-PAAc hydrogel follows a second model.
6. Frequency of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations among Iraqi Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
Sanaa Alizi, Tagreed A. Kareem, Thamer A. Hussein, Ahmed Muaed
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations are actually currently utilized as genetic biomarkers for focused lung carcinoma treatment. Unfortunately, there is minimal data on Iraq’s proportion of mutations in EGFR gene. The current study’s objective is to find the mutations prevalence of EGFR gene mutations and the dominant EGFR mutations in patients with lung carcinoma type non-small cell (NSCLC) from Iraq. Methods:
On tissues taken from paraffin-embedded blocks of NSCLC patients, RT-PCR was performed to investigate the mutations in EGFR gene. Results:
This study involved 234 paraffin tissue blocks of NSCLC patients in addition to17 paraffin tissue blocks with invalid results, although it was tested more than three times. This study was used Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to determine mutations in EGFR gene. Forty-seven out of 234 patients had an EGFR mutation (20%). The most prevalent anomaly found in exon19 Del (70.3%) followed by L 858 R (15%). High mutations were found among two age groups (60–69) and 70–79 which suggest increased mutation among old ages when compared with young people. However, no significant difference between EGFR mutation status and sex or age status was found. Conclusion:
The prevalence of EGFR mutation among Iraqi patients is 20% which is compatible with a percentage of cases documented in Asian populations and the most prevalent EGFR mutant in Iraq cases is the EX19del.
7. Ibuprofen Nanoemulsion as a Promising Drug Delivery Strategy
Smita Bedis, Priydarshani Kamble
Phenyl propionic acid derivative drug Ibuprofen was selected for the study’s model medication. It is hypothesized that nanoemulsion might be a useful medication delivery method for enhancing oral absorption. According to the findings, the nanoemulsion formulation greatly enhanced the drug’s anti-inflammatory capabilities when compared to the Ibuprofen solution. Ibuprofen’s solubility and oral bioavailability are enhanced using nanoemulsion technology. To evaluate and pinpoint nanoemulsion area’s are made of glycerol, olive oil, and various sucrose esters, a pseudo ternary phase diagram was created (co-surfactant). Following the discovery of such a nanoemulsion zone, a colloidal system was created to serve as an ibuprofen carrier system. Droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and morphological measurements were made to determine the characteristics of the chosen nanoemulsion (NE) area.
8. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Few New Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Nicotinic Acid
Abbas H. Sakhil, Rasmia M. Rumez
New schiff bases series (VIII) a-e and 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives (IX) a-e containing the 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiazazole rings were synthesized and screening their biological activities. These compounds were identified via
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, some via
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and mass spectra. The biological results indicated that all of these compounds did not reveal antibacterial effectiveness against (Escherichia coli
species) (G-). Some of these compounds showed moderate antibacterial activity against (Staphylococcus aureus
, and Staphylococcus epidermidis
) (G+), and all compounds exhibited moderate activity against Candida albicans
9. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Placenta of Iraqi Women Complicated with Hypertensive Disorder
Estabraq A. Mahmoud
During pregnancy, high blood pressure disorder is the most common medical complication in pregnancy. It is the foremost cause of maternal mortality and perinatal diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects the growth of vascular endothelial cells, existence, and multiplying, which are known to be expressed in the human placenta. This study aimed to identify the expression VEGF in the placenta of hypertension and normotensive women. In this study, a cross-sectional study from november 2019 to February 2020. A total of 100 placentae involved 50 hypertensive cases and 50 normotensive groups were assessed. VEGF-A expression in two placentas groups was evaluated by immunohistochemistry techniques. Strong and moderate VEGF expression was seen in syncytiotrophoblasts, stromal and endothelial cells of hypertensive cases, while not seen in hypertensive cases. There were statistically significant differences in VEGF-A expression between hypertensive cases and normotensive group. In conclusion, VEGF-A expression was significantly increased in each of syncytiotrophoblasts, stroma and endothelial cells in the placenta of hypertensive cases, and it could be used to predict the development of hypertension.
10. Formulation and Evaluation of Buccoadhesive Tablets of Diltiazem Hydrochloride
Ashish Suttee, Pavani S
Calcium channel blocker diltiazem hydrochloride is used to treat hypertension and angina. The study aimed to develop and evaluate bioadhesive buccal tablets that would bypass hepatic metabolism and boost bioavailability. With the use of bioadhesive polymers like kondagogu gum and guar gum in various concentrations, the direct compression method was used to manufacture buccal tablets. Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of the physicochemical compatibility of the active ingredient and excipients demonstrates that the excipients are compatible with the active component. Permeation across porcine buccal mucosa, moisture absorbance, in-vitro
drug release, surface pH, and swelling index were all tested on the developed tablets. The best formulation, which contained a combination of kondagogu gum and guar gum (F8), was the most effective, showing a flux of 208.46 μg hr-1
11. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Precipitation Method against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Ayat E. Rashid, Mais E. Ahmed, Mazin K. Hamid
A novel technique for nanoparticles with a chemical method and impact for resistance bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA), UV-visible analysis confirmed the by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction pattern estimation antimicrobial excellent antibacterial activity against MRSA (with zone of inhibition of 11 ± 02 mm , 9 ± 01 mm,8 ± 03 mm and 7.5 ± 02 mm and 6.5 ± 02 mm) at different concentrations (0.5 ,0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.03125) mg/ml while good activity was 16 ± 03 mm at 17 ± 02 mm zone at 0.25, 0.125 mg/mL, respectively. The increase in microorganism resistance to antibiotics a couple of have caused Antimicrobial factors are widely recognized (ZnO NPs) and are less toxic and biological safety . evaluation of MRSA by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.03125) mg/Ml of ZnO NPs. This research aims to study zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesis and antibacterial. In vivo
evaluation precipitation method of cytotoxicity was determined WRL68 normal A375 cells.
12. Effects of Hydrolytic and Oxidizing Agents on the Properties of Low-Density Polyethylene/Halloysite Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications
K. AbdulKadir, Abdulkader. M. Alakrach
Low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites reinforced with natural halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were synthesized and evaluated as a prospective material for biomedical applications via in vitro biostability studies in this work. A twin-screw extruder machine was used to fabricate the examined LDPE and LDPE/HNTs nanocomposites (NCs), followed by in vitro treatment of the prepared NCs via immersion in oxidizing & hydrolytic chemicals for four weeks at 37°C. The materials’ in vitro mechanical characteristics were evaluated under these harsh conditions. The analysis showed that the LDPE with 3 wt% HNTs exhibited the best nanofiller dispersion characteristics. This NC also presented smoother surface degradation characteristics compared to the plain LDPE and other LDPE NCs. Furthermore, as compared to plain LDPE, the LDPE NCs showed enhanced mechanical capabilities, and these qualities were less impacted by the in vitro conditions. The introduction of 3 wt% HNTs into the LDPE gave the best in vitro mechanical characteristics. Furthermore, the existence of a better-scattered nanotube structure was thought to offer a more sinuous pathway for the propagation of H2O and the oxidants, thereby reducing their penetration across the matrix chains. Hence, the kinetics of disintegration inside the LDPE molecular chains were slower, resulting in improved biostability.
13. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Explore the Potential Mechanism of Ficus religiosa
against Alzheimer’s Disease
Fernandes Zeena, Kulkarni D. Sahana, K S Dattatreya
Background: Ficus religiosa,
also known as the peepal tree, is used to treat multiple diseases. It is proved to be effective in treating cognitive impairment. However, the potential targets and pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of its action on the management of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are not entirely clear. Therefore, a network pharmacology approach is required to further study and explore its treatment mechanism. Methods:
ChEBI database was used to retrieve the active constituents. AD genes were retrieved from the DisGeNet database. SMILES of phytoconstituents were retrieved from PubChem, traced for the positive drug-likeness score, targets were predicted and regulated proteins were enriched to trace probable modulated proteins, pathways, and GO terms. Cytoscape ver
. 3.7.2 was used to construct the active ingredient-target-pathway
interaction of F. religiosa
and network analysis. Molecular docking was also performed. Results:
A total of 7 bioactive out of 25 were predicted to possess a positive drug likeliness score. Also, PIK3CA, PIK3RA, AKT1, MAP2K1 and RAF1 were predicted as key gene targets. The results of the GO analysis demonstrated that the somatodendritic compartment, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and membrane raft are the main cellular components, its molecular functions are mainly catalytic activity, ion binding, protein kinase activity and, identical protein binding. The biological process is focused on biological quality, response to oxygen-contain-compound sound, and metabolic process. Conclusions:
This study holistically illuminated possible pharmacological mechanisms of F. religiosa
that might be strongly associated with multi-targeting compounds and act on many AD pathways at the same time.
14. Effect of Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni
Jacq.) Extract on the Islet Cells’ Number and Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rat
Maudika P. Fiorenza, Lilik Maslachah, Dewa K. Meles, Thomas V. Widiyatno, Gandul A. Yuliani, Juliano M. Ntoruru, Epy M. Luqman
Effect of Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni
Jacq.) Extract on the Islet Cells’ Number and Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rat. This study was to know the effect of ethanol extract of mahogany (S. mahagoni
Jacq.) seeds on the number of islet cells in the pancreatic Langerhans and blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced diabetic white rat (Rattus norvegicus
). Twenty-five male rats were divided into five groups consists of: (C-) 1-mL/day aquadest without alloxan induction, (C+) 120 mg/kgBW alloxan and 1-mL/day aquadest, (T1, T2, T3) 120 mg/kgBW alloxan and 250, 500, 1000 mg/kgBW of ethanol extract of mahogany seeds respectively. Alloxan were injected intraperitoneal with single dose and ethanol extract of mahogany seeds administered via intragastric gavage for 14 days. At the end of the treatment period, the number of islet cells in the pancreatic Langerhans was counted and blood glucose levels were measured. This research showed that the ethanol extract of mahogany seeds have antidiabetic effect that can repair damaged islet cells in the pancreatic Langerhans at effective dose of 500 mg/kgBW with a mean number of 151.83 ± 11.07 that significantly higher (p
< 0.05) than treatment group 1 (T1), treatment group 3 (T3) and positive control group (C+) and also decreased the blood glucose levels from > 200 mg/dL to normal range (50–135 mg/dL). This is due to the antioxidant property of mahogany seeds extract which is beneficial in repairing pancreas damage due to oxidative stress.
15. Optimization of Mucoadhesive Buccal Film Dosage Form of Sodium Valproate using a Simplex Lattice Design Approach
Iwan Setiawan, Anas Subarnas, Yoga W. Wardhana
The primary choice as an anticonvulsant for partial epilepsy, bipolar disorders (psychotic illnesses), and migraine medication is sodium valproate. Many dosage forms designed for the modified release of sodium valproic in tablets have disadvantages, including frequent use and increased toxicity. Therefore, it is necessary to design other dosage forms for the patient and maintain the therapeutic dose. The mucoadhesive buccal film was selected to overcome these problems. In the preparation of these films, this study used variations of chitosan and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) as a carrier by solvent casting technique using the simplex lattice design approach. Several parameters characteristic, such as weight, film thickness, surface pH, swelling index, measurement of fold resistance, mucoadhesive residence time, uniformity of drug content and percentage of drug release, were selected as dependent variables. These results showed that the selected polymers influence the thickness, swelling index, and mucoadhesive residence time. The simplex lattice design analysis by the software design expert 10.0 showed the recommendation of optimum parameters desirability ratio of 0.64:0.36 for chitosan and SCMC in a film. The dissolution test was performed to determine the recommended release profile of mucoadhesive buccal film. According to Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the Kinet DS 3.0 software obtained a fitting model for the release profile.
16. Formulation and Evaluation of Antibacterial Gel containing Ethanol Extract of Thorns of Bombax ceiba
Prashant Chauhan, Monika
Formulation and evaluation of the herbal gel preparation from the thorn’s extract of Bombax ceiba
to check its antibacterial activity against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus
and Propionibacterium acnes. Methods:
Agar well diffusion method were employed for the purpose. Results:
Gel formulation of different concentrations of extract were formulated that is 2, 4, 6 and 8%, respectively and antibacterial activity of the gels were measured against the bacteria S. aureus
and P. acnes.
In this clindamycin gel was used as the standard for comparative analysis. It was concluded from evaluation results that a formulation of 8% showed better antibacterial activity than other formulated preparations. In addition to this, gel formulations were evaluated considering various parameters such as pH, appearance, viscosity, spreadability and homogeneity and the result were calculated. Conclusion:
The ethanol thorn extract of B. ceiba
possess good antibacterial property against the S. aureus
and P. acnes
. It also contains various phytoconstituents which may be helpful in various health-related problems.
17. Promising Discovery of Alpha Amylase Enzyme Inhibitors from Terminalia arjuna
for Antidiabetic Potential
Dinanath T. Gaikwad, Suraj P. Bansode, Dipak P. Mali, Ganesh H. Wadkar, Vijaykumar T. Pawar, Firoj A. Tamboli
The aim of this work was to discover alpha amylase inhibitors from selected phytoconstituents of Terminalia arjuna
by utilizing computational and in-silico
methodology. Identified 37 phytoconstituents of T. arjuna
were docked as test molecules. The complex structure of alpha-amylase in associated with Acarviostatin I03 was retrieved from protein data bank. Molecular screening by GA-based was performed to generate the cavity-enabled complex prototype using VLife MDS 4.4 software. Docking was used to identify the potent alpha-amylase inhibitor. Ligand-enzyme poses of the selected T. arjuna
phytoconstituents identified seven potential biomolecules: baicalein, quercetin, gallic acid, kaempferol, pelargonidin, pyrocatechol and epicatechin with prominent interactions and showed better results than standard Acarviostatin I03 to the residues of alpha-amylase targets. interestingly, gallic acid showed multiple interactions as hydrogen bond, pi stacking and charge to the alpha-amylase target. This study reveals that phytoconstituents of T. arjuna
possess promising antidiabetic potential. However, this research gives an appropriate platform for detecting newer inhibitors from plant sources for diabetic disease.
18. Mouth Gargles and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Corn Silk
Ahmed S. Al-Janabi, Oras M. Khadim
Carries and plaque of dental are the most widespread diseases, this problem are caused by the mixture of microorganisms and debris of food and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and debris of food debris. Streptococcus mutans
are the main culprit for dental problems that colonize on the dental surface and caused damage to the tooth surface. Corn silk alludes to the marks of shame of Zea mays
L. (Gramineae) from the female blossoms of maize. it is restoratively utilized in the treatment various infection. Screening of plant against pathogenic microscopic organisms is a significant stage to approve its restorative properties. Subsequently, the point of this review was to research the capacity of extracted corn silk to inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria and compare the efficacy with commercial gargles and Amoxi-Clav antibiotics. Our in-vitro
study results show a double inhibition effect on S. mutans
as compared with amoxi-clav, and a significant inhibitory effect compared with commercial gargles. Corn silk extract were tested for their antimicrobial activity and showed higher significant activity than amoxi-clav and commercial gargle against S. mutans
19. Supplementation of Nigella sativa
as Antioxidant in COVID-19 Patients: In silico
the Nrf2-Keap1 Pathway
Ika K. Oktaviyanti, Ira Nurrasyidah, Noor Muthmainah, Holly Diany, Noer Komari, Eko Suhartono
The human corona virus disease of 2019 is a viral disease that can produce oxidative stress due to reduced antioxidant activity. Black cumin is a plant that can be taken as a supplement to boost antioxidant levels in the body, although the process is still unknown. As a result, the in silico
method will be used to screen the potential of Nigella sativa
peptide as an antioxidant in this study. Protein tracking was done using the UniProt database (https://www.uniprot.org/), with KEAP1 as the target protein (GDP: 5CGJ). Molecular docking was performed using Patchdock Server and antioxidant activity was determined using https://services.healthtech.dtu.dk/service.php?AnOxPePred-1.0. The researchers concluded that peptides found in N. sativa
’s NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase subunit 5, chloroplastic protein, had antioxidant potential through suppressing KEAP1 activity with the lowest ACE in Tyr-Tyr-Glu and Cys-Tyr-Tyr.
20. Preparation and Evaluation of SBA-16, ZSM-5 and MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery System for Carvedilol
Hajir S. Mahdi, Frezah J. I. Muhana, Israa H. Al-Ani, Alaa Al-Sanabrah
Carvedilol is a non-selective beta/alpha1 blocker that is broadly used in treatment of arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Enhancing carvedilol low solubility and dissolution rate would help in improving the efficiency of the tablet dosage form. In this study, different types of silica nanoparticle (NPs) (SBA-16, MCM-41 and ZSM-5) were synthesized. Coupling of SBA-16 with 3-Aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) was performed to improve surface characteristics of SBA-16. Different methods to load carvedilol on these carriers were used with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a method of analysis for carvedilol. For the characterization of the loaded NPs Fourier -transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray crystallography (XRD) and Therapeutic goods administration (TGA) were used. MCM-41 loaded with Carvedilol was decided to be formulated as tablet dosage and compared with tablets contain carvedilol without carrier. The results showed that SBA-16, SBA-16 coupled, ZSM-5 and MCM-41 carriers were used successfully to load carvedilol in a good drug load percent of 64.5, 69.3, 82 and 90%, respectively. MCM-41 gave highest loading efficiency of carvedilol using solvent evaporation method and the dissolution of carvedilol from powder was superior to the pure carvedilol where it gave 100% release of the drug at 15 minutes compared to 30% of pure carvedilol. MCM-41 loaded with carvedilol was successfully formulated as tablet dosage form according to the specifications of USP and the release of carvedilol from the prepared tablet was 99% at 15 min compared to the carvedilol released from tablets prepared using carvedilol powder which gave 38% which indicates the efficiency of the carrier in increasing the solubility and dissolution of carvedilol, a class II BCS drugs.
21. The Effect of Bacterial DNA and Hemodialysis Therapy Conditions on Interleukin 6 Levels Variation in End-stage Renal Disease Patients
Sabah A. M. Alsaedi, Ashwak B. J. Al-hashimy
Hemodialysis (HD) is the most common therapy to treat end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. That is used to clear blood from metabolism end products and maintain water and electrolyte balance in patients’ body when failed kidneys unable to do that. Patient’s blood contact via dialysis filter (dialyzer) about 400 L of dialysis fluid that is mainly form of water and some electrolyte, this quantity of fluid contact can stimulate the production of pre-inflammatory markers due to carrying pathogens such as bacterial DNA fragments even in small quantity that can pass all filters to bloodstream stimulating production of IL-6. A total of 90 blood samples were collected from 45 patients under hemodialysis therapy in Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Gazy Alhariry general hospital, Al-khayal private hospital and Al-Muayad private hospital before and after 3 hours of HD therapy to detect IL-6 by ELISA technique. And from the same centers dialysis fluid and water samples were collected to detect bacterial DNA fragments. PCR technique using 16s universal bacterial primer showed presence of bacterial DNA fragments in dialysis fluid and water used to prepare it.The ELISA readings showed a variety in IL-6 levels higher in patients with low ultrafiltration UF rate than its level in patients with high UF and generally, the level of IL-6 in patients treated in centers with DF preparation direct water distribution system were lower than its level in patients treated in centers with indirect water distribution systems.
22. Mebendazole Loaded Nanoparticles for Lung Cancer Therapy
Heba Anaaa, Frezah Muhanab, Mohamed El-Tanania, Razan Madic, Rahmeh Kerfanc
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Lung cancers are classified into two types based on their microscopic appearance: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Many individuals are first diagnosed at stage III or IV, when their prognosis is bleak. Non-small cell lung cancer is a lethal and incurable illness that can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of therapies. Targeted treatment focuses on particular abnormalities seen in cancer cells, such as the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. The T 790M mutation in the EGFR’s tyrosine kinase domain causes acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR TKIs, mebendazole. As a result, combining diverse targeted therapeutic drugs not only improves treatment outcomes but can also be a more effective preventer of acquired resistance improvement. Loaded drug Nanoparticles ZSM-5 and SBA-16 were utilized as targeted treatment, and their stability and loading % were determined using multiple methods, including infrared, X-Ray Diffraction, TGA, and HPLC. The therapy was used in in-vitro cell culture investigations such as the MMT assay, colony assay, and migration assay. The results showed that the loaded drug nanoparticles had a lower IC50 than the free drug mebendazole we utilized, indicating that the nanoparticles improved therapy and reduced medication dosage.
23. Evaluation of Circulating MicroRNA-221 and Il-10 Levels as Potential Diagnostic Markers for Colorectal Cancer in Correlation with Prognosis
Ekhlas S. Falih, Suhad H. Obaid, Faten R. Hameed
Because of the capacity of MicroRNAs to down-regulate tumor suppressor expression and enhance tumorigenesis, they are of great importance in the knowledge of cancer. Aim of the study:
To study the performance of miR-221 and IL-10 in colorectal carcinoma. Patients and methods:
In the present study, venous blood specimens were taken from (55) patient suffering from colorectal cancer who were attending the Medical City, Baghdad (Teaching laboratories), during the period from 1st Jun. 2018 to 30th Sep. 2019. For detection of miRNA-221 expression in patient’s sera, the Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used. Results:
Descriptive analysis of miRNA-221 expression according to pathological grading and gender showed no significant difference (p
> 0.05), however, variations of miRNA-221 expression among patient and controls revealed significant differences (p
< 0.05). There was a highly significant difference in the mean serum IL-10 levels among patients with CRC when compared with the control group (p
> 0.04). While the highest disease risk was correlated to higher mi-RNA-221 with IL-10 levels related with poor prognosis. Conclusion:
The high expressions of mi-RNA-221 can act as prognostic markers in patients with colorectal cancer. Besides, the higher levels of miRNA-221 and IL-10 were correlated with worse prognosis.
24. Effect of Convolvulus arvensis
Ethanolic Extract on Testosterone-induced Alopecia in Mice
Mena E. Naji, Fouad K. Gatea, Kholod A. Ali, Ahmed R A. Raghif
Background and Objective:
Androgenetic alopecia is an age-related disease. It’s the most prevalent type of non-scarring progressive hair loss, affecting men and women. Here, Convolvulus arvensis
ethanolic extract is investigated for its growth-promoting effects in albino mice with testosterone-induced hair loss. Material and Method:
50 adult male albino mice (2-3 month) divided into 5 group 10 mice in each group (I) intact negative control (II) Testosterone gel 1% only (induction group) (III) Testosterone gel 1% + finasteride solution 2% (standard group) (IV) testosterone gel 1% + Convolvulus arvensis
cream 3% (extract group) (V) testosterone gel 1% + glycerine cream 15% (vehicle group) testosterone gel 1% was applied topically to the back of the mice to all group except negative control group (I) for 21 days to induce hair loss hair growth promoting effect evaluated by visual observation, histopathological study of follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio and testosterone, dihydrotestosterone serum level. Result:
animals in extract group showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with induction and vehicle groups that possess A patch of hair loss, Convolvulus arvensis
ethanolic extract increase follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio significantly compared to induction group, these result suggest that extract promotes hair growth and prevent hair loss by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent.
25. Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactivity Study of Few Metal Complexes of Curcumin with 2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl) Aniline
Khaled W. Rashid, Lekaa K. A. Karem, Malath K. Rasheed
We have synthesized many metal (II) complexes using curcumin L1 as the major ligand and 2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl) aniline L2 as a supporting ligand. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopy methods such as; molar conductivity, elements microanalysis, Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, and mass spectroscopy. Both curcumin ligands and L2 were found to be capable of binding to M(II) and metal ions via their two N atoms, according to the data. The formula for the complexes is the same. [M (L1)(L2)H2OCl], where M is Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) (II). Octahedral complexes are proposed for the prepared compounds. The bio-actives suggested that the complexes are effective against bacteria and fungus on a mild to moderate level.
26. Assessment of Dermal Toxicity Profile of Root Bark Extract of Berberis aristata
Alankar Shrivastav, Arun K Mishra, Asheesh K Gupta
The purpose of this study is to determine the cutaneous safety dosage range of root-bark extract of Berberis aristata
. The organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD) guidelines 402 and 410 were used to assess the acute and subacute dermal toxicity studies. The extract dosages (2000 and 5000 mg/kg) were topically applied in single doses in the acute dermal toxicity investigation. Up to 72 hours, the general behavior, unfavorable effects, and death were identified. After that, the different concentration of the extract was topically applied at dosages of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg for 28 days in a sub-acute dermal investigation, and any changes were noted. Only slight sedation and lethargy were detected in the two groups, i.e.,
2000 and 5000 mg/kg extract treatment groups, which showed no mortality or substantial changes in behaviors, sleepiness, or drowsiness. Overall, no signs or symptoms of poisoning were identified. The liver function parameters were somewhat improved when extracts (2000 mg/kg) were given. It was found that extract application had no substantial harmful impact on animals and that it was safe to use as topical formulations.
27. Synthesis and Characterization of Few New Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles 1,2,4-Triazoles and Schiff Bases via
Amena A. Ahmed, Intisar Q. Mahmood, Hadil S. Aziz
The synthesis of substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazol, 1,2,4-triazol and Schiff base from chalcones has been achieved. Mercapto acetic acid was reacted with the chalcone compound (1) to form carboxylic acid (2). Esterification of compound (2) has been accomplished through acidic conditions to give compound (3). The reaction of the ester (3) with N2H4.H2O gave the acid hydrazide compound (4). Stirring of (4) with CS2 and KOH form compound (5), while refluxing of the same compound (4) in similar conditions gave oxadiazole (6). Substituted oxadiazole (7) was obtained through the reaction of (6) with benzyl bromide. Cyclization of compound (5) produced 1,2,4-triazole (8), which was treated with methyl iodide to give compound (9). Schiff bases were obtained by treatment of (4) with substituted acetophenone. The structure for the synthesized compounds has been proven by physical and spectral Infrared and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (IR and 1H-NMR) data.
28. Value Assessment of Local Treatment (Diltiazem Hydrochloride gel/vs Glycerile Trinitrite ointment) in acute Anal Fissure
Hareth A. Hassan, Lebanon M. Obeid, Ali A. M. Aldahash
Anal fissure is a linear tear in the distal anal canal, associated with spasm of internal anal sphincter. Acute anal pain with bleeding on defecation are the main symptoms. Different types of chemical treatment to relax the sphincteric muscles have tried. Objective:
Assess the efficacy, side effects and recurrence rate of 0.2% glycerile trinitrate ointment (GTN) and 2% diltiazim hydrochloride gel (DTZ) in treatment of acute anal fissure. Methods:
A prospective randomized trial of 112 patient with acute anal fissure over 1.5 years period at Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital. The diagnosis was entirely clinical. Setting of inclusion and exclusion criteria, ethical consideration respected. Two groups of patients submitted randomly to either 0.2% GTN ointment or 2% DTZ gel twice daily for 8 weeks. Correct pain score by the patient every day, follow up to the end of week 1, 2, 8 and at 6 months. Scientific signs of healing assessed blinded to the mode of treatment. The collected data was analyzed and compared. Results:
Complete fissure healing was observed in (83.3%) of the DTZ group and (76%) of the GTN group. Pain response was better in DTZ than GTN patients were. Side effects had reported. The recurrence rate was (15%) in DTZ group and (30%) in GTN after 6 months follow up. Conclusion:
Topical Diltiazem is greater than Glyceryl trinitrate in managing acute anal fissure with low side effects and reappearance rate.
29. Physiological and Immunological Assessment in Infertile Women Undergoing In-vitro
Hind A. Hanoon, Makarim Q. D. AL-Lami, Nada F. Hasan
All the available reports on the issue of infertility confirmed the increase in this population problem worldwide. Although the accurate estimate of the number of infertile people is due to several reasons, including the discrepancy in the true definition of infertility (whether it extends for one, two or five years of failed pregnancy attempts), as well as the great discrepancy in the size of the selected population groups (large population sample size versus epidemiological studies) and defining the category that diagnosed included (individuals, women, or couples). The goal of today’s IVF program is to obtain high-quality embryos with high efficiency in development, which leads to an increase in live birth rates. Apoptosis of the ovarian follicles of infertile women is one of the factors that can determine the outcome of IVF. The follicular fluid is an important environment because it contains apoptosis and other factors that greatly affect oocyte growth. This study included 90 women undergoing IVF program ages range from 19 to 45 years, blood sample and Follicular Fluid was obtained from each, Blood samples were taken in CD2 immediately before oocyte separation and FF and the concentration of immune biomarkers was measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology. Patients were classified according to Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (N = 25), unexplained infertility (N = 20), tubal factors (N = 15) and compared with male factor infertility (N = 30) which was considered as a control group. The current finding shows there were non-significant (p
> 0.05) differences in the levels of LH, FSH, PRL and TSH in serum CD2. While a significant (p
< 0.05) increase was found in level of E2 at day of HCG in unexplained group. Highly significant differences were found in level of GDF15 in serum CD2 of PCOS group compared with the two groups (unexplained and tubal block) (p
< 0.05). Moreover, a significant increase was found in the level of CD95/sFas in the serum of the PCOS group compared with all other groups (p
< 0.05). There was a decrease in the level of APL IgM in PCOS and unexplained groups when compared to all studied groups (p
< 0.05). Levels of immune markers in serum and FF at the day of ova pick up (OPU) revealed a significant increase in the level of GDF15 and CD95 in serum and FF of PCOS group compared with the other studied groups (p
≤ 0.001), in addition, level of APL IgG showed a significant increase only in FF of unexplained and tubal groups when compared between the all studied groups (p
< 0.05). In conclusion, GDF15 is bio marker of oxidative stress and increase in PCOS group and CD95/ FAS biomarker of apoptosis and sFas Anti apoptosis increase in PCOS group.
30. Preparation and Evaluation of a Sustained Release Niosomal Dispersion Containing Niflumic Acid
Ali Q. Jawad, Nidhal K. Maraie
This work aims to create and characterize niosomal dispersions for long-term delivery of the anti-inflammatory drug niflumic acid that may be adapted to give a localized effect, prevent gastrointestinal side effects and hepatic metabolism, leading to improve efficacy and patient compliance. Method:
The thin film hydration technique was used to make niflumic acid-loaded niosomes. The effects of different concentrations of a non-ionic surfactant, cholesterol, dicetyl phosphate (DCP), sonication time and the effects of drug concentration on encapsulation efficiency were investigated in order to improve the process. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the formulations. The niosomal dispersion formulations were evaluated for entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release, particle size, polydispersity index (pdI), zeta potential, pH and stability study. Results:
The optimum niosomal preparation (F15) exhibited pH (7.2), size of the particles (1.04 μm), pdI (0.374), surface charge (-47.4) and efficiency of trapping (91.55%). It gave a rapid release in 15 minutes and increased sustainably over time until reach 96.9% within 24 hours. Conclusion:
This research was successful in producing an optimal niosomal dispersion for niflumic acid using different surfactant/cholesterol ratios. The optimum formula provides a sustained release with the initial fast effect of niflumic acid and can be used with a topical dosage form to provide immediate relief that lasts for up to 24 h.
31. Design, Formulation, Optimization and In-vitro
Evaluation of Colon-targeted Tablet Utilizing Polymer Isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus
Lavi Kumar, Bhupendra Singh, Geetanjali Saini, Ankita Sharma, Pooja Sharma, Vandana Thakur, Nisha Thakur, Manish Vyas
The objective of the present study is to formulate, optimize, and evaluate the colon-targeted oral Tablet by utilizing the polymer obtained from Artocarpus heterophyllus. Ibuprofen was used as a model drug in the study. Methods:
The Polymer was extracted from the fresh fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus and subjected to identification and characterization. The formula of the Tablet was optimized using 3 factors 3 levels Box-Behnken design (Design Expert Software). The colon-targeted Tablets were then formulated and coated with pH-dependent polymer to avoid release in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Results:
Pre-compression and post-compression characteristics of the Tablet were studied which were within the standard limits. The drug-excipient compatibility study was performed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study and found no incompatibility. The optimized formulation was not released in acidic pH the release was found to be less than 5%. The drug was completely released during in-vitro evaluation. The formulation shows significant release in pH 6.8 within 6 hours. Conclusion:
The biodegradable and swelling properties of the polymer can sustain the release of the drug at lower gastrointestinal pH.
32. Microscopic Vision for a Therapeutic Effect of Carnitine and Arginine Against Cadmium Toxicity in the Histological Structure of Rat Lung
Khulood N. Rasheed, Abdul M. K. Abdullah
The study is conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect of L-carnitine and L-arginine on the histological structure of the lung in rats treated with cadmium chloride. The study included 20 male rats subjected to the necessary laboratory conditions throughout the experiment. The results show the occurrence of many tissue lesions in the lung, represented by the degeneration of the lining epithelial cells and the shedding of many of these cells in the lumen of the bronchioles. In addition, there is necrosis of the interstitial tissue between the alveoli, with the presence of clumps of red blood cells in the cavities of some blood vessels in the group treated with cadmium chloride, the group treated with cadmium chloride, and L-carnitine, and the group treated with cadmium chloride and L-arginine.
33. Role of Sural Sensory Nerve in the Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Peripheral Polyneuropathy in Adults
Saad A. Alsaqa, Rajaa A. Yonis
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is regarded as the most common cause of chronic peripheral neuropathy. It arises when blood sugar levels are high, causing damage to the nerves. In the meantime, the nerve conduction study (NCS) is the gold standard tool to diagnose diabetic polyneuropathy, the sensory nerve of the leg in the calf region is called the sural nerve. It is the continuation of the tibial nerve at this body part. The sural nerve is completely sensory and responsible for the sensation of the lateral parts of the lower leg, heel, ankle, and dorsal lateral foot. Our study aimed to determine whether nerve conduction of sural sensory nerve (amplitude and velocity) is significantly different in two studied groups, Uncontrolled and controlled type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, according to the effect of HbA1c%, duration of DM, and age. In this study, 100 adult men and women T2D patients aged (35–80) years were taken, 50 patients as case and 50 patients as control. We performed a sural nerve conduction study for both groups to confirm the diabetic neuropathy (DN) diagnosis. There is a reduction of sural sensory nerve amplitude which is highly significant (p
< 0.001), and there is a slowing of sural sensory velocity, which is highly significant (p < 0.001) in an uncontrolled group compared with a controlled group. There is an inverse correlation which is highly significant between the level of HbA1c% and duration of DM with values of sural sensory amplitude and velocity in an uncontrolled group. There is no statistically significant correlation between patients’ ages and sural sensory amplitude values in the uncontrolled group. A sural nerve conduction study should be performed to diagnose diabetic neuropathy.
34. Development, Characterization and Optimization of N-acetylcysteine-loaded Solid Lipid Particles: In-vitro
Bhavana Madupoju, Rapaka S. Raju, Prasanna K. Desu, GSN Koteshwara Rao, Rajasekhar R. Alavala, Rama D. Amara, G Chakravarthi
The purpose of the present investigation was to formulate N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), aiming to obtain an effective formulation to ensure a prolonged controlled release in liver & lung infections. In this research work, SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization method using Glyceryl monostearate,
Soya lecithin, polysorbate 80, tween 40 and 80. Prepared SLNs were characterized for their physicochemical parameters. The optimized formulation yielded nanoparticles with an approximate diameter of 159.10 ± 15.36, a polydispersity index of 0.168, a zeta potential of -50.33 mV and entrapment efficiency of 86.32 ± 1.24%. An in-vitro
dissolution analysis revealed the controlled release of contents from SLNs over 8 hours with 95.25% of the drug released. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms showed drugs in drug-loaded nanoparticles and the absence of decomposition exotherms, suggesting improved physical drug stability in developed formulations. Negligible changes in drug peaks in Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed no interaction between nanoparticle components. A spherical morphology revealed spherical NAC-SLNs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study indicated the crystalline change from the drug to the amorphous crystal. The in-vivo
pharmacokinetic study was conducted using rabbits, and parameters of NAC-SLNs exhibited a significant rise in the Cmax, AUC and oral absorption of the drug compared to the pure drug. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed an 8.5-fold increase in bioavailability of the NAC-SLNs compared with NAC powder. In conclusion, NAC-SLNs have the potential to be an advantageous drug delivery technology for enhancing the oral performance of poorly soluble drugs.
35. The Association between Female Infertility and Catalase Enzyme in Karbala Province of Iraq
Maysaloon A. A. Razzak, Manal N. Ahmed
One of the most significant and overlooked conceptive medical issues in non-industrial nations is the high pace of subfertility and childlessness. There is developing proof of the conceivable function of profoundly responsive results of oxygen-related agents like catalase enzyme in female subfertility. Aim of the study:
To confirm this objective, the level of catalase chemical (CAT) and its connection with certain components (age, weight record, smoking, infertility duration and type of infertility) were surveyed. Method:
This case control study included 100 subfertile ladies distinguished from the fertility clinic information base in maternity clinic and private facility contrasted and 100 fertile ladies. Detailed history and assessment were done, and the blood tests were moved to the biochemical lab to examine CAT as searching compounds by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) pack. Results:
The catalase levels of infertile women show a significant decrease (p
< 0.05) when compared with the fertile control. Its shows an insignificant negative Correlation with age, BMI and duration of subfertility(p
> 0.05) Conclusion:
Catalase was significantly decreased in patients with subfertility, and had inverse insignificant relationship between its level and duration of subfertility increment in patients with subfertility.
36. Enhanced Delivery of Sesame Oil through Nanoformulation: Edible Protein Excipients and Nanotechnology as Protagonists
Pubali Dhar, S. Pal, N Chatterjee, T Das, Dey S, A.Chakraborty
For decades, researchers have gained a lot of interest for lignans-rich sesame oil due to its potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. But its potential could not be fully achieved through traditional means of delivery due to the poor aqueous solubility of lipophilic bioactives. To eliminate the unsatisfactory outcome of conventional delivery strategies and to corroborate the perception of manufacturing the bio-compatible vehicle for therapeutic delivery, present-day researches are vigorously attempting to develop nanocarrier systems with food-grade excipients. In this current scenario, a primary objective of our venture is to explore soy protein for stable sesame oil nanoemulsion fabrication using high-energy ultrasonic devices. In the present study, the sesame oil nanoemulsion formulated with soy-protein isolate and tween 20 in 3:1 ratio has successfully minimized the hydrodynamic diameter to 105 nm and also improved the shelf-life stability remarkably during the 8-weeks storage period. Furthermore, the evaluation of in-vitro
digestibility of formulated nanoemulsion compared with the conventional emulsion seems crucial to facilitate the application of nanoemulsion as a delivery tool in the physiological system. The findings suggested that in the simulated gastrointestinal tract, the nanoemulsion achieved a better fatty acid release kinetics and thus an improved lipid digestion profile compared to the conventional one. The facts and facets obtained from this study would expect to elicit challenging openings as well as satisfactory possibilities in the frontier area of the food and pharmaceutical industries.
37. In vivo
Study of the Effect of 5 and 10% Nebivolol Cream on Hair Growth in Mice Models
Ahmed R, A. Raghif, Zainab A. Mahdi
Hair growth promotion via the use of vasodilators represents an important approach in hair loss management as they have proven to be effective in promoting hair growth. Nebivolol is a potent vasodilator which also exhibits anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, yet its role in hair growth induction is not well known. Objective:
The present study aims to investigate hair growth-promoting effect of the topical application of nebivolol cream in two strengths 5 and 10% in mice models. Methods:
Active hair growth (Anagen) induction by the topical use of nebivolol cream has been evaluated in mouse model. Fifty male swiss albino mice (8 weeks aged) dorsal skins were shaved and these mice were divided randomly and equally into untreated control group with which other experimental groups compression was done and 4 treated groups (n=10) with nebivolol 5% cream, nebivolol 10% cream, minoxidil 2% topical solution and vehicle (1:1 vaseline and lanoline). The topical treatment continued for 21 days during which the visual observation of mice was done for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of hair growth, then, following 21 days, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for the purpose of hair weight measurement, histological and immunohistochemistry evaluations. Results:
The results of current study revealed that nebivolol as 5 and 10% topical cream accelerated hair growth induction and prolonged active hair growth phase via peri-follicular vasodilation and via up-regulating the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) following their topical application in mice models. Conclusion:
This study has demonstrated for the first time the potential effect of topical nebivolol on hair growth promotion which may help in the treatment of hair loss disorder.
Preliminary Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anticoagulant Activity of Novel N-Phenyl Hydrazine 1-Carbothioamide Derivatives of (2-Methyl-3-(Substituted Thio)Propanoyl) Proline
Alsaad H. Najeh, Kubba A. A. R. Mahmood
A series of (2-methyl-3-(substituted thio)propanoyl)proline (2-7) were evaluated in-vitro
for antioxidant activity and anticoagulant activity. The antioxidants were determined using the most common models, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2, and reducing power method. The better radical scavenging antioxidant activity was observed with compound (4) with % inhibition (93.04 ± 0.7 μg\mL and IC50 69.56 μg\mL), using the DPPH method, while with H2O2 model, the observed % inhibition for compound (4) was (92.18 ± 1.52). For reducing power assay, the absorbance of the formed complex at 700 nm was (1.245 ± 0.213). The anticoagulant activity of the compound (3) shows significant prolongation in clotting time compare with (3-mercapto-2-methylpropanoyl) proline (captopril) with Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) values (17.1 ± 0.1 s and 75.13 ± 0.15 s), respectively. The results of this study refer to an improvement of the biological activity of novel captopril derivatives with the introduction of electron donated group as (NH) and the presence of free thiol group.
39. Formulation Design and Evaluation of Hydrocortisone Gel for Topical Use
Wisam A. Hussein, Suhad T. Zamil, Suaad T. Zamil, Muhammed A. Hussain, Hussein A. Kadhim
Hydrocortisone is a corticosteroid drug used for topical atopic dermatitis treatment available in the form of a spray, rectal cream, powder for preparation and injection, ointment in concentrations: 0.5, 1, 2.5%, ear solution 1%, topical solution in concentrations: 0.1, 2.5%, rectal suppositories, suspension solution plus tablets. Hydrocortisone gel was manufactured and evaluated in-vitro
model by examining the physical and chemical properties, as well as evaluating the rheological properties with a texture analyzer, also evaluated. The stability of accelerated hydrocortisone gel, thermal, chemical and acid stability of the components were also evaluated. The feasibility study was also completed. All of these evaluations were compared relative to the commercial formulas and statistical analyzes were conducted. The results of hydrocortisone gel compared to the commercial formula showed optimum physicochemical properties, good rheological properties, and good stability. From the general results, we can conclude that hydrocortisone gel is a practical, more effective, safe and stable formulation when compared to its counterparts.
40. Formulation and Evaluation of Fluvastatib-loaded Nanoparticles by Nanoprecepitration Method
Prasanna K. Desu, Haritha Lanka, L Thippeswamy, V A. Reddy, D P. Keshava, C. Soujanya, B. L. Satya, R. Anusha
The formulation of only moderately water-soluble pharmaceuticals can benefit from the incorporation of nanoparticles, which increases the drugs’ bioavailability. The primary objective of this work was to create and evaluate fluvastatin-loaded nanoparticles using the precipitation process to improve their solubility and bioavailability. Precipitation was used to prepare fluvastatin nanoparticles, which are classified as a BCS class II drug. These particles were then characterized using techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and in-vitro
drug release studies. There was no evidence of contact between the drug and the polymers based on the differential scanning calorimetry results, powder X-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. Images obtained by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanoparticles had a spherical form. The fact that the water solubility of drug-loaded nanoparticles was increased in comparison to the pure drug and that they displayed an improved dissolution profile was evidence that nanoprecipitation was a straightforward and accurate process. Both this technology on a laboratory scale and this strategy could be used to improve the solubility and bioavailability of BCS class II medications.
41. Preparation and Characterization of Atorvastatin Calcium Trihydrate-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex
Basma M. Hadi, Eman B. H. Al-Khedairy
Atorvastatin calcium (ATR) is an antihyperlipidemic agent used for lowering blood cholesterol levels. However, it is very slightly soluble in water with poor oral bioavailability, which interferes with its therapeutic action. It is classified as a class II drug according to Biopharmaceutical Classification System (low solubility and high permeability). The present study aimed to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of ATR by complexation technique using beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in comparison with other β-CD derivatives which are hydroxy propyl beta cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), methyl beta cyclodextrin (M -β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin ( SBE-β-CD) as binary and ternary complex with Soluplus® using co–grinding, kneading, solvent evaporation and microwave methods. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) characterized the resultant complex. The results showed that the ternary complex of ATR/SBE-β-CD/Soluplus )1-mole/ 1-mole/ 10% w/w) prepared by microwave method had the highest solubility, highest percentage yield, and faster release rate, which was greater than 90% (in the first 15–20 minutes). The FT-IR results showed that ATR was partially included in the SBE- β- CD cavity, while the DSC, XRD results confirmed the amorphous nature of the resultant complex.
42. Study of Activated Cellular Immunity due exposition to Systemic Endotoxinemia by Physical Exertion of Athletes
Rashad K. M. Al-Akhras, Najlaa S. Mahdi
According to the study, the indices of cellular antiendotoxin immunity can be applied to assess the athletes’ adaptation to physical exertion at various stages of a one-year training program. In the early 90s of the 20th century, a new theory appeared about the role of endotoxin (ET) of intestinal microflora in physiology and human pathology, which, in our opinion, can be used to systematize knowledge about the development mechanisms of a general adaptation syndrome and form the basis of the general theory of its pathogenesis.
Aim of the study:
The study aim was to study the role of systemic endotoxinemia and indicators of cellular immunity in athletes of various sports specialization in assessing adaptation to physical activity. The article shows the possibility of using indicators of the cellular link of antiendotoxin immunity for assessment of the adaptation of the body of athletes to physical activity at different stages of the annual training cycle. Methodology:
A study of the content of ET in the bloodstream and indicators of the granulocyte link was carried out to estimate antiendotoxin immunity for various athletes. Results:
The results obtained show that trained and untrained people have a clearly expressed endotoxinemia, and the indicators of endotoxinemia significantly increase during exercise in the control group and among athletes. Conclusion:
Our findings allow us to draw a conclusion about the very likely participation of ET in the development of pathological processes when adapting to physical activity.
43. Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Face Scrub containing Coffea arabica
Linn, Myristica fragrans
, and Lens culinaris
as an Antioxidant and Antiseptic Activity
Pooja Dave, Gira Patel, Devanshi Patel, Binkal Patel, Dipti Patel, G S Chakraborthy, Rupal Jani
The research aimed to produce an herbal facial scrub. The majority of times, the skin on the face is in regular contact with dirt, pollution, and other contaminants. The scrub comprises various natural components that are safe to use, have fewer adverse effects, and have antibacterial, anti-infective, antioxidant, anti-aging, and moisturizing characteristics. The primary ingredient in this scrub is coffee. Coffee contains a lot of antioxidant properties. In addition, coffee grounds have a different aroma and a coarse grain and can be used to remove dirt skin cells that have died. The scrub was made with a simple mixing procedure and a variety of materials, including coffee beans, nutmeg, masoor dal, corn starch, and coconut oil mixed in melted beeswax. Other ingredients such as glycerine, light liquid paraffin, stearic acid, tween 80, and a perfuming agent was added to this formulation with effective results.
44. Molecular Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus Sp.20
Zainab A. Hatem, Alyaa Abdelhameed, Zainab A. Mohammed
Antibiotic resistance bacteria has become a worldwide problem. The shortage of new antibiotics has prompted research into chemicals that could act as adjuvants and enhance the efficacy of available antibiotics. Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics was determined using the e-test method to evaluate the effect of commonly used antibiotics on the selected isolate (S20). The isolate displayed resistance to cefoxitin, benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin. Whereas it was susceptible to the rest antibiotics. In this study, we reported the draft genome sequence of S20, isolated from a patient. The genome consists of 4,557,070 bp, with a GC of 46.4%. It has 228 RNA reads that protein-coding genes encoding multidrug resistance transporters, virulence factors. The draft genome sequences project was deposited in GenBank under accession no.. PRJNA480592. The version described in this paper is the first version. To estimate the phylotypes in the selected genomes, the 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from the RAST annotation and used as a query against the SILVA reference database with the threshold set to above 97%. Bacillus mycoides was the closest genus to our isolate (100%).
45. Comparison the Pathogenicity, Biofilm and Adhesion Activity of Acinetobacter baumannii
Isolated from Patients using Thermoplastic Retainer with other Oral Isolates
Sarah A. Al-Khafaji, Sarah Z. AL-Zreejaw, Saif M. Abed, Khalid H. Kadhim
The study was focused on investigating the pathogenicity of Acinetobacter baumannii
comparison with certain oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus sangius,
and Enterococcus faecalis
associated with patients using a thermoplastic retainer by determination the response to Chlorhexidne (CHX), strength of biofilm formation and the adhesion ability. The results revealed that the isolation of bacteria reported by S. mutans
was 95%, L. acidophilu
s 85%, S. sangius
75%, while A. baumannii
and E. faecalis
65%. Moreover, the biofilm assay revealed various strengths of biofilm formation. The strong biofilm producer was A. baumannii
, 0. 372 ± 009, the moderate biofilm producer was S. mutans
, 0. 320 ± 012, the weak biofilm producers, L. Acidophilus
0. 195 ± 0. 10 S. sanguis
0. 170 ± 0. 00, and E. feacalis
0. 154 ± 0. 23 with significant differences between isolates at (p
≤ 0. 05). Furthermore, this current study found CHX was less effective against performed biofilm with various values, but the highest value was noticed in A. baumannii
at 0. 125 ± 0. 03 comparison with other isolates, with significant differences at (p
≤ 0. 05). L. Acidophilus
0. 12 ± 0. 4, S. mutans
0. 102 ± 0. 12 S. sanguis
0. 113 ± 0. 5 and E. feacalis
0. 1 ± 00. Finally, the adhesion ability of isolates to the thermoplastic retainer during 30, 45, 60 minutes A. baumannii
recorded the highest value during 30,45, and 60 minutes (220 ± 0. 09, 289 ± 0. 98 0. 87 ± 1. 1), respectively. Depending on the obtained results, A. baumannii
played an important role in oral cavity infection especially in patients using thermoplastic retainers due to their resistance to CHX and their ability to form biofilm and adhesion to materials that are used to make thermoplastic retainers.
46. An Integrated Suggestion to Decolourize Allura Red AC Dye in the Wastewater of Pharmaceutical Industries Using a Local Bacterial Isolates
Ahmed D. Homady, Mohammed A. Fayidh
Many types of dyes used in pharmaceutical and food industries such as (Allura Red AC) might be thrown out into the environment, leading to contaminating the natural water sources and its concentration in some tanks. To support the biological treatment, designed this project was to isolate and identify the bacteria from the biological treatment tanks, able to decolourize some industrial dyes waste used in the pharmaceutical industry in Iraq. Streaking on Tryptone soy agar with Allura red dye 0.001-mg/L, more than 11 single bacterial colonies were separated and tested for their ability on decolorization. In this paper, only Two isolates will be in focus for decolourizing. The Absorbance of Allura red at wavelength 510 nm of spectrometer demonstrated its clearly decreased within the incubation time 6–24 hours and depended on the initial concentration of the dye, which was done in MSM media. The isolates were identified by the VITEK-2 XL compound system as well as the 16S rRNA gene. The identification results showed that these isolates were related to Escherichia coli
and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
47. Formulation, Optimization and Characterization of Celecoxib-loaded Emulsion System using Optimal Mixture Design
Meryem Mabrouki, Younes Rahali, Aicha Fahry, Nawal Cherkaoui, Abdelkader Laatiris, Yassir El-Alaoui
This study was carried out to create an emulsion formulation based on Celecoxib in order to improve its solubility. The solubility of Celecoxib in different surfactants and co-surfactants was studied. Secondly, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were used to fix the concentration ranges of the components of the emulsion. Once the most stable formulation was fixed by mixture design, the concentration of solubilized Celecoxib in this formulation was determined using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The concentration of Celecoxib in the selected formulation was 83.52%. The average globule size was 116.6 nm. The physical appearance, rheological properties, and concentration of Celecoxib in the selected emulsion remained unchanged after storage for 3 months.
48. Evaluation of Curcumin Effect on Wound Healing in Rat Model
Huda J. Noori, Suzan Y. Jasim, Wassan A.K. Abbass
skin wound healing consists of a series of meticulously orchestrated, time-dependent, complex steps including inflammation, proliferation, and wound remodeling. Wounds that do not follow this time course are complicated. Skin wounds and their complications impose a major threat to the patients and the health systems and are a heavy burden on the global economy. Many researchers have directed their attention to studying the wound healing properties of natural products because of their safety, accessibility, low price, and fewer side effects. One of these phytomedicines is Curcumin. The active constituent of Curcuma longa
has been widely studied for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. The current study aims at exploring the wound healing properties of Curcumin in DMSO gel and comparing its effectiveness as a topical medicine to β-sitosterol ointment by using excisional full-thickness skin wounds in the rat model. Methods:
After the initiation of a full-thickness 2 cm diameter wound at their dorsal skin, forty male rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: the positive control, the Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) gel, the β-sitosterol ointment, and the curcumin 4% gel groups. The groups were subdivided into A, and B subgroups and received their designed treatment for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Skin and blood samples were collected on the seventh and fourteenth days after wound initiation. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring the percentages of wound closure, the serum concentrations of IL-6, H/E staining for histopathological analysis, and the immunohistochemical assessment of MMP-9. Results:
During both test intervals, the curcumin-treated group showed accelerated wound closure, lowered levels of IL-6, enhanced collagen deposition and epithelialization, and modulated scores of MMP-9 in comparison to the positive control, DMSO gel, and β-sitosterol ointment groups. Conclusions:
Curcumin in DMSO gel significantly augmented wound healing by improving various parameters of the repair process. The 4% curcumin gel had a higher therapeutic wound healing potential compared to β-sitosterol ointment.
49. Development and Evaluation of Novel Multi-unit Pellet System Formulation of Metoprolol Succinate for Extended Release
Deepak S. Khobragade, K. Vighneshwar, Mrunali S. Potbhare
Metaprolol succinate is a highly water-soluble drug with extensive first-pass metabolism. It needs to be administered about 3-4 times a day for optimum therapeutic effect. Conventional extended-release formulations are available but have their own disadvantages. The study was to designed formulate and evaluate the prolonged-release compressed multiple-unit pellet system (MUPS) of Metoprolol succinate. MUPS are novel formulations with benefits of both single and multi unit dosage forms and can provide extended drug delivery release profile and increase the efficiency profile of the drug. Metaprolol succinate pellets were prepared, coated with a different polymer, and compressed into tablets with suitable excipients. The tablet MUPS disintegrates after ingestion into extended-release pellets. MUPS formulations prepared with polymers like ECN50, Surelease, Kollicoat. Pellets formulation with Kollicoat coating (7.5%) was found to be the best formulation. MUPS prepared using this formulation of pellets and lubritab were found to be most promising formulation with acceptable limits of all physicochemical properties, dissolution profile and stability. Thus from the results, it can concluded that multiple-unit pellet systems (MUPS) can be ideal formulations for drugs like Metaprolol succinate.
50. Quantitative Estimation of Few Novel Indole Derivatives using Spectroscopic Technique
Shaimaa I. Khalil, Fadhil L. Faraj, Sahar R. Fadhel
The reaction of 2- (1, 1-dimethyl-1, 3-dihydro-2H-benzo[e]indol-2-ylidene) malonaldehyde with various substituted o-phenylinediamine resulted in a number of new indole Schiff base derivatives. Total leukocyte count (TLC), Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FT-IR), Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), characterized the chemical structures of the synthesized compounds and quantitatively estimated using FT-IR spectroscopy, the results showed linear in concentration ranges 10.0 to 50.0 ppm. The biological activity of some novel synthesized compounds was tested against two types of bacteria. Compounds exhibit antibacterial action, according to the provided data.
51. Efficacy of Gold and Nickel on the Anticancer Activity and Physical Properties of Pemetrexed Loaded on Fullerene C60 Buckysomes
Ali I. A. Mahdi, Nidhal K. Maraie, Ashour H. Dawood
This study aims to create a new delivery system for pemetrexed, employing a metal-C60 fullerene combination for the first time. Additionally, a lung cancer cell line study will be used to examine the impact of this combination on the release, behavior, and drug’s cytotoxicity. Methods:
To utilize a laser to irradiate hydrocarbons, fullerene C60 (Buckysomes) was produced and then nanosized by adding different volumes of isopropyl alcohol and ultrasonication. Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) were also prepared each one separately and added to the previous mixture together with Pemetrexed (PMX) with further ultrasonication for 20 minutes. The mixture is kept in the refrigerator for 20 hours and then filtered. The precipitate was dried and characterized for particle size, invitro release, and anticancer activity in comparison to pemetrexed loaded on C60 fullerene previously prepared in our laboratory. Results:
The evaluation techniques revealed the successful loading of pemetrexed on metals- fullerene C60 nanocarrier, SG10 was the optimum sample with % of yield reach to 95.36. The release profile shows that the percentage release of pemetrexed after 240 minutes is equal to 40% from pure PMX, while the release after 240 minute was found to be 87.8 % from pemetrexed loaded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) fullerene C60 nanocarrier (SG10), while NiNPs not significantly improved the release profile of Pemetrexed from Pemetrexed loaded NiNPs – fullerene (SN7). Pemetrexed loaded on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), when compared to pure PMX (3.1 M) and SN7 (11.5 M), fullerene nanocarrier (SG10) exhibits a lower IC50 (1.55 M) and a greater cytotoxic effect (high IR percent) on A549 cancer cells. Pemetrexed’s cytotoxicity in A549 was enhanced after being loaded onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-fullerene nanocarriers (90.4% cell death for SG10) as opposed to pure drug (60% cell death). This finding suggests that the loading process enhanced the drug’s cytotoxic activity for the tumor cells, which may have sped up the onset of action (30% cell death after 24 hours). Conclusion:
This study successfully prepared Metals- fullerene C60 Buckysomes loaded with pemetrexed utilizing gold and nickel, which may serve (especially Au- fullerene) as a suitable nanocarrier for pemetrexed, resulting in an improvement to solubility, the release pattern, and cytotoxicity.
52. Study of Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Derivative of Indomethacin: A Computational Study
Ferdous A. Jaber, Shaimaa A. Behget, Ahmed H. Shntaif
This article presents the synthesis of new derivative from thiodaizole, based on the reaction of Thiosemicarbazide with Indomethacin in the presence of Phosphorus (V) oxychloride as catalyst. COX enzyme is divided to two isoforms COX-1 and COX-2 with similar structure and high sequence identity. The novel Inhibitor used a thiodaizole ring in combination with Indomethacin to reduce the risk of analogs interfering with COX-1’s small hydrophobic tunnel. Furthermore, the absence of a carboxylic group in the new Inhibitor reduces the Inhibitor’s ability to form a salt bridge with Arg120 (Figure 2), preventing the inhibition of the COX-1 enzyme. The aim of this study is to investigate the Anti-inflammatory activity of Indomethacin against the human second isoform of prostaglandin synthase (cyclooxygenase, COX-2). COX-2 enzyme 3D structures (PDB ID: 1CVU) were extracted from the protein databank. The PDB format of Indomethacin and its derivative were prepared by use Discovery Studio 2016 Client. Molecular docking study appeared that the new derivative exhibited better binding energy (-10.9 kcal/mol) compared with Indomethacin that have binding energy (-10.09 kcal/mol) and it’s have high selectivity towered COX-2 enzyme in the other hand In the present study, the predicted Pharmacokinetic (PK) values of Inhibitor (1) and Indomethacin (NSAID) deduce that Inhibitor (1) satisfies all PK parameters and has qualified as best lead candidate as an Anti-inflammatory agent compared to Indomethacin.
53. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Topically Applied Azilsartan in a Mouse Model of Imiquimod-induced Psoriasis
Samer S. Mohammed, Haitham M. Kadhim, Israa M. AL-Sudani, Wael W. Musatafa
Many studies showed a possible exacerbation of psoriasis after exposure to angiotensin receptor antagonists. Azilsartan is a competitive angiotensin II receptor antagonist and has anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory disorders. Objective:
Investigate dose-dependent effects of topical Azilsartan on Imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice. Methods:
Forty-eight mice are allocated into six groups (8 mice per group). They all received Imiquimod for the induction of psoriasis (except Group I, a negative control group). Group II (Induction group) received petroleum gel for six days after induction with Imiquimod. The other groups (III, IV, V, and VI) were given Clobetasol propionate 0.05%, 1% Azilsartan, 3% Azilsartan, and a combination of 3% Azilsartan and 0.05% Clobetasol propionate ointments, respectively once daily for six days after induction. Results:
Azilsartan decreased psoriasis area severity index (PASI) score and attenuated the histological manifestations after induction. It significantly decreased the serum and tissue levels of the inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL-17, IL-23, and NF-Kβ), especially when used as an add-on therapy to Clobetasol. Conclusion:
Topically-applied Azilsartan shows anti-psoriatic effects in Imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice via anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities.
54. Phytochemical Study of Iraqi Cydonia oblonga
Noor S. Obaid, Widad M. Al-Ani
Quince (Cydonia oblonga
) fruit has a lot of phytochemicals that draw the attention of many researchers nowadays for its important medicinal values. This study concerns the identification and isolation of two flavonoids (Astragalin) flavonol glycoside and (Isorhamnetin) from fruit ethyl acetate extract of Iraqi cultivated Cydonia oblonga
. The identification was carried out by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis techniques. The yield of isolated compound was (1.6 and 1.3 %) for astragalin and isorhamnetin, respectively. This was achieved by using preparative thin layer chromatography glass plate (20×20) cm. This is followed by structure elucidation of isolated compounds through fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet (UV), nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR). analysis procedures.
55. Genetic Diversity of Pathogenic Fungi Aspergillus flavus
Isolates Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique
Ashwak I. Al-Obaedi, Noor M. Ahmed, Marwan Q. AL-Samarraie, Adnan F. AL- Azzawie
is the second most public fungi that causing disease in human and causes diseases in several important agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variety among diverse isolates of Aspergillus flavus by the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Five isolates were obtained from Samarra hospital and outpatient clinic and were diagnosed morphologically and microscopically. Results of RAPD profile revealed a high genetic distance (0.244) between isolates number (1 and 5), while the isolates number (2 and 5) were joined with lower genetic distance (0.090). Unique and absent bands were displayed by certain isolates and can be taken as a positive marker for isolate identification. The dendrogram of banding patterns revealed a great relationship between isolates number (2 and 5) from one side and isolates number (1 and 3) from the other side, while the isolate number 4 was separated into particular subgroup which closer to the isolate number 1 and 3.
56. Formulation and Development of β-glucan Hydrogel using Design of Experiments (DOE)
M.P. Kusuma, Manisha N. S. Mogili
β-Glucan, an endogenous carbohydrate, is a key functional ingredient found in barley and oats and a major component of microbiological and plant cell walls. With no severe adverse effects, it has anti-tumor, diabetic lowering, wound healing, anti-aging and anticholesteremic effects. Twenty formulations were prepared using different polymers like carbapol 934, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K100M, HPMC K15M, guar gum and xantham gum. F1 formulation exhibited satisfactory results with respect to in-vitro
drug release, spreadability, extrudability viscosity and drug content. In order to optimize the concentration of polymers used in F1 formulation, design 13 was opted. All the above 8 runs were subjected to evaluation tests, out of which F28 exhibited maximum drug release with optimum viscosity, spreadability and extrudability. The results correlated with the design with less percentage relative error. F28 formulation was observed to have positive correlation for ex-vivo
drug release. Comparable wound healing activity was observed when performed on HaCaT cell lines.
57. Formulations and Antibacterial Activity of Moringa oleifera
Extract in Hand Sanitizer Gel against Staphylococcus aureus
Prisca Pakan, Desi Indriarini, Regina M. Hutasoit, Rahel Rara Woda, Lince Mukkun
Recent studies have demonstrated that the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is possible in the form of aerosol and fomite. Thus, hand hygiene is of utmost significance. Hand sanitizer is often used as a practical hand washing method. Purpose:
This study aims to study the effectiveness of Moringa
leaves extract as an antibacterial ingredient in hand sanitizer gel. Methods: Moringa
leaves extract was obtained by maceration in 70% alcohol solution. The hand sanitizer formula consists of carbomer, propylene glycol, glycerin, methylparaben, and triethanolamine. The hand sanitizer gel was prepared using three formulas with different extract concentrations. The quality of the hand sanitizer gel was analyzed, including the gel acidity (pH), organoleptic, the inhibitory ability of bacterial growth against Staphylococcus aureus
, and the gel dispersion. Results:
This study showed that Formula III has the highest inhibitory area against S. aureus
. The gel acidity (pH) was found at around 4 for all the formulas, safe for use on the skin. The organoleptic test showed no irritation to the skin for all three formulas. However, they demonstrated low dispersity. Conclusion: Moringa
leaves extract is effective as an antibacterial in hand sanitizer gel.
58. Synthesis of New Substituted Coumarin Derivatives containing Schiff-Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Agents
Ali Y. Mohammed, Luma S. Ahamed
By unusual method for separating two isomers of a substituted nitro-coumarin using a soxhlet extractor and in controlling temperature to get a selective nitration reaction, several new Schiff base coumarins were synthesized from nitro coumarins as starting material, which were reduced by Fe in glacial acetic acid to produce corresponding amino coumarin derivatives. Then the latter was reacted with different aromatic aldehydes to produce the desired Schiff bases derivatives. After characterization by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) and Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (C-NMR), all these compounds were evaluated as potential Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Agents.
59. Formulation and Evaluation of Extended-Release Capsule of Propranolol Hydrochloride
Mahendra C. Gunde, Amit D. Jambulkar, Pravinkumar B. Suruse
The focus of this research was to create novel propranolol hydrochloride (PPH) extended-release capsules for 24 hours release, when compared to the immediate release dosage form for treating hypertension, it reduces the frequency of dose. The formulation has been developed to improve dissolving, which may result in improved oral absorption. The effects of component nature, proportion in the release rate, and dissolution process were explored. Formulation into capsules also reduces the frequency of administration. Even if propranolol tablets are available in market, we can develop pellets since pellets have good intestinal flow qualities and are less expensive to produce. To accomplish this, we must first formulate and test the capsules. The in-vitro
dissolution profile is compared to the commercial product’s profile, and the formula will be finalized.
60 : Article Retracted 22 Nov 2022
61. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacist about Inpatient Medication Therapy Management Services: National Cross-Sectional Study
Karrar M. Abbas, Manal K. Abdulridha
Medication therapy management is a patient-centered process to create treatment plans centered on each patient’s medication-related goals. It requires collaboration between pharmacists, patients, and other health care providers to ensure the safe and effective use of medicines. Objectives:
assessment of Iraqi hospital pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude, and practice on MTMs providing. Methods:
The cross-sectional study was conducted in seven Iraqi hospital pharmacists’ using a structured questionnaire delivered online. Results:
A total of (90) pharmacists were enrolled in the study, (86.66%) between the age of (20–30) years old, (63.33%) females, (93.33%) with bachelors degree and (90%) inpatient pharmacist setting with (96.66%) of total pharmacist had 0–10 years of experience. Most pharmacists (56.66%) had a high level of knowledge and positive attitudes toward MTMs. Furthermore, pharmacists believed that MTM services might increase the quality of health care (83.33%), and (90%) were interested in acquiring more information about MTM service. On the contrary, obstacles identified by pharmacists that might affect MTM services (MTMs) implementation, the most common were lack of training (80%), lack of private counseling area (73.33%), hence, needing for more time spending during patients’ counseling (63.33%). Conclusion:
Providing insights about the hospital pharmacists revealed that most of them have good knowledge, positive attitude, and inadequate practice regarding MTM service.
62. Analytical Technique for Carvedilol and Ivabradine Determination from Pure and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: A Review
Chavan P. B., Kolhe M. H., Dhamak K. V., Bhor R. J.
Carvedilol and ivabradine is a drug combination used to treat cardiovascular diseases like hypertension, chronic stable angina pectoris and, chronic heart failure. Both are different in their mode of action. Carvedilol prevents exercise-induced tachycardia via inhibition of beta-adrenoreceptor carvedilol, which also acts on alpha-1 adrenergic receptors and reduces blood pressure. In case of a higher dose also shows antioxidant and calcium channel blocking activity. Ivabradine is a heart rate-reducing drug that works by blocking cardiac pacemaker currents (If) selectively and specifically. The major goal of this review paper is to emphasize the characteristics of carvedilol and ivabradine, such as their pharmacological profiles, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, and previously described analytical methodologies for carvedilol and ivabradine determination. Various methods such as UV spectroscopy High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Reverse phase -High performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), Mass Spectrometry (MS), High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). is the most accurate easy method for estimation.
63. Synthesis of New Azo Compound and its Application for Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Extraction using Cloud Point Extraction
Mohammed Z. Thani, Safaa A. Dadoosh, Abbas S. Fahad, Asmaa M. Abdullah, Younus S. Fahad
In this study, we synthesized new sulfamethoxazole azo derivative by converted the SMZ drug to diazonium salt and coupling it with salbutamol in the alkaline medium to form an orange water-soluble azo dye that has a maximum absorption at λmax 450 nm. This reaction was used in the spectrophotometric determination of SMZ drug. It was obeyed to beer-lambert’s low over concentration between (10–100 mg.L-1
) with LOD (0.507 mg.L-1
), LOQ (1.5 mg.L-1
) and molar absorptivity (2332.2 L.mol-1
). The approach indicated great sensitivity for the assessment of chosen medicine. Another method, a new cloud point extraction approach, was successfully used to extract the SMZ medication in its pure form as well as in pharmaceutical formulations. Due to its features and structure, non-ionic surfactant, also known as 2-[4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy] ethanol, was chosen as the green extraction solvent in this study. The effect of several parameters on the CPE of Sulfamethoxazole, including as the type and volume of surfactant, salt, temperature, and incubation duration, was thoroughly researched, and a set of ideal conditions was established. The correlation coefficient (R2) for the calibration curve was found to be 0.9956. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and molar absorptivity were 0.122 mgL-1
, 0.403 mg.L-1
and 11319.41 L.mol-1
64. Neuroprotective Potential of Indian Propolis and in Combination with Curcumin against Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion Induced Vascular Dementia in Rats
Meenu, Tarun Virmani, Lubhan Singh
Vascular dementia (VaD) is associated with chronic brain ischemia and gradual memory loss which is increasing gradually but limited treatments are available as therapeutic moieties to combat the VaD. Hence in this study Indian propolis alone or in combination with curcumin was explored as a treatment modality to alleviate the VaD. VaD model was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). Indian propolis (200 mg/kg), curcumin (200 mg/kg) individually, and the combination of Indian propolis (100 mg/kg) with curcumin (100 mg/kg) were administered in BCCAO model followed by an estimation of behavioral (neurological score, hanging and open field test) and biochemical parameters (reduced glutathione, catalase, malondialdehyde, and acetylcholine esterase). In this study it was found that there were no changes in the locomotor activity while the neurological score was reduced and the hanging time was increased in the drug treated group which clearly depicts the neuroprotective potential of curcumin, Indian propolis individually and the combination of Indian propolis with curcumin. The combination of Indian propolis with curcumin was much better in terms of neuroprotective activity than Indian propolis and curcumin treated group as depicted by the results of behavioural and biochemical parameters. Moreover, haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining was performed, and was found that a combination of Indian propolis (100 mg/kg) with curcumin (100 mg/kg) attenuated better histological alterations of the hippocampus in BCCAO model group than in other treated groups. Hence these findings provided that Indian propolis in combination with curcumin has great potential as a neuroprotective agent on the cognitive deficits of VaD rats.
65. Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles by The Precipitation Method on Streptococcus
Spp from Dental Carries and Cytotoxicity Assay
Zahraa J. S. Hassan, Mazin K. Hamid, Mais E. Ahmed
In this article the nanoparticles synthesis of ZnO (Nps) by using the precipitation method at concentrations range (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.03125) mg/mL and then activity was examined against Streptococcus
spp that causing dental caries in vitro by well diffusion method, find these concentrations effected in these bacteria and better concentration is 0.03125. ZnO Nps were characterization by EDS to prove this particles are ZnO, and also characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and TEM, from these technic found that the average size about 30.52 nm and hexagonal shape. The UV-visible result reveals that the large band is observed at 340.8 nm, Zeta potential show that the surface charge is 30.19 mv and investigated the role of ZnO NP-induced toxicity in the IC50 values of the HdFn cells. The findings reveal the ability chemical nanoparticles to inhibit, as well as of Gram-positive bacteria.
66. Discovering of JINZA1 and JINZA2 Genes of SARS COV2 by using ABI3730XL, Sequencer in Iraqi Patients
Jnan J. Baksh, Nazar Sh. Mohammed, Ahmed S. Hassan
A total of (200) whole blood, nasal and throat swab samples were collected from patients infected with the Coronavirus who were recumbent in Al-Nouman and Al-Yarmook hospitals from 1st January to 1st November 2021. Demographic results showed that the highest infection rate was among the age group (20–40) years followed by (41–60) years, with no significant difference (p > 0.05). While the distribution of infection according to gender revealed that the females were higher 58 (58%) than males 42 (42%). The distribution of the severity of infection among patients showed that the mild infection was among the age group (20–40) years 38(66.7%), the moderate infection was among the age group (41–60) years 20(55%), but the severe infection was among the age group (61–80) years 16(44.4%). While the females were shown to be more infected among patients with mild and moderate infections with Coronavirus. The mild symptomatic infections 38(76%) were highest among other cases. Two mutated strains, JINZA1 and JINZA2, belonging to Iraqi patients who died after contracting Coronavirus, were identified and registered in NCBI at the Gene Bank USA.
67. Synthesis, Characterization of New Sulfamethoxazole Derivatives containing β-lactam Ring and Preliminary Evaluation of their Antimicrobial Activity
Ahmed M. Moutlk, May M. J. Al-mudhafar
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is the most significant antibiotic in the sulfonamide family. It was chosen as the representative of this category because of its widespread use. Starting with sulfamethoxazole, a new series of 2-Azetidinone (M1-M6) was synthesized, the structure of these new derivatives was confirmed using spectral methods, starting with the synthesis of Schiff’s bases by reflux of different aromatic benzaldehydes, separately, with Sulfamethoxazole in ethanol with few drops of acetic acid. The final compounds were obtained by ketene-imine synthesis of β-lactam using chloroacetyl chloride. The designed chemicals’ synthesis has been completed successfully. Physical parameters (melting points and Rf values), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy were used to establish the purity and characterization of these derivatives. When compared to standard antibiotics (Sulfamethoxazole, Ciprofloxacin, and Fluconazole), the preliminary antimicrobial activity tests on four different bacteria strains and one type of fungus demonstrated that the final compounds (M1-M6) have significant activity. Finally, the new derivatives (M3 and M5) are the most potent than the other ones and more active than the standard drugs.
68. New Metal Complexes Derived from Heterocyclic Schiff-base Ligand; Preparation, Structural Investigation and Biological Activity
Hind I. Khaleel, Baidaa K. Al-Rubaye
The formation of a Schiff-base with N2O2 donor atoms derived from the hydrazine segment and its metal complexes are reported. The Schiff-base ligand; N’-((1R,2S,4R,5S,Z)-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ylidene)furan-2-carbohydrazide (HL) was prepared from the reaction of furan-2-carbohydrazide with (1R, 2R, 4R, 5S)-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one (M1) in ethanol medium. The reaction of the title ligand with selected metal ions Cr(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) gave complexes with the general formula [M(L)Cl2], (where: M = Cr(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)). Spectroscopic analyses Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR), mass and electronic spectroscopy and atomic absorption) along with elemental microanalysis (C.H.N), chloride percentage, conductivity measurements, magnetic moments and melting point were used to establish the identity of ligand and complexes. The biological activity of the synthesized compounds towards bacterial strains (G+ and G-) was investigated.
69. Study of Certain Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in Albino Male Rats Infected with Hymenolepis nana
Sunbul J. Shakour, Sawsan A. F. Mohammed
Current work aims to study the levels of certain antioxidant enzymes in male rats with Hymenolepis nana
. 40 albino male rats were used in current work. Thirty male rats infected with H. nanaa
and 10 male rats as control group. The direct examination of feces by using microscope was done to diagnosis the adult worms, tapeworm segments and larvae. The findings of present work demonstrated that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH) and catalase in an infected rat’s show significant (p
< 0.05) reduce compared with control rats. So, the study found a direct relationship between H. nana
and antioxidant enzymes where the levels of antioxidant enzymes significantly (p
< 0.05) reduced in infected rats.
70. Stability Indicating Method Development and Validation of Carvedilol and Ivabradine in Bulk and its Formulation by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method
Chavan P. Badrinath, Kolhe M. Hari, Dhamak K. Vithhalrao
A simple, sensitive, precise, specific, rapid, accurate, and novel reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP- HPLC) method for determining carvedilol (CAR) and ivabradine (IVA) in bulk and its formulation has been developed validated. RP-HPLC performed the chromatographic separation on column C18 (4.6 mm x 2.5 cm, 5 μm) using acetonitrile: buffer pH 2.0 (60:40) pH of this buffer was adjusted to 2.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid, as a mobile phase. The flow rate was fixed at 0.90 mL/min. UV detection was operated at 275 nm, and injected volume was 20 μL. The retention time was found to be 2.931 for ivabradine and 3.370 for carvedilol. The RSD for ivabradine and carvedilol’s precision is within a limit of less than 2%, which indicates that the given method is highly precise. Regarding the accuracy, the percentage recovery of the drug ivabradine is 99.48, and 98.19% for carvedilol, linearity of carvedilol and ivabradine ranged from 25–100 ppm and 20–80 ppm, respectively. The calibration curve shows good range and linearity. The correlation coefficient of carvedilol and ivabradine was 0.9987 and 0.9991, respectively. Limit of detection (LoD) and Limit of quantitation (LoQ) were found to be 3.79 ppm and 11.50 ppm for carvedilol and 2.47 ppm and 7.48 ppm for ivabradine, respectively. The acid, base, UV, and thermal stress studies presented the formation of a variety of degradation products; the given method showed good accuracy, linearity, precision, and robustness for analyzing the drug combination in bulk and its pharmaceutical formulations.
71. Development and Optimization of Orodispersible Tablets of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride (FFH) by Box-Behnken Statistical Design (BBD)
V. Kamala Kumari, M. Sai Sri Vastav, Y. Srinivasa Rao
The aim of the present study was to formulate orodispersible tablets (ODT) of fexofenadine Hydrochloride (FFH) by studying the effect of the variable for response with the help of Box-Behnken design (BBD). A total of 17 formulations were prepared by altering the proportion of crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate and mannitol by direct compression technique. BBD was employed to study the relations among the variables and to statistically optimize the formulation parameter for ODT tablets of fexofenadine Hydrochloride. Response surface and contour plots were plotted based on BBD and relationship between the variables and responses were established. Further evaluation of responses with respect to variables was made with 3D surface plot that allows evaluating a blend selected variables at a time and assessing the effect of variation and interaction on responses. In conclusion, an optimized model was obtained based on predicted and observed response for the three dependent variables.
72. Experimental Design Statistically by Design Expert Software: A Model Poorly Soluble Drug with Dissolution Enhancement and Optimization
Taraka R. Challa, K. Reshma
The experimental factorial design was performed design expert software to the formulation of rapid orally disintegrating tablets of a poorly soluble model drug to investigate by using superdisintegrant, β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) and surfactant (SLS) on the onset of the anti-hypertensive action of poorly soluble irbesartan. The three independent factors, %, βCD (X1) its concentration (1:1 and 1:5), superdisintegrant (crosspovidone) concentration (2% and 30) (X2) and SLS (0, 2%) (X3) were studied for their main effects on three independent variables on dependent variables, percent dissolved 15 minutes (PD 15%), dissolution efficiency 30 minutes (DE 30), time for 50% dissolved (Q 50%) and disintegration time (DT). Statistical analysis of obtained data and optimization of formulation variables were carried out using Design-Expert trail version software exhibit counter plots and ANOVA studies are significant. The combination maximized desirability over the indicated region to 0.973193. The drug-excipients interaction studies by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicate no interaction. The accelerated stability study at 40°C and 75% relative humidity (RH) for 6 months and in-vitro
evaluation against conventional market tablets are significantly identical on dissolution.
73. Separation and Purification of a Powerful Antiviral Agent Glycyrrhizin from Iraqi Glycyrrhiza glabra
Linn by HPTLC with MS-APCI Method
Zaid M. A. Khalik, Omar H. Ahmed, Enas J. Kadhim
Glycyrrhizin, a bioactive component of the licorice plant, has recently been revealed to be particularly efficient in suppressing SARS-associated viral replication and reducing the development and cytopathology of herpes simplex virus type I in human aneuploid HEp2 cells. According to the researchers, glycyrrhizin suppressed antigen expression and lowered hepatitis A virus infectivity dose-dependent. Chinese medicine has been utilized in China for thousands of years, and licorice, a component of Chinese medicine, has been suggested as a potential therapy for SARS. Screening active compounds from Chinese herbal medicine for ACE2 receptor targeting might be a viable technique for treating 2019 due to its low toxicity and availability-nCoV. For these reasons, quantifying the quantity of glycyrrhizin in Iraqi species and developing simple, sensitive, and selective procedures for its separation are important. Using high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), we extracted and isolated glycyrrhizin from Iraqi Glycyrrhiza glabra (HPTLC). On a preparative scale, the separation was accomplished in a single step using a four-phase solvent system that included dichloromethane, methanol, water, and fumarate (12: 1.5: 7.5: 0.1). The current approach produced 500 mg of licorice at 20% purity from the root plant’s glycyrrhizin, with HPTLC analysis indicating recovery.
74. Histological Study on Bird Cerebellum of Pycnonotus leucotis
Wijdan B. Abid
Histological study of the cerebellum in a bird white cheeked bulbul Pycnonotus lecucotis,
the result of the study showed that the cerebellum took the parts of the hindbrain, the histological study of the cerebellum revealed the presence of deep folds on its surface. The cerebellum consists of two areas, the cerebellar cortex, which is called the gray matter, which consists of three layers: the outer layer (the molecular layer), the middle (Purkinje cells) and inner layer (the granular layer). The second area of the cerebellum is called the medullary and the white matter.
75. Formulation, Evaluation, Compatibility and In-vitro
Study of Bilayer Tablet by Model Fitting
Sudarshan B. Kakad, Punit R. Rachh
To develop a bilayer tablet containing sustained release metformin HCl and immediate release vildagliptin and to study the compatibility study as well as release kinetics of formulation by model fitting. Methods:
The bilayer tablet comprises of two parts, immediate release Vildagliptin drug and sustained release Metformin HCl. Sustained release granules are prepared by using non-aqueous wet granulation techniques and immediate release granules are prepared by aqueous wet granulation and then both the granules are compressed at appropriate force to form a bilayer tablet. The drug release of prepared bilayer tablet is studied by in-vitro
dissolution study and model fitting. Results:
Drug identification and compatibility study was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Post compression parameters of bilayer tablet showing appropriate results. In-vitro
dissolution study shows more than 90% vildagliptin drug releases in 1-hour while maximum metformin drug releases after 10 hours. After applying model fitting, metformin gives r-value 0.9942 and vildagliptin gives r-value 0.9610 in matrix model. Conclusion:
Excipients used in the preparation of bilayer tablets was compatible with metformin HCl and vildagliptin. After studying in-vitro
drug release by model fitting, both drugs pass through zero order, first order, Matrix, Peppas and Hixson-Crowell models but matrix model is the best model and vildagliptin shows immediate release effect and metformin HCl shows sustained release effect. The prepared bilayer tablet is used for the treatment of type-II diabetes mellitus.
76. Carmustine: Promising Drug for Treatment of Glioma
Audumbar D. Mali, Anil S. Bhanwase
The treatment for glioma has challenging and survival rate is not more than one year after diagnosis. Carmustine is a non-specific antineoplastic agent that belongs to the nitrosourea group of compounds (bischlo-roethyl nitrosourea) and has various mechanisms of tumor cytotoxicity. Main body:
It can alkylate reactive sites on nucleoproteins as an alkylating agent, interfering with DNA and RNA synthesis and DNA repair. It can create interstrand crosslink’s in DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription. Under physiological conditions, carmustine undergoes spontaneous nonenzymatic decomposition, releasing reactive intermediates with alkylating and carbamoylating activities, which are thought to be responsible for carmustine’s anticancer and cytotoxic properties. Human gliomas are the for the most part kind of tumor for brain. Gliomas can be treated with a variety of chemotherapeutics, but carmustine has recently emerged as a promising treatment option. Conclusion:
The adoption of a nose-to-brain medication delivery method has several advantages over efforts that try to breach the blood-brain barrier. The focused strategy also lowers the risk of cardiovascular harm. A significant advantage of nose to brain administration is the relatively high patient compliance. Research into new chemotherapeutic compounds and treatment delivery technologies is crucial for present and future patients.
77. Effect of Probiotic from Different Sources on Lipid Profile and Sugar on Patients with Hypercholesterolemia
Abeer S. Hasan, Abdulmutalb B. M. Al-Khaleeli, Hameedah H. Abdulwahid, Fahad K.Y. Al-Dulaimi
For managing the digestive tract and immune system, probiotic has been recommended more frequently as an effective therapy and are known as the agent of cholesterol-lowering. The definition of hypercholesterolemia is, increase of plasma cholesterol levels excessively above 200 mg/dL, the patients may have a strong risk to cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study is used different types of probiotic sources of treating patients with hypercholesterolemia with no cardiovascular disease for 30 days. The results show that, there are significant differences (p
<0.05) between cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and High-density lipoprotein (HDL) before and after the consumption of probiotics from different sources, while triglyceride and glucose show there are no significant differences after 30 days (p > 0.05).
78. Adsorption, Modeling, Thermodynamic, and Kinetic Studies of Removal of Textile-dye using Low-Cost Adsorbents
Jasim M. Salman Aseel M. Aljeboree
Adsorption of reactive green (RG) dye using Syzgium aromaticum
flower bud (SAFB) and ACTIVE -SAFB was studied in detail via
conducting batch model kinetic, thermodynamic and desorption investigations. The experimental kinetic data at several primary reactive green dye concentrations were also analyzed through model first-order, model second-order. The obtained result appears that the model pseudo-first-order fits the adsorption kinetic result through (R2 0.9797) and (R2 0.9016) of SAFB and ACTIVE-SAFB in the same order. Finally, the thermodynamic factors appear that dye’s adsorption onto SAFB and ACTIVE-SAFB was endothermic and spontaneous. This suggests that SAFB and ACTIVE-SAFB is a via
ble adsorbents for effective dye removal from wastewater effluent.
79. Statistically Optimized Repaglinide-loaded Floating Microspheres for the Gastric Sustained Delivery via
Central Composite Design
Fatima Z. Badaoui, Slimane M. Feliachi, Fares Boukehil, Lamine Gacem
Repaglinide (RPD) is a short-acting insulin secretagogue widely prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, RPD loaded ethyl cellulose/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (EC/HPMC) floating microspheres (FM) have been formulated for gastric sustained release and improved bioavailability of RPD. Floating microspheres were prepared by oil in water emulsion solvent evaporation technique. A three levels Central-composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the influence of different formulation components and process variables on the formulation responses and indicate the optimum using the numeric approach through the Minitab® software. All the formulations were characterized for entrapment efficiency (EE), production yield (PY) and in vitro buoyancy; the results were supported with the ANOVA analysis, three-dimensional contour graphs and regression equations. The optimal formulation showed a production yield of 81.72%, entrapment efficiency of 74.96% and buoyancy of 76.30%. Optical microscopy revealed the spherical shape of RPD floating microspheres with a mean particle size of 24.60 ± 1.19 μm. The floating microspheres are physically and chemically stable as confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The microspheres provided a sustained release of the RPD for more than 24 hours in simulated gastric fluid, following Korsmeyer-Peppas with non-fickian diffusion. The results indicate that the optimized floating microspheres can be a potential drug delivery system for the delivery of RPD in the stomach.
80. Docking Study of Selected Phytoconstituents with Acetylcholine Esterase and BChE for its Anti-alzheimers Activity
Sonali G. Banpure, Vitthal V. Chopade
In this research, we have observed known constituents from different plants and perform docking of these phytoconstituents with different AChE & BChE PDBs. It found good binding with Different PDBs. For the docking study, we selected 11 PDBs which include 4TPK, 4AQD, 6EP4, 1H22, 4EY5, 2XQF, 6O4X, 6O4W, 4BDT, 6EQQ, 1B41. Selected phytoconstituents was Sabinene (A), α-Pinene (B), 1,8-Cineole (C), Tras-sabinene hydrate (D), α-Terpineol (E), α- terpentyl acetate (F), Methyl Eugenol (G). We have compared the binding energy and number of hydrogen bonds with Galanthamine. Constituents C and G found good anti-alzheimers activity, and D and E have excellent activity with all PDBs.
81. Study the Correlation between Pathogenic Parasitic Infections and Infertility among Women in Kerbala Province, Iraq
Inam J. Radhi, Muna I. Jassem, Sawsan K. Abbas, Kawther A. M. Al-Mussawi
This study indicated that infections with pathogenic–parasitic (PP) causes in healthy controls who do not suffer infertility will be higher than those of infertile women. Correspondingly, in parasitic infections in (protozoa) were prevalent among numerous parts of the world. Developed countries and infertile women were the major burden and infections, for example, the women’s reproductive system through damage to infertile women. There were approximately parasitic infections such as Trichomonas vaginalis
could reason cervical tumors, non-anomalous pelvic infections in women and tubal and genital tract abnormalities. Toxoplasma gondii
reasons dysplasia of reproductive tract, synthetic disorders and endometriosis for example, intrauterine adhesions.
82. Evaluation of the Effect of Bromocriptine and Sitagliptin and Their Combination on Lipid Profile and Inflammatory Parameters in Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Male Albino Rat
Khudhair A. M. A. Al-Ani, Duraid A. Abbas
The current study aimed to investigate the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of recently used hypoglycemic drugs bromocriptine and sitagliptine alone and combined dosing regimen on induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in albino rats. Forty adult male rats divided equally into five groups including four diabetic groups and one non-diabetic representing control negative (C-ve). The four diabetic groups submitted to the following 90 day oral dosing regimens for (Control positive (C+ve), Bromocriptine (T1) at (0.07) mg/kg, Sitagliptine (T2) at (1.42) mg/kg and bromocriptine + sitagliptine (0.035 + 0.71) mg/kg B.W. Body-weight change and clinical observation were done throughout induction and treatment periods, while serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha were measured at 0, 45, 90 days after treatment. The result showed clear and significant improvement after the highest decline of body weight in all groups after T2DM induction with clear symptoms of diabetes both after alone drugs treatment in T1 and T2 with highest improvement in T3 at 45 and more at 90 days. Also, lipid profile result showed clear and significant improvement in serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL, in T3, at 90 days treatment in comparison with alone drug treatment T1 and T2 after diabetic induction, while result of Triglyceride, VLDL, showed non-significant improvement between all drug treated groups in comparison with C +ve at 45 and 90 days. Such non-significant decline level was also recorded in serum TNF alpha in all drugs treated groups after 45 and 90 days after diabetes induction in comparison with the C +ve group that still at the high level. The superiority of combined therapy of Bromocriptine and Sitagliptine at half used doses over the alone therapy in combating hyperlipidemia and inflammatory effect as well as the decline in body weight of diabetic animals might attributed to the different mechanism of action of each used drug that probably exert potentiation in therapeutic effects against the studied parameters after induction of T2DM in rats.
83. Synthesis of New Antibiotic Agent Based on Mannich Reaction
Ahmed K. O. Aldulaimi, Ameer H. Idan, Alhussein A. Majhool, Mahmood J. Jawad, Zahraa H. Khudhair, Saif M. Hassan, Saripah S. S. A. Azziz
Three new anti-bacterial compounds were designed and synthesized via the Mannich reaction and evaluated in vitro against different species of bacteria. The compounds have been characterized based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1HNMR, and Carbon-13 Nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), A significant part of the compounds obtained, showed anti-bacterial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative species.
84. Distribution of Rh Subgroups and Kell Antigens in Patients with Thalassemia
Farah K. Na’ma, Mahmood H. Majeed
First-line therapy for thalassemia patients is blood transfusion. Patients who get repeated transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) risk developing an immune response to the RBCs, resulting in a hemolytic transfusion reaction and even death. Patients who get phenotype blood transfusions are less likely to experience these side effects. Between 2014 and 2015, researchers at Baghdad’s Ibn Al-Baladi Thalassemia Hospital performed a prospective survey and collected samples. Enrollment in this trial included (903) patients (males were 477 and females were 426). Patients’ venous blood samples were taken and processed using a novel procedure known as the (gel method). A lot of data was collected, including gender, ABO blood groups, Rh typing, and blood phenotypes. In thalassemia, the most frequent blood group was (O), and the most common blood antigen (phenotype) was (A) (e). Typed blood units can be provided with a lower risk of alloimmunization and other complications by typing patient RBCs before transfusing, according to this study. Blood transfusion patients must have access to a database of blood donors who have been phenotyped.
85. Effect of Trichoderma viride
, Sodium Benzoate (C6H5COONa) and Vitamin B2 against Fusarium solani in vitro
Fahmy T. Kassoub, Aalaa K. Hassa
A laboratory experiment was carried out according to the randomized complete design (RCD) during the season of 2020-21 to study the effect of Trichoderma viride
, sodium benzoate C6H5COONa and vitamin B2. The results showed that the biological agent T. viride
achieved an antagonistic ability against Fusarium solani
amounted 1.33 according to the Bell scale, the concentration 100 mmol of sodium benzoate and vitamin B2 led to inhibiting of F. solani
100%, followed by the concentrations of 80, 60 and 40 mmol, which amounted (95.83, 65.27, 18.05%) and (100, 89.44, 58.33%) respectively, compared to the control treatment 0%. In contrast, the concentration of 100 and 80 mmol of sodium benzoate and vitamin B2 resulted in inhibiting of T. viride
amounted (11.67 and 15%) and (91.66 and 87.77%) respectively, compared to the control treatment 0%. In comparison, the concentrations 40 and 60 mmol of sodium benzoate and vitamin B2 did not cause any inhibitory effect on T. viride
0%, the beltanol fungicide at concentrations (500, 1000, 1500, 2000) mg/L caused inhibition of F. solani
, which reached 100, 78.51, 39.63 and 20.36% respectively compared to the control treatment 0%.
86. Correlation of Interleukin-8 Level with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Cml) in Iraqi Patients Treated With Imatinib Therapy
Wurood A. Hasan1*, Yaseen I. Mamoori1, Bassam F. Matti
Cancer cells can evade immune surveillance effectively through many mechanisms. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), although the immune system is dysfunctional in newly diagnosed patients, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy may be able to restore the immune system function through suppressing the cloned cells. Several clinical trials on cancer showed a correlation between the elevated level of IL-8 with either poor prognosis or poor response to some therapies. Here, the level of IL-8 among different responders CML patients on imatinib therapy was tested. The blood samples from failed responses and optimal responses CML patients were used to measure IL-8 levels by sandwich ELISA. The results of this study were as follow: IL8 level showed a significant increase in median level for failure responses CML patients 102.53 pg/mL in comparison to control group 2.50 pg/mL and optimal CML patients 4.22 pg/mL, while there was no significant difference between optimal and control groups from one side and different molecular responder CML patients. The immune responses by IL8 level looks unrelated to depth of molecular response and BCR-ABL transcripts level among the optimal responders CML patients.
87. Synthesis, Characterization of Heterocyclic Compounds Containing Dapsone
Zainab M. Bdaiwi, Ghusoon J. Abbas, Hasan T. Ghanem
A series of new heterocyclic compounds have been synthesized by reaction of Schiff bases containing azo dyes with (maleic, phthalic anhydride) in the presence of toluene as solvent. The preparation procedure includes a series of steps, and the first step includes synthesizing azo compound from (4,4’ –diamino diphenyl sulfone, Dapsone). The second step involved synthesizing Schiff bases by reaction of an azo compound with various substituted aniline derivatives. The third step involved a synthesis of heterocyclic compounds (oxazepine). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), 13 Carbon-13 (C13) nuclear magnetic resonance (C-NMR) spectra determined all compounds.
88. Hydrogel Beads- A Versatile Dimension in Controlled Oral Delivery
Umesh K. Singh, Preethi Sudheer
Conventional oral dosage forms are the most preferred and convenient method to treat several diseases. However, the significant problem associated with these dosage forms is their inability to maintain constant therapeutic blood levels for a prolonged period due to inappropriate dosing, short half-life, first-pass metabolism, and poor absorption. All these factors lead to low bioavailability issues, patient inconvenience, especially from frequent dosing, and also local or systemic side effects. Therefore, much research has focused on controlled release delivery systems. Hydrogel beads are unique systems that use biopolymers as their skeleton. The distinctiveness of hydrogel bead systems such as their high-water holding capacity, swelling, and elastic nature paved their place in oral drug delivery systems. They can easily encapsulate and protect the active ingredients and enable prolonged and remotely programmed spatial and temporal drug release. This review is an insight into hydrogel beads, various polymers used in its preparation, their features and applications, and their advantages and disadvantages. This review highlights the advances in hydrogel beads as a drug delivery system.
89. Indirect Pharmaceutical and Organic Compounds Analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Ashraf S. Rasheed, Ameen W. Qassim, Salsal K. Abdulrahman
The organic and pharmaceutical compounds have been estimated using traditional methods such as weights and volumes of different types with different concentrations. Still, these methods did not respond to the possibility of estimating trace quantities of these compounds, as well as chemical interactions and the length of time of analysis, and this led to the emergence of an increasing need to estimate trace quantities or archaeological of such compounds in various samples of industrial, food and biological origin, such as blood, generation, etc., using automated and susceptible methods. Many of these methods have emerged in separating and estimating organic and pharmaceutical compounds, including atomic, partial, chromatic, electrochemical, and other spectral methods. The most notable was the direct and indirect estimation of the use of flame-atomic and thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. This review discusses atomic absorption spectroscopy and its applications in medicines—furthermore, a study of literature consisting of data from 1968–2022.
90 : Article Retracted 22 Nov 2022
91. Effectiveness and Safety of Single Bolus Heparin as Anticoagulant in Hemodialysis
Ahmad F. Alkhafaji, Sattar J. Saadi, Hayder S. Gatea, Jawad I. Rasheed
Anticoagulation in hemodialysis is targeted to prevent the activation of coagulation during the procedure. Most agents inhibit the plasmatic coagulation cascade. Still commonly used is unfractionated heparin, followed by low-molecular-weight heparin preparations with distinct advantages. Patency of the circuit is an important prerequisite for optimal hemodialysis quality. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticoagulant protocol in single hemodialysis center. Subjects and Method:
This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Baghdad Teaching Hospital in 2018. Forty patients on HD receiving UFH (5000 IU) as a single bolus dose were included in this study. Coagulation parameter represented by plasma PTT was assessed pre and post administration of bolus dose of 5000 IU heparin on hourly interval. The results of aPTT assessment with current study compared to that of standard method. Results:
The PTT was changed from 29.05 ± 4.3 SD on pre-dialysis to 92.9 ± 12.2, 64.6 ± 15.2, 35.5 ± 8.4 SD at end of first, 2nd and 3rd hour respectively, (p=0.001).The a PTT was significantly higher than standard method on first(92.9 vs.72.69) but lower than standard method on second hour( 64.65 vs. 72.69) and 3rd hour(35.5 vs.43.6.1) of administration heparin. The venous and arterial pressure near to normal range but prefilter pressure was significantly increased with time even it remains within normal range. Conclusion:
Our findings suggest that using heparin in bolus dose is effective but unsafe at first hour of administration less effectiveness was reported at 3rd hour of use.
92. Diagnostic Ability of Transvaginal Ultrasound, Hysteroscopy and evaluation of Perimenopausal Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Huda A. A. Al-Hussein, Bushra J. U. Alrubayae
Irregular vaginal bleeding is a significant common gynecological health problem, especially in perimenopausal age groups. The experts define any deviation from the normal flow, frequency, duration, and/or regularity as abnormal uterine bleeding. The study aimed to evaluate the role of transvaginal ultrasound and hysteroscopy in perimenopause women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Patients and Methods:
The study was a prospective observational performed in Babylon maternity and children Hospital through the interval from December 2017 to November 2018. The study involved one hundred patients in perimenopause age between 41–50 years old with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Detailed history, physical examination, and detailed features of uterine bleeding were obtained. The women also underwent blood tests, transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), and hysteroscopy with biopsy for histopathological examination. Results:
Patients’ age ranged from 41 to 50 years with a mean of 46.2 ± 3.1 years. The most common pattern of vaginal bleeding was heavy menstrual bleeding (83.8%), followed by irregular vaginal bleeding (33.8%). The most common risk factor was obesity (43.8%), followed by diabetes (20.0%). The parity ranged from 0–11, and the endometrial thickness ranged from 7–26 mm with a mean of 16.5 ± 4.8 mm. The most frequent diagnosis by TVUS was an intramural fibroid (33.75%). With hysteroscopy, the majority of the patients had no obvious pathology (36.8%), while the majority of the patients with histopathology revealed proliferative endometrium (25.6%), followed by secretory endometrium (16.0%). Regarding submucosal fibroid, the TVUS provided 60% sensitivity and 84% specificity, while hysteroscopy provided 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. For endometrial polyp detection, TVUS has 73.3% sensitivity and 96.9% specificity, while hysteroscopy has 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The diagnostic accuracy for endocervical polyp, both TVUS and hysteroscopy was found to have a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Conclusion:
The study concludes that hysteroscopy has higher diagnostic accuracy in perimenopausal women compared to TVUS for submucosal fibroids and endometrial polyp. Histopathology has the highest diagnostic accuracy for submucosal fibroids and endometrial polyps. Hysteroscopy, TVUS, and histopathology all have the same diagnostic accuracy regarding endocervical polyps. TVUS and diagnostic hysteroscopy were good imaging choices for uterine cavities with their abnormalities, but hysteroscopy has a superior value for some cases.