International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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1. Synthesis, Characterization and Screening their Antibactrial Activity of some New Oxazepine and Diazepine Compounds Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Ring Derived from L-Ascorbic Acid
Israa A. Mosa, Rasmia M. Rumez, Jumbad H. Tomma
The search involve the synthesis of some new 1,3-oxazepine and 1,3-diazepine derivatives were synthesized from Schiff base. The Schiff base (VIII) prepared from reaction of aldehyde (IV) derived from L-ascorbic acid with aromatic amine ([2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole] (VII). Oxazepine compounds (IX-XI) were synthesized from the cyclic condensation of Schiff base (VIII) with (maleic, phthalic and 3-nitrophthalic) anhydride, compounds (IX-XI) that were reacted with p-methoxyaniline to give diazepine derivatives (XII-XIV). The structures of the new synthesized compounds have been confirmed by physical properties and spectroscopy measurements such as FTIR, and some of them by 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, Mass, and evaluated their antibacterial activity as (Escherichia Coli (G-), Staphylococcus aureus (G+)).

2. Evaluation of the Hormonal and Biochemical Changes in Obese and Non-obese Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Iraqi Women Before and After Vitamin D Supplementation
Suaad Muhssen Ghazi, Fatin Shallal Farhan
Vitamin D deficiency is common in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Vitamin D plays an important physiologic role in reproductive functions of ovarian follicular development and luteinization through altering anti-müllerian hormone signaling, follicular stimulating hormone activity and progesterone production in human granulosa cells. Vitamin D is precipitated in adipose fat tissues, making it not able to be used for the body as a result; obese people with high body mass index are already highly expected to have low levels of serum vitamin D. Background: There are associations of Vitamin D deficiency with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovarian syndrome women. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association of vitamin D deficiency with sex hormones and metabolic markers, like fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin level and Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This evaluation was done in obese and non-obese Iraqi women with polycystic ovarian syndrome before and after supplementation with vitamin D. Methods: Eighty polycystic women were enrolled in this study. Forty of them were obese with body mass index more than 30 and were considered as group A. The other 40 were nonobese women with a body mass index of less than 30 and were considered as group B. Physical examination was performed for all patients including height, weight and waist circumference, and blood pressure measurements. Five ml of blood were aspirated during the follicular phase in the early morning after overnight fasting for measuring follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, prolactin, thyroid function test, fasting insulin, fasting sugar and vitamin D3. Then, a supplement of vitamin D3 400 IU was given twice daily for six months to the patients with a low level of serum vitamin D3 and then reevaluated again for biochemical parameters. Results: There were no significant differences between two groups in hormonal assay before and after treatment with vitamin D3. There were significant differences before and after treatment with vitamin D3 in groups, improvement in vitamin level, decrease in serum insulin level, fasting blood sugar and Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Conclusion: Vitamin D plays a role in the improvement of biochemical variables like serum insulin level, fasting blood sugar and Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in both obese and nonobese polycystic ovarian Iraqi women.

3. Biological Evaluation of Newly synthesized Spebrutinib Analogues: Potential Candidates with Enhanced Activity and Reduced Toxicity Profiles
Zaid M. Jaber Al-Obaidi, Omar F. Abdul- Rasheed2 Monther F. Mahdi3 Ayad M.R. Raauf
Background: Undoubtedly, cancer is regarded as a major concern for researchers alongside the whole humanity for its high mortality rates. At this moment, there must be some researchers working hard to design, synthesize, and biologically investigate the effects of some potential candidates to fight back cancer. Materials and methods: In previous unpublished work, the authors successfully designed, synthesized, characterized a potential two spebrutinib analogs. Consequently, these analogs were evaluated with the employment of MCF-7, HCT116, and MDCK cell lines. Results: In respect to the spebrutinib standard, one of these analogs has superior activity against MCF-7 cell line (IC50; 10.744µg/mL against 13.566 µg/mL for spebrutinib) and an enhanced toxicity profile on madin-darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line (IC50; 8.653 mg/mL against 4.011 mg/mL for spebrutinib). Conclusion: The two compounds showed good activity against breast and colon cell lines and enhanced toxicity profile against normal kidney cell line in respect to spebrutinib standard.

4. Preparation and Evaluation of Granisetron Chewable Pediatric Oral Jelly
Zahraa Mohammed Kadhim, Wedad K Ali
This study aimed to formulate granisetron (GSN) in a new dosage form using natural substances and to improve pediatric patient compliance to achieve maximum drug efficacy. The GSN is a 5HT3 receptor antagonist used as prophylaxis for the prevention of nausea and vomiting before radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This dosage form was selected because of sharing both the advantages of liquid and solid dosage forms. In this study, two types of natural jellifying agents have been used in different concentrations. The natural jellifying agents who have been used were gelatin and carrageenan (CRG). The effect of jellifying agent and their concentrations have been investigated. Six formulations of GSN oral jellies were prepared by the heat and congealing method, and the prepared jellies were evaluated by measuring their pH, content uniformity, drug-polymer compatibility, syneresis, physical stability, general appearance, and production yield. Among the prepared formulations, formulation F1 with 4.5% gelatin was considered the best one, since it gave the highest drug release 99.4% in 15 min with acceptance results for all other evaluation tests.

5. Studying the Release Characteristics of Naproxen Sustained Release Matrix Tablet Using Natural Polyelectrolytes
Zahraa Oleiwi Hamzah, Wedad K Ali
Aim: This work involves studying the release characteristics of naproxen sustained release matrix tablet using natural polyelectrolytes and studying some variables affecting the formulation such as the effects of {Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) formation, polymer-polymer ratio, anionic polymer type, a molecular weight of Chitosan (CS), type and amount of diluent} on the release rate of naproxen. Methods: Sixteen formulas were prepared using direct compression with 500 mg total tablet weight. The release properties of naproxen sustained release matrix tablets were investigated using USP dissolution apparatus I (basket). FT-IR spectra of the complexes were studied to indicate the interactions between polyions. Results: The results showed that the release rate of naproxen was decreased in the formulas that contain PEC comparing to the formulas with a single polymer. The formula containing CSh: SA prepared in the ratio of (3:1) showed the slowest release rate (68.17% of naproxen in 7 hr) and extended the release up to 15 hours. It was seen that the formula containing CSh: XG in 3:1 ratio formed the strongest PEC and the release rate extended up to 20 hour. On the other hand, changing the molecular weight of CS from high to low and the type of diluent from lactose monohydrate to Medicines Control Council (MCC) showed a non-significant increase in the release rate. Conclusion: Polyelectrolyte complex prepared from cationic polymer CS and anionic polymer of SA, XG, and CG physical mixtures were successfully formed. Formula 13 formed the strongest PEC with a ratio of CS: XG equal to (3:1) which extended the release up to 20 hr.

6. A Comparative Technique Using as Joint Studying to prove Structure and Determination the Quantitative Estimation of Organic Compound (Irbesartan) as a Drug in Multicomponent Tablet Form
Imad Tarek Hanoon, Abed Mohammed Daheir AL-Joubory, Marwa Mohamed Saied
A simple, specific, accurate, and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Irbesartan (IRB) in pharmaceutical dosage forms in tablets products and sachet using symmetry (L1) column at 30° C. The signal was detected at 225 nm. A mobile phase dissolves 0.5 g of buffer potassium phosphate in 100 ml distilled water and adjusts pH 2.7, methanol and acetonitrile at ratio (40:  30: 30). And the flow rate of 1.2 ml/min-1 at pH=7.2 a mobile phase. The percent recovery  was detected by 101 %, and the linearity of concentration was 10-50 µg.mL-1 and supported this method by using (FT.I.R.) spectrum method for an organic spectrophotometer to prove the chemical structure of this drug and some physical properties. We obtained; the result is identical to other literature. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of the IRB in tablets products.

7. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Patients of Follicular Thyroid Cancer and Study The Therapeutic Effect of Resveratrol on Oxidative Stress in FTC-133 Thyroid Cancer Cell Line
Basma Talib Al-Sudani, Suhad Faisal Hatem Al-Mugdadi, Ahmed Ali Mohammed
The second most common cancer of the Thyroid gland is FollicularThyroid Carcinoma (FTC), second only to papillary carcinoma. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound that has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and apoptotic properties, appears to have substantial cardioprotection and cancer-prevention properties. Furthermore, resveratrol is thought to be responsible for regulating several biological processes, such as metabolism and aging, through the modulation of the mammalian silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) of the Sirtuins family. The purpose of this study is evaluating erythrocyte malondialdehyde’s (MDA) role in the indication of the oxidative status in follicular thyroid carcinoma patients and investigating the therapeutic effect of resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, upon oxidative stress levels in thyroid cancer in vitro. Malondialdehyde was evaluated in erythrocyte of follicular thyroid cancer patients after and before treatment with sodium stibogluconate. Cytotoxicity by MTT assay and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels was measured after resveratrol treatment on follicular thyroid carcinoma FTC-133 cell line. The results of this study confirmed that150 μM Resveratrol inhibited proliferation of FTC-133 thyroid cancer cell line in vitro by 88% after 72hand treatment with 50-200μM Resveratrol reduced ROS levels. To sum up, considering its mode of action, resveratrol might have an important role in providing a source for natural antitumor agents, a fact that would have great therapeutic potential in integrated oncology.

8. The Molecular Sequence Of Giardia Lamblia By Using (tpiA) and (tpiB) Genes
Sinai Muhsin Al-doury, Mamdooh A. Al -Nasrawi, Marwan Q. AL-Samarraie
Gairdia lamblia is one of the parasites that cause intestinal problems within the human body, particularly private travelers and children. In this study, a total of (100) diarrheal patients, 20 patients with Giardiasis were identified by fecal antigen. A total of 9 out of 20(20%) of them were infected by fecal antigen, while 9(9%) of them were infected by using the screening general stool examination (GSE). The stool samples were collected from patient how vested the Medical City/ Baghdad and Tikrit Teaching Hospital during the period from 01 May 2018 to 01 February 2019. The result is revealing a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two methods of detection for G. lamblia (Fecal antigen method and GSE). IT has been shown that out of 20 infected individuals, 12(12%) were males and 8(8%) were females, indicating regarding no significant difference in the distribution of Giardiasis among genders. In regard the age, our results showed that highest infection rate 8(3.2%) was recorded in the age group (10-19) years, followed by the age group (20-2) years which was 692.4%). In this study, five mutations were recorded at position (926, 1094, 1202and 1304), by using tpiA gene sequence method, and tpiB gene was on point mutation change (G254A), in the position (85) of triosephosphate isomerase.

9. Distribution of fimH Gene in Local Isolates of Adhesive Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Omar Abdulkareem Ali,  Ruqayah Q. Taha
Adhesion is an influential step for bacterial vigor in clinical micro-environments; type 1 fimbriae are essential virulence factors that help uropathogenic E. coli in invasion and colonization of uroepithelial cells, the first step of UTIs and biofilm formation. Type 1 fimbriae of E. coli contain FimH protein at the tip encoding via the fimH gene cluster; this study was conducted for determining the fimH gene distribution in uropathogenic E. coli isolated from UTIs patients. The results of adhesion assay show that (83.6%) of uropathogenic E. coli were high adherent isolates. While the results of E. coli fimH gene amplification prove that, for all E. coli isolates, the fimH gene was found in (87.1%), while among high adherent isolates it was found in (92.6%), and that shows the function of type 1 fimbriae in the colonization and infection of urinary tracts in addition to other adhesions virulence agents of uropathogenic E. coli.

10. Antibiotic Profile and Antibacterial Activity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles against Pseudomonas Fluorescens Isolated from Wound Infection
Haider Qassim Raheem, Takwa S. Al-meamar, Anas M. Almamoori
Fifty specimens were collected from wound patients who visited Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital. The samples were grown on Blood and MacConkey agar for 24-48 hour at 37oC. The bacterial isolates, which achieved as a pure and predominant growth from clinical samples as Pseudomonas fluorescens, were identified using morphological properties and Vitek2 system. The antibacterial activity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) against was tested by (disk diffusion assay) using dilutions of (400, 200, 100, 50, 25, and 12.5µg/mL). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each isolate was determined. The CuO NPs shows wide spectrum antibacterial activity against tested bacteria with rising zone of inhibition diameter that is proportionate with the increase in nanoparticle concentration. The MIC of CuO NPs extended from 100-200µg/mL, and the MBC ranged from 200-400µg/ml. The antibiotic profile was determined by Viteck 2 compact system (Biomérieux). CuO NPs found highly effective and safe in P. fluorescens wounds infections comparing with used antibiotics.

11. Potential Activity of Crude Alkaloids against Echinococcus Granulosus in Adult Albino Male Rats
Abeer A. Ali, Ahmed H Saleh
The study was designed to show the activity of crude alkaloids against the toxicity of E. granulosus. In this study, a total of 20 adult albino male rats were used and divided randomly to following groups (each group consist 5 rats); control group received ad libidium, positive group injected with 2,5 X 103 of E. granulosus protoscolices third group injected with protoscolices and treated with 0.25 mg/ml crude alkaloids, fourth group injected with protoscolices and treated with 0.25 mg/mL crude alkaloids. The results show high Scavenging activity of crude alkaloids extracts reaches 88.6%. Otherwise, The results show a highly significant increased (p < 0.05) in levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the group injected with protoscolices compared with the control group. Oxidative stress factors in the group injected with protoscolices show significant increased (p < 0.05) in levels of malonedialdehyied (MDA) and significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in levels of glutathione (GSH) and catalase compared with control group. While, after used crude alkaloids with E. granulosus, the results showed non-significant changes (p < 0.05) in liver functions and MDA, GSH and catalase also showed non-significant changes (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. It was concluded that crude alkaloids has been a potential role against the toxicity of Echinococcus granulosus in male rats.

12. Purification of Levanase from Enterobacter aerogenes and using it as a Prebiotic and Antibacterial Agent
Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Sawsan Mohammed Kareem
A novel strain of Enterobacter aerogenes isolated from rhizosphere soil has an ability to produce intracellular levanase when grown on basal medium containing the levan as substrate. Levanase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 57.85% and 22.5 fold of purification by using ammonium sulfate at 40% saturation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B column and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The purified levanase has a potential prebiotic property of enhancing the growth of lactic acid bacteria while apparently inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Typically, prebiotic properties should not only reduce the growth of pathogens but must also promote the growth of desirable and beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus. Thus the levanase may be used in animal feed to improve digestibility and support gastrointestinal health.

13. Phylogeny Characterization of Seb Gene Encoding Enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Raw Milk and Cheese
Fatima N. Aziz, Laith Abdul Hassan Mohammed-Jawad
Food poisoning due to the bacteria is a big global problem in economically and human’s health. This problem refers to an illness that is due to infection or the toxin that exists in nature and the food that use. Milk is considered a nutritious food because it contains proteins and vitamins. The aim of this study is to detect and phylogeny characterization of staphylococcal enterotoxin B gene (Seb). A total of 200 milk and cheese samples were screened. One hundred ten isolates of Staphylococcus aureus pre- confirmed using selective and differential media with biochemical tests. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolates, and the SEB gene detects using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. Three Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be positive for the Seb gene using PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Sequence homology showed a variety range of identity, starting from (100% to 38%). Phylogenetic tree analyses show that samples (6 and 5) are correlated with S. epidermidis. This study discovered that isolates (A6-RLQ and A5-RLQ) are significantly clustered in a group with non- human pathogen Staphylococcus agnetis.

14. Prognostic Evaluation of Interleukin 17A and Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Colorecal Cancer Patients
Ibrahim A. Altememi, Osamah Abd Ali Nassr
The current study was focused on patients with Colorectal Cancer between the ages of 26–82years. The objective of this study to determine the interleukin (IL-17) level and CD33 expression status in patients with Colorectal Cancer. A total of 60 out of (40 patients and 20 control groups) were collected from gastroenterology and liver diseases teaching hospital from March 2018–May 2018, Iraq. The results show Median IL-17 was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p < 0.001), 12.13 (9.73) pg/ml versus 0.41 (0.67) pg/ml, and Median CD33 was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p < 0.001), 73.00 (5.0) % versus 4.50 (3.75) %.

15. The Relationship Between the Sources of Lactobacillus Isolates and their Antimicrobial Activity
Jenan R. ALwaaili, Rahem E. ALzaidi
Lactobacillus genus was isolated from two different sources, healthy infants feces and some dairy products, identify isolates by traditional methods, and confirm a diagnosis by molecular detection. Susceptibility was tested to some antibiotic, then supernatants antimicrobial activity was tested against some pathogenic bacteria involved Escherichia coli O157: H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella typhimiurum, and Clostridium sp. Morphological, Microscopically, and Biochemical test results showed that eleven isolates were lactobacillus, DNA was extracted from isolates, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reaction was performed to confirm the diagnosis using a specific primer for 16SrDNA in Lactobacillus genus, Lacto F and Lacto R, all isolates gave PCR products with molecular weight 231bp. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that Lactobacillus isolates of healthy infants feces have appeared as multi- resistant to more than one of antibiotics and sensitive to chloramphenicol. While Lactobacillus isolates of dairy products were less resistance to antibiotics, and most of them were sensitive to antibiotics. Also, results showed the varying inhibitory effect of all Lactobacillus isolates supernatants in the growth of pathogenic bacteria in this study; healthy infants feces isolates showed the highest inhibition zone than dairy products Lactobacillus isolates.

16. Hepatic Encephalopathy & Liver Failure in Pediatric Patient with Hepatitis A
Sharma’s Dakhel AbdulHassan
Background; Symptomatic hepatitis A (HA) infection generally only requires caring. The prodromal symptoms incline to recover at the start of jaundice clinically. “fulminant hepatic failure (FHF)” is supposed to be an unusual impediment, occurring merely in 0.14–0.35% of admitted cases. “Hepatic encephalopathy (HE)” is a well-defined variety of neuropsychiatric oddities in those having dysfunction of the liver after omission of brain disease. Patients and methods; Diagnosis of hepatitis A patient after clinical suspicion made, patient send for virology screen in central health lab for virology using ELIZA. Results: All positive cases clinically have “Hepatitis A” involved in the revision, those in turn documented by virology screen, total patient were 357 proved by clinical and lab, five of them had a clinical finding of encephalopathy and liver failure from those four dead and only one had recovery.

17. The Effect of Oral Administration of Green Tea and Ginger Extracts on Blood Glucose in Diabetic Rats
Khulood S. Salim
In recent years, green tea and ginger have become a subject of interest because of their beneficial effects on human health. The present study aimed to compare the effect of long term administration of green tea and ginger, each alone to the impact of their combination on blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Method: A group of 50 male albino rats was divided into five groups (10 rats each group). The normal control group ( NC) administered tap water, other animals were injected by streptozotocin 45mg/Kg body weight intraperitoneally to induce diabetes mellitus (DM) and then divided into four groups ,diabetic control (DC) without treatment, diabetic group administered green tea extract for four weeks (DGT), diabetic group administered ginger extract for four weeks (DGI), and diabetic group administered mixture of green tea and ginger for four weeks (DGG), then we compare the blood glucose level at 1st,2nd,3rd, and 4th week of experiment. Results: We observed that in groups whose water drink was substituted by green tea and ginger extract, the blood glucose level was significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced as compared to diabetic animals. Importantly, we observed that blood glucose level was near the control level when green tea was administered simultaneously with ginger extract. Conclusion: A combination of green tea and ginger may be of great value as a hypoglycemic agents in diabetic patients, the synergism of their effect on glucose regulation process is underlying this results.

18. Improvement of the in vitro Growth and Maturation of Isolated Mouse Preantral Follicles in the Presence of Repaglinide
Sura A. Awadh, Mehri Azadbakht, Faris N. A. Alhady
The development of in vitro culture systems that result to preantral follicles growth and increasing of developmental competency of oocytes obtained from follicles has an important role in fertility preservation and assisted reproductive techniques. In this research, we evaluated the effect of repaglinide on in vitro growth and maturation of preantral follicles. Preantral follicles were isolated from 12–14 day-old female National Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries and cultured for 12 days cultured in alpha minimal essential medium (α-MEM) (Control), α-MEM supplemented with 1µM of repaglinide. Follicles examined for development on 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 days of culture. At the end of the culture period, after HCG administration in vitro oocyte maturation was assessed. Results showed that in vitro follicle growth, survival, the density of granulosa cells, and steroidogenic activity were higher than the control group (p < 0.05). The in vitro maturation rate in oocytes derived from follicles in the treatment group was higher than the control group (p < 0.05). Therefore the supplementation of the culture medium with repaglinide can improve the ovarian follicle survival, growth, and subsequently, in vitro oocyte maturation.

19. Detection and in silico Analysis of rmpA Gene from Soilborne Pathogenic Bacteria
Laith A Hassan Mohamed-Jawad
Soil serves as an ecosystem for diverse microbes that perform various roles and that range from useful organisms in biological and geological processes to dangerous transmitters of diseases. Most types of soilborne bacteria are harmful to humans and causing severe problems. Klebsiella pneumonia considers a serious nosocomial pathogen that causes pneumonia, UTIs, wound, and liver abscesses. One hundred fifty (150) soil samples isolated randomly during the period of November 2014- February 2015. Bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae was the commonest pathogen (36.70%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (22.78%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.65%), Bacillus spp. (10.12%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.06%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.06%), Streptococcus spp.(2.53%), Citrobacter spp.(1.26%) and Pantoea spp.(1.26%), respectively. All K. pneumoniae isolates detected and confirmed by conventional PCR using rmpA gene size 530bp. The positive isolates were sequenced and search for homology. The multiple sequence alignment showed that our bacterial gene have differences in NAD-dependent epimerase and NAD(p)-binding domain sequence at different sites. The differences in the nucleotides at gene sequence for the isolated strain which may give new approach for developing higher sensitive K. pneumoniae strains and for better understanding of the rmpA gene structure that should provide new tools for disease management.

20. Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Glibenclamide by Ion-Pair Complex in Pure Form and Pharmaceutical Formulation
Ruaa Muayad Mahmood, Hamsa Munam Yassen, Samar Ahmed Darweesh, Najwa Issac Abdulla
A simple, rapid, and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method is presented for the determination of glibenclamide (Glb) based on the formation of the ion-pair complex between the Glb and anionic dye, methyl orange (MO) at pH 4. The yellow colored complex formed was quantitatively extracted into dichloromethane and measured at 426 nm. The colored product obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of (0.5–40) μg.mL-1. The value of molar absorptivity obtained from Beer’s data was found to be 31122, Sandell’s sensitivity value was calculated to be 0.0159 μ, while the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.1086 and 0.3292 μ, respectively. The stoichiometry of the complex created between the Glb and MO was 1:1 as determined via Job’s method of continuous variation and mole ratio method. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation.

21. Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Seed Aqueous Extract on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile and Some Hormonal Assay in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Male Albino Rats
Salah M.M. Al-Chalabi1, Rashaa F. Abdul-Lattif2, Ferial A. Al-Mahdawi3, Haylim N. Abud4
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia over a prolonged period, since a long time, diabetes has been treated with plant medicines, one of these important plants is Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek), thus, the investigation goals of this study to clarify the role of fenugreek seed aqueous extract in its therapeutic dose on blood glucose , triglycerides, total cholesterol, lower density lipoprotein( LDL), higher density lipoprotein (HDL),very lower density lipoprotein( VLDL), liver and kidney function by estimating alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea and serum creatinine, also to clarify the role in treatment of infertility by estimating lutilising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ), testosterone hormone level, sperm count, motility and viability in Stereptozotocin induced diabetes rat for 4 weeks of treatment, 60 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups (15 rat for each group), control (normal rats received normal saline), diabetic rats without treatment ,diabetic rats were treated with 300 mg/kg of methanolic plant extract for 4 weeks, diabetic rats treated with 650mg/kg of metformin drug. The result indicated that after 4 weeks of treatment of fenugreek seed aqueous extract, there was an improvement in blood glucose, lipid profile, liver, and kidney function. Although there was an improvement in LH, FSH, testosterone hormone, sperm count, viability and motility

22. The Therapeutic Effect of Some Drugs and Vegetable Juices on the Lipid Profiles in Male Rabbits induced Atherosclerosis
Sawsan T A al-Haddad, Zaid M M Almahdawi, Munife S. Ahmed Al-janabi
This study was designed to test the therapeutic efficacy of some hypotensive drugs and vegetable drinks on some biochemical indicators in male rabbits, where atherosclerosis was developed using 1% cholesterol with food. This study was conducted in June until the end of July 2017 in the Pharmacology Department/General Company for Pharmaceutical Industry in Samarra. In the study, 50 local rabbits were randomly distributed by 10 groups, each containing five animals. The first group considered as the control group. The second group is the control group treated with 1% cholesterol with the food, the third group treated with cholesterol (1% and captopril 0.71 mg), group 4 (cholesterol 1% with atenolol 0.71 mg/kg), group 5 (cholesterol 1%, amlodipine 0.07 mg/kg), group 6 treated with cholesterol 1% and aldomet (0.57 mg/kg), group 7 (cholesterol 1% and furosemide at 3.5 mg/kg), group 8 (cholesterol 1% with garlic syrup 2 mL), group 9 treatment cholesterol 1% and lemon juice), and group 10 Treatment with (1% cholesterol and green tea syrup 2 mL). The results of the study showed a significant increase (p≤0.01)) at the level of each of cholesterol triple and triglycerides, proteins and low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, also led to obtain a significant decrease in the level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in the treatment group with cholesterol 1% compared to control group. At the time of the treatment of anti-pressure drugs: Captopril, Atenolol, Amlodipine, Aldomet, and Furosemide, there were no significant differences in the cholesterol level of all pharmacological groups. Moral differences were not found in LDL-C, and there was a significant decrease (p≤0.01) of the level of triglycerides, proteins, and very low- density lipoproteins, and there was a significant increase in the level of high-density lipoproteins HDL-C, while treatment with plant juices, there was a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) in the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides and LDL, and VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) increased when treated with garlic, lemon, and green tea. We conclude pressure drugs of any kind can cure atherosclerosis or prevent high fat, unlike its counterparts of plants, which have shown a significant effect on controlling lipid profile and reducing their effects and future risks on the heart.

23. Evaluation of Sperm Head Abnormality Traits and Anti-bacterial Properties of Achillea millefolium Methanolic Extract on Methotrexate- induced Albino Male Mice
Ruqaya Mohammed Al-Ezzy, Kholood whayeb Abood, Jasim Mohammed Abdullah, Aya Karim Rdeef
Plants have been used by people from prehistoric times to get rid of suffering and curing ailments. Plants are of the important sources of medicine, and a large number of drugs in use are derived from plants. Yarrow, a member of the aster family, is closely related to chrysanthemums and chamomile. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) was named after Achilles, the Greek mythical figure who used it to stop the bleeding wounds of his soldiers. Decoctions have been used to treat inflammations, such as hemorrhoids and headaches. Yarrow contains flavonoids (plant-based chemicals) that increase saliva and stomach acid, helping to improve digestion. Phenolic acids, such as caffeic acid and salicylic acid, are components of the bioactive compounds present in Achillea millefolium that have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. This study was designed to assess the fertility and anti-bacterial activity of Yarrow methanolic extract through in vivo (albino male mice) and in vitro (antibacterial activity) studies. Results indicated that higher doses of the plant increased sperm head abnormality, and this lead to decreased fertility in addition to that antibacterial activity was dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: Yarrow contains flavonoids and other chemical constituents that have these effects.

24. Detection of combination effect of silver nanoparticles prepared with Pimpinella anisum and some antibiotics on some pathogenic bacteria
Hussein A. R. Abbood, Salah S. Zain alabden
This article aims to detect the effect of combining silver nanoparticles prepared with the extract of the Pimpinella anisum seeds and was obtained from the local markets in the city of Kirkuk. Iraq, with some antibiotics on antibiotic resistance bacteria (E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus), were obtained from Kirkuk General Hospital and re-diagnosed based on reliable diagnostic sources. This study demonstrates that the P. anisum seeds extract reduced the silver ion through changing the solution color to reddish-brown. The examination of silver nanoparticles synthesized by P. anisum the extract of seeds was carried out using X-ray and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray showed spherical shape particles with 44 nm  in size with three diffractions which are indexed as (111), (200) and (220) and the SEM images showed clear particles. The synergistic effects of biosynthesis AgNPs at different concentrations with different standard antibiotic discs (amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin) against multi-antibiotic resistance bacteria were also investigated. The result showed the synergistic action of AgNPs and antibiotics leading to enhance antibacterial activity.

25. Comparative Study Antibacterial Activity of some Medicinal Plants Extracts (Leaves and Peel) against some Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria from Clinical Isolates
Maryam Mansoor Mathkoor, Noor Abd- ulamer Oda, Zahraa Sabbar Omran
The study was conducted of tested the effect of three aqueous and alcoholic extract of medicinal plants from (Ziziphus spina- christi, Punica granatum L. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis ) 100 mg/mL concentration and the sensitivity of to nine antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, augmentin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, vancomycin, tobramycin (10 μg), tobramycin(5μg), ampicillin) against 20 antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria isolate by using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) well diffusion method. Antibacterial activity of alcoholic (ethanol) extraction represented by inhibition zones diameters of three medicinal plants showed a strong activity comparison of aqueous extracts. Especially in the pomegranate extract as the proportion of sensitive bacteria 40 and 25% in Eucalyptus camaldolehsis leaves And less inhibitory in the alcoholic extract of Ziziphus spina-christi as estimated (5%). The ethanolic extracts of Pomegranate Peel have shown an interesting activity against Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella spp, and Brucella abortus with inhibition zones diameters of 30.0, 27.0 and 25.0 mm, respectively. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against almost all the studied pathogenic bacteria and less resistance to other types. It is worth mentioning the existence of results showing the efficacy of plant extracts in inhibiting bacteria resistant to all and many types of antibiotics used in this study, such as Staphylococcus aureus HM, Shigella spp, Enterobacter spp, Salmonella spp T, Salmonella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocot genus.

26. Characterization and Biological Activity of Green Synthesis Silver Nanoparticles
Neeran Obied Jasim, Benin Nabel, Anwer Taleb
This study has been carried out to synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green synthesis by using Streptomyces sp..that isolating from soil and Investigation the antifungal activity of it. Results showed that silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Streptomyces sp in the presence of silver nitrate, and the color change to brown. UV-vis spectrophotometer appears to peak in wavelength at 420 nm, which is prescribed for silver nanoparticles. Also, microscope images by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing the size of Ag nanoparticles in range 15–50 nm. Results of antifungal activity explain the ability of biosynthesis silver nanoparticles to inhibition the growth of fungus T.rubrum.

27. Effect of Exchange of Gases for Tissue Culture Vessels to Produce the Meristem of Solanum tuberosum in vitro
Malek Hubaish Walli, Haider Mahmooed Jasim, Faiq Hassan Ali
The microenvironment in plant tissue culture vessels has a significant effect on the growth and development of plantlets in vitro. The studies have indicated the gas exchange between outside and inside air can effect on microenvironment of culture vessels, therefore, the experiment was conducted to determine the effect of gas exchange on the production of the fabric tissue to micropropagation of Solanum tuberosum and the possibility of storing the fabric to a long time without drought to the culture. In the experiment, two factors were used. The first factor is the volume of gas exchange of the diameter of the filter (1   cm, 1.5 cm, 2 cm, 2.5 cm), and the second factor used four varieties of Solanum tuberosum (eastma, red scarlet, arora, violet).

28. Bacteriological Study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Tonsillitis Patients
Zahraa Hameed Oda Alquraishi, Israa Abdul Ameer Al-Kraety, Aqeel A. Alsadawi
The present study included (50) clinical samples were collected from patients suffering from tonsillitis signs during the period from) November 2018 to January 2019). All specimens were cultured for macroscopic and microscopic study. Results show that out of 50 patients, the male was 60%, and 40% were female. Several morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests showed that P. aeruginosa constituted 18 isolates (36%) of these isolates. P. aeruginosa isolates were 18 isolates diagnosed by the morphological, cultural, and biochemical characters; the identification was confirmed by automated VITEK-2 compact system and molecular method for the presence of OprL. The results showed that only 12 (66.6%) isolates diagnosed as P.  aeruginosa by automated VITEK-2 compact system,  and that was carrying OprL, which are diagnosed as P. aeruginosa by PCR. According to the different diagnostic above, VITEK and PCR method were more sensitivity for P. aeruginosa detection among tonsillitis patients.

29. Prevalence, Practice, and Pattern of Self-medication among Medical Students in Al-Iraqia Medical College, Baghdad, Iraq
Nawar Sahib Khalil1, Reem Ali Haddad 2, Israa Talib Hassan2, Ruqaya Subhi Tawfeeq1
Introduction: Self-medication is increasingly being a common practice worldwide, more so amongst the medical students. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of self-medication among the medical students and to describe the self-reported practice and pattern of medication by undergraduate medical students at Al-Iraqia University in Baghdad city. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional survey. Out of 440 students enrolled, 400 (> 90%) responded. The data was collected using a self-administrated pretested questionnaire and then analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: During the last one year preceding the study, 85% of respondents using self-medication mostly among single students (98.2%), aged 20+ years old (56.5%), in fourth academic level (27.1%), living with their families (73.2%) and of non-sufficient income (54.7%). The main indication for seeking self-medication includes headache as reported by 83.8%, followed by cold and cough and fever 80.3% and pain elsewhere in the body (70%). Drugs commonly used for self-medication included analgesics 89.4% and antipyretic 67.9%. The minor illness was the most common reason for self-medication (80.6%). 56.8% and 45% of respondents follow pharmacists and textbooks, respectively, as a source of information in practicing self-medication. Most of the respondents practiced self-medication for themselves (57.9%) and for both; themselves and their family members (45%). Some level of awareness was reported among non-practiced self-medication students; 60% of them were afraid of the risk of adverse reactions of drugs. Conclusion: Self-medication is broadly practiced among medical students in this college. Therefore, there is a need to improve the medical education program to raise the awareness level regarding the advantage and disadvantages of self-medication to ensure safe usage of drugs.

30. Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) as a Carrier Vehicle for Antimalarial Drugs, Modification, and Application
Rana A. K. Al-Refai’a
Globally more than 45% of the population is under the risk of malaria infection. In this presented work, three different compounds have been tested as anti-malarial agents with and without conjugation to the external surface of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). The particle developed as a carrier of ferrocene (Fc) due to the resistance to commercially available antimalarial drugs. CPMV-Fc conjugate, in which 174 molecules are covalently bound to external surface carboxylates of the viral nanoparticle (VNP), shows the greatest inhibition toward the proliferation of plasmodium falciparum compared to free ferrocene which has no activity as an antimalarial agent. Fc also enhanced the activity of two different compounds of 4-amino chloroquinoline derivatives 3-((7chloroquinolin-4-yl) amino) propionic acid CQp and (7-chloroquinolin-4-yl) alanine chloroquine diphosphate (CQ)-ala, after its conjugation to CPMV-CQp and CPMV-CQ-ala in 82 and 134 molecules per particle respectively to give CPMV-CQ-p-Fc and CPMV-CQ-ala-Fc. The activity of each conjugated ferrocene has been evaluated with and without using biological material. In the case of biological material, these compounds have been tested against both chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 and chloroquine resistance strain Dd2 using the chloroquine as a standard antimalarial drug. The CPMV conjugate is targeted to the food vacuole parasite of the plasmodium falciparum cell, where the pH is dropped, drug carrier is degraded, and the drug released.

31. The Comparative Study Among the MRSAcin, Nisin A and Vancomycin, on Biofilm Formation by Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food Sources
Hind H. Muunim, Muna T. Al-Mossawei, Mais Emad.Ahmed
Biofilms formation by pathogens microbial Control considered important in medical research because it is the hazarded virulence factor leading to becoming difficult to treat because of its high resistance to antimicrobials. Glycopeptide antibiotic a (Vancomycin) and the commercial bacteriocin (Nisin A) were used to comparative with purification bacteriocin (MRSAcin) against MRSA biofilm. One hundred food samples were collected from Baghdad markets from July 2016 to September 2016, including (cheese, yogurt, raw milk, fried meat, grilled meat, and beef burger). All samples were cultures; S. aureus was confirmation by macroscopic culture and microscopic examination, in addition to biochemical tests. Methicillin resistance S. asureus (MRSA) were identification by antibiotic sensitivity test (AST), Vitek 2 system. The result shown the 60(60%) isolate were identified as S. aureus and 45(75%) gave positive result as MRSA isolate, M13 isolate was chosen as MRSA isolates highest biofilm formation for treatment with MRSAcin, Nisin A(bacteriocin) and Vancomycin (antibiotic) to compared the more antimicrobial have bacteriocidal effect. The sensitivity test uses to determine the effect of MRSAcin, Nisin A, and Vancomycin MIC on MRSA planktonic cell by (WDA). The new study shows the impacts of new kind Pure Bacteriocins (MRSAcin) from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) highly effects then (Vancomycin and Nisin A) at different concentration. In a current study aimed to suggest new Bacteriocin is potent highly for the treatment of resistant bacteria biofilm infections in food preservatives.

32. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride and Amoxicillin via Derivative Spectrophotometry
Aseel M Aljeboree, Abbas N Alshirifi
Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride and Amoxicillin via using derivative spectrophotometry is proposed in this work. The recommended derivative spectrophotometric method is suitable for the simultaneous analysis   of univariate method due to its simplicity, low coast and short analysis time, nevertheless the effects of several instrument parameters on the derivative spectra causes a limitation in its application. The suggested method is simple, fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive and shows good linearity and sensitivity. The recommended method enables the estimation of the cited drugs either in the laboratory prepared as a single or in pharmaceutical formulations without prior separation.


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