International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

Disclimer: Scopus and Crossref are registered trademark of respective companies.

This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Berberine Isolated from Stem of Berberis aristata DC
Das Saumya, Das M. Kumar, Anamika
Background: This research was conducted to evaluate berberine as an isolated bioactive compound from Berberis aristata DC for its activity against microbial infections. To examine the antibacterial activity using ethanol hot extraction procedure to verify the medicinal use of B. aristata DC in infection control and qualitatively estimate the phytochemical composition of the plant stem extract. Objective: To isolate a bioactive phytoconstituent from B. aristata DC for its antimicrobial efficacy in managing human infections. Methods: The antibacterial activity of berberine derived from the stem extract was examined against gram-ve and +ve multi-drug resistance examined by diffusion method using an agar-well isolated from the stem extract was examine by the agar-well using a 96-well microtitre plate. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated against each bacterium using both the microtitre plate technique and broth dilution of berberine Results: The appearance of alkaloids in the methanol extract of the stems was demonstrated. The pathogenic bacteria used were Shigella sp., Escherichia coli, including some more standard bacterial strains. These multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria were reported with bacterial inhibition capability when methanol was used as a solvent. In addition, the effect of berberine against Shigella sp. was the maximum inhibition zone size (1.25 cm). Ciprofloxacin 30 μg/disc served as the reference/ +ve control, whereas 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was the -ve control. These chosen bacteria were reported minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of berberine values ranging from 200 to 1000 μg/mL. Conclusions: B. aristata DC stem extract berberine showed antibacterial properties using hot methanol against all bacteria. In alternative and complementary medicine, berberine is used to treat diseases caused by many strain of bacteria.

2. Fabrication and Characterization of Tolnaftate Loaded Topical Nanoemulgel for the Treatment of Onychomycosis
Nagalakshmi S, Tejas DS, Yamini M, Taaha ZN, Monisha RL, Anumita G, Logeswaran K
The core objective of this work was to formulate nanoemulgel containing tolnaftate loaded for sustained delivery of the treatment of onychomycosis. Onychomycosis was not regarded as a serious infection until quite recently. The oral antifungal therapy for onychomycosis usually lasts long and brings a set of adverse effects, especially hepato-toxicity and drug interactions. The incidence of onychomycosis in with more prevalent in warm humid climates topical therapy is usually prescribed only in mild cases. It prevails among around 5% of the total world population and affects toenails much more than fingernails. The incidence of onychomycosis with more prevalent in warm humid climates so an attempt has been made to develop nanoemulsion containing tolnaftate. Formulations were optimized by factorial design. Developed formulations were evaluated and characterized for drug content-96.72, in-vitro release study-68.42%, SEM study. Based on the drug content, in-vitro release study, and SEM study, the optimized formulation was converted into nanoemulgel. The developed topical nanoemulgel was evaluated for the determination of pH 6.60, determination of spreadability 17.77, measurement of viscosity 12350 cp, drug content Study 96.52%, in-vitro drug release study 70.42% found to be effective and producing a sustained effect.

3. Evaluation of the Possible Protective Effect of Fisetin against Cyclophosphamide-induced Genotoxicity in Bone Marrow and Spleen Cells of Male Rats
Amani Jabber, Nada N. Al-Shawi, Ali F. Hasan
Fisetin is a plant flavonoid found in strawberries and other fruits and vegetables such as apples, persimmons, and onions. It has many pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and anti-carcinogenicity which are attributed to its ability to reduce oxidative stress which considers the main reason for different disease conditions. Genotoxicity refers to the genetic material destruction within the cell which can be caused by different chemicals as well as radiation. The present study evaluates the effect of orally-administered fisetin daily for seven constitutive days on genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in rats’ bone marrow and spleen cells. Results showed that fisetin exhibited a non-significant increase in total chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, and micronucleus appearance in comparison with the same parameters in control group rats (p>0.05); and it produces protection when administered before cyclophosphamide by causing significant decrease (p<0.05) in the total chromosomal aberrations, chromatid breaks, ring chromosome, and chromosomal breaks in BM cells and total chromosomal aberrations and chromosomal breaks in spleen cells were shown. In conclusion, fisetin has no genotoxic effect on bone marrow and spleen cells when orally administered alone to rats, and it exhibits some protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity.

4. Solid Lipid Nanoparticle-based Gel to Enhance Topical Delivery for Acne Treatment
Nandgude TD, Parakhe PS, Patole VC
The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment of acne and pimples by formulating Terminalia chebula-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) based gel. Methanolic extract of T. chebula is loaded into SLN by single emulsification – Solvent evaporation method followed by ultrasonication. Box-Behnken Design was employed for the optimization of the formulation. The goal was to produce SLN with the highest %entrapment efficiency while also reducing particle size. Particle size (Y1) and entrapment efficiency (Y2) were significantly affected by a few factors, including the amount of lipid, the concentration of the surfactant, and the time of the sonication, which is considered as a critical factor during the optimization of SLN. The average particle size T. chebula-loaded SLNs decreased with increasing concentration of surfactant. The SLNs particle size of (201 nm) with a polydispersity index of (0.342) was obtained at significant concentration of lipid and surfactant. High entrapment efficiency of SLN’s 70.11% revealed the ability of SLNs to incorporate a high quantity of T. chebula. Further, When TC loaded SLN incorporated into carbopol 934 Gel, it showed initial burst release followed by a sustained release at 8 hour time span. Carbopol 934 increases the contact time of formulation via the topical route.

5. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Metformin Hydrochloride and Gliclazide in Bulk and Tablet Formulation
S Patel, P Soni, LK Omray
The current study’s goal was to develop and validate an easy-to-use, highly-sensitive HPLC approach for simultaneously quantifying metformin and gliclazide in dosage forms on a single chromatographic run. Water symmetry Shield RP 8 column, 250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 m, detection wavelength of 230 nm, mobile phase of buffer of pH 2.5 adjusted with orthophosporic acid and 1-mL triethylamine and methanol in a gradient programme for 25 minutes at 1.0-mL/min flow rate, 10 L injection volume, and 25 °C column temperature were the chromatographic conditions that were used. Retention times for metformin and gliclazide were found to be 2.23 and 14.88 minutes, respectively. According to ICH criteria, the method’s accuracy, precision, and resilience were evaluated.

6. Assessment of Serum Levels of the WNT Pathway Antagonist (Dickkopf-1) in a Sample of Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy using Two Groups of Antidiabetics
Sara A. Kadhim, Eman S. Saleh, Aymen D. Jaafar
Objectives: Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is WNT/b-catenin pathway antagonist which plays a detrimental role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). This research aimed to assess serum DKK-1 levels in diabetic patients who have and have not developed DR and, compare them with the control subjects finding out whether we can use it as an indicator for DR early diagnosis and to find out which one of the widely used two groups of antidiabetic treatments had the greater effect on this biomarker and hence on the progression of DR. Methods: The study participants were divided into two subgroups: First, 70 patients (36 male, 34 female) with type 2 diabetes mellitus, among them 35 patients diagnosed with DR and 35 with no evidence of DR, and secondly, non-diabetic controls (11 male, 9 female) were selected from the patients attending Ibn AL-Haitham hospital for ophthalmology and a specialized center for endocrinology and diabetes. Venous blood samples of all participants were drawn after an overnight fast, and serum samples were stored at -20ºC until DKK-1 assay. Results: Serum DKK-1 showed significantly lower levels in diabetic patients with (6.1 ± 2 ng/mL) or without DR (14 ± 6.2 ng/mL) when compared to those of controls (34 ± 12.25 ng/mL) (p<0.05). Furthermore, serum DKK-1 levels were lower in the late stage of DR compared to the early stage 5.6 ± 1.7 and 7 ± 1.9 ng/mL, respectively. Furthermore, DPP-4 inhibitors cause a better increment in DKK-1 levels when compared to SU in the NDR group.Conclusions: Reduced serum levels of DKK-1 are related to the existence and worsening of DR and have the prospect to serve as an indicator for this condition.

7. Extraction, Isolation, and Characterization of Pelargonidin 3,5-O-Diglucoside Salt from Pomegranate Flowers
Kamble K. G, Laddha K. S
This study aimed to understand the simple and reliable process for obtaining pelargonidin 3,5-o-diglucoside from pomegranate flowers. The process of isolating, characterizing, and exploring a constituent’s potential for natural origin is the first step in the development of new pharmacological frameworks. The investigation covers preliminary screening, titrable acidity, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, total reducing sugar content, and spectrum analysis by UV, IR, spectrofluorometric analysis, and EDS. The DPPH technique is then used to assess antioxidant activity. the 3, 5-O-diglucoside of pelargonidin. The cold maceration method removed HCl from pomegranate flowers using a green solvent methanol containing 0.1% methanolic HCl. Anthocyanins, flavonoids, and tannins are found in the methanolic pomegranate flower extract as secondary metabolites, according to preliminary screening. Total phenolic content (1.40–6.19 mg/g) of gallic acid as standard), total anthocyanin content 0.03 to 0.68 mg equivalent to cyanidin 3-glucoside (CGE)/g. UV-vis spectra showed λmax in the visible region at502 nm. It showed strong DPPH radical activity at 85.80%, equivalent to the ascorbic acid standard. Energy dispersion X-ray analysis checked for elemental detection. The titrable acidity was found to be 1.216 in terms of citric acid. LCMS analysis for structural confirmation. Thus, the anthocyanins from agro-waste of pomegranate flowers could be the best way to extract and isolation it for commercial, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical use.

8. Box–Behnken Design Based Optimization of Process Variables for the Green Synthesis of 18-Beta–Glycyrrhetinic Acid Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of its Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity
Adeep Kujur, Sanjay J. Daharwal
Using 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, a well-known component of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra Lin.), the current study offers a unique rapid ecological & simple approach of biologically synthesizing of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To synthesise stable silver nanoparticles via a biological reduction technique, a methanolic stock solution of 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid was produced and used as capping and reducing agent. The approach was methodically optimized using response surface analysis (RSA) based Box-Behnken design (BBD), taking into account influence of parameters like as silver nitrate (AgNO3) concentration, incubation time and temperature on response. RSA was utilized to determine the association among factors and the responses by mathematical modelling with a quadratic polynomial model. AgNO3 (1mM), 55°C, and 5 hours incubation were optimal. 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid methanolic stock solution can convert silver ions (Ag+) into silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in 5 hours at 55°C. Biosynthesized and optimized AgNPs have an SPR absorption peak at 419 nm in their UV spectra. 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid reduced and capped silver ions according to FTIR spectroscopy. XRD showed AgNPs’ crystallinity. SEM revealed spherical elemental silver with particle size of 100 nm. Average particle size, PDI & Zeta were 83.36 nm, 0.462 and -35.4mV, respectively, at 100% intensity. Silver nanoparticles (GAAgNPs) are stable. DPPH experiment showed substantial antioxidant activity in GAAgNPs compared to ascorbic acid. At 10 μg/mL, AgNPs showed utmost region of inhibition of 15 and 14 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Finally, the synthesized AgNPs and their quality components have strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity, indicating that this research can be used to formulate useful biomedical goods.

9. Ultrasonic and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Subjects
Nadia M. Shalal, Affan E. Hasan, Sheelan MS. Hasan
Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most prevalent upper-limb entrapped neuropathy. A nerve conduction study (NCS) is the simplest method for identifying CTS when combined with a satisfactory clinical assessment and physical assessment. Ultrasound is a beneficial non-traumatic screening approach for CTS and there is a relationship between the NCS tests and the measures of CSA by ultrasound. Objective: to assess whether or not sonographic observations of the median nerve seems to be varied amongst DM and non-DM CTS individual. Patients and methods: The total of 50 non-DM Individuals with CTS and 50 DM individuals with CTS have been included in this study. All individuals were submitted to full medical assessment NCS testing the hands and sonogram US for assessment of cross-sectional area CSA and wrist forearm ratio (WFR). Results: Total 100 affected wrists with CTS are classified as 30 (60.0%) wrists with mild disease, 11 (22.0%) wrists that demonstrated moderate disease and 9 (18.0%) wrists had a severe disease in diabetic CTS patients and 23 (46.0%) wrist mild disease, 20 (40.0%)wrist show moderate disease, 7 (14.0%) wrist had a severe disease in non-diabetic CTS patient. The mean of the median nerve CSA was (0.14+0.03), (0.15+0.04) in diabetic and non-diabetic CTS individuals, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. In contrast, the wrist-forearm ratio demonstrates a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The CSA of the median nerve is greater in CTS wrists through both DM and non-DM individuals with no significant difference. The mean wrist-forearm ratio was less in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic with a significant difference. Pairing NCS with US imaging gives effective assessment methods for the CTS hands in individuals with and without diabetes.

10. Design, Development and Characterization of Ropinirole Mouth Dissolving Film by using Spin Coating Technique
Bhavana Akhade, Vivekanand Chatap, Prashant Jain, Mahesh Bhat
The aim of the research was to develop a ropinirole mouth-dissolving film employing solvent casting and spin coating methods with sesbenia gum acting as a film-forming agent. Parkinson’s disease is treated with ropinirole. Sesbenia gum was designed as a film-forming ingredient in the 25 to 600 mg concentration range for solvent casting and 50 to 250 mg for spin coating. For both procedures, the concentration of the plasticizer propylene glycol was optimized between (0.3 and 1.0 mL). Film-forming agent and plasticizer effects at various concentrations were examined. For the solvent casting and spin coating processes, the plasticizer concentration was 0.3 mL for each, while the optimal film-forming agent concentrations were 50 and 150 mg, respectively. Ropinirole MDFs were made employing an enhanced concentration and more excipients. In comparison to the solvent casting approach, the spin coating process produced films with better surface morphology, a 24 seconds shorter disintegration time, good tensile strength of 3.2 (N/mm2), a thinner thickness of 0.2 mm, and a maximum drug content of 93.14%. Sesbenia gum has been discovered to have greater potential for the spin-coating method of developing a ropinirole mouth-dissolving film.

11. Formulation and Evaluation of Probiotics Properties of Lactobacillus with Antimicrobial Activities
Abhinandan Patil, Firoj Tamboli, Dinanath Gaikwad, Pralhad Mudalkar, Kamal Alaskar
This study emphasizes exhibiting probiotics activities of Lactobacillus, formulation as granules, synthesizing nanoparticle by using Lactobacillus and demonstrating antimicrobial activity. Probiotics are not only microbes present in milk but also as are functional food to heal diseases. Four different isolates were obtained from sheep milk. These microbe’s growth profile was observed in different animal milk, and some biochemical studies were conducted. All four isolates were tested against gram positive and negative microorganisms like Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus faecalisis, Staphylococcus aureus etc. The nanoparticles of TiO2 was developed by using LAB via green synthesis. Granules of probiotics were prepared by using maltodextrin as agent by a lyophilization drying technique. The flow properties were studied for the prepared granule as formulation. The colony forming unit observed in case milk of buffalo was higher (12* X 109 CFU ± 2.5) which was observed in the other milking animals milk. The four isolates were identified as Lactobacillus (LAB) by Gram staining, motility catalase activity, along with other biochemical assays. The mimicking in-vitro simulation study showed higher survival rate in the intestine, demonstrated by bile salt studies. Microbes as a whole showed a good zone of inhibition as compared to the supernatant. Finally, these isolates have proven to be a good probiotic candidate that can be used as a natural antibiotic agent as a nutraceutical nominee. Granules exhibit good flow properties in case of all LAB formulations. The green synthesis of nanoparticles from LAB was observed at the absorption band at 405 to 410 nm using the UV method. LAB extracted from sheep milk was proven in the current investigation exhibiting as a potential candidate for the future probiotic antibacterial agent that resists GI environment.

12. Formulation and Evaluation of Babchi Oil loaded Microsponges for the Management of Vitiligo
Krutika S. Bobde, Kanchan Upadhye, Vaibhav P. Uplanchiwar, Vinod M. Thakare, Anshu R Dudhe, Gayatri R. Katole, Namrata S. Mane, Prashant Bhokardankar
There are several purported biological effects of babchi oil (BO), including its ability to reduce inflammation, modulate the immune system, fight free radical damage, eliminate fungi and germs, and more. This study aims to develop microsponges containing BO encapsulated in ethyl cellulose (EC) and the natural gum Sterculia foetida (SF), hoping to improve their stability, immunomodulatory function, and cutaneous toxicity. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was utilized as a stabilizer, and dichloro methane (DCM) was used as a solvent in a process known as quasi-emulsion solvent evaporation. The produced micro formulations were studied for their in-vitro drug release rate, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and overall manufacturing yield. Stability testing showed that applying the natural gum SFG (S. foetida gum) increased the stability of BEO-loaded microsponges, making them suitable for human consumption.

13. Significance of Blink Reflex as a Neurophysiological Marker of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Sulaf E. Izzat, Ghassan T. Saeed
Background: The cranial neuropathies incidence is higher in diabetic patients in comparison to healthy people. The III and VII cranial nerves are commonly affected, but trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves are also affected. The blink reflex is a measure of the cranial and CNS conduction pathways. Method: The study included a group of 60 diabetic patients compared with 60 healthy individuals (non-diabetic) without any pain, paresthesia, or weakness in either limb.Objective: This research aims to assess the significance of the blink reflex in the early detection of cranial neuropathy in diabetic patients, as well as to compare the blink reflex abnormalities in diabetic patients with HbA1c, length of DM, and sural nerve amplitude.Results: A significant statistical difference between the cases and control was for (R.1) latency, (I.R.2) latency, (C.R.2) latency, (I.R.2) duration, and (C.R.2) duration with a p-value <0.001. No statically significant correlation was found between the duration of diabetes mellitus and the blink reflex parameters. Regarding HbA1c, a significant positive association with (I.R.2) latency and (C.R.2) latency was noted (r = 0.3, p-value <0.001), and also a strong negative correlation association was found with (I.R.2) duration and (C.R.2) duration (p-value <0.001). Sural nerve amplitude correlated negatively with blink reflex latencies and positively with blink reflex duration Conclusion: The blink reflex test is an effective tool for diagnosing cranial neuropathy in individuals with diabetes without clinical symptoms or proof of CNS damage.

14. Development of Validated Stability Indicating HPTLC Method for Estimation of Febuxostat in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form by Using QBD Approach
Vrushali Kharate, Mohini Kuchekar, Minal Harde, Bhushan Pimple, Vinita Patole, Manisha Salunkhe, Pooja Wadgave, Manish Bhise, Asmita Gaikwad, Harshal Tare
Objective: Development of a simple, reliable, time-tested, stability-focused HPTLC method for determining febuxostat (FEB) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Methods: Chloroform, methanol, and formic acid (6.7:2.9:0.1v/v/v) served as the mobile phase, and precoated aluminum TLC plates served as the stationary phase. Active drug FEB was subjected to a densitometric measurement (absorbance mode at 312 nm). The present study performed a comprehensive stress test of FEBas per ICH Q1A(R2) guidelines. FEB has undergone forced degradation by acid, alkali (0.5N HCl and NaOH), oxidative (3% H2O2), H2O and photolytic effect. Results: Calibration plots using HPTLC linear regression analysis indicated a strong correlation (r2 = 0.999) between concentrations from 150 to 900 ng/spot. Accuracy, recoverability, robustness, and documentation are some of the aspects of the method that have been verified. The LoD was 189 ng and the LoQ was 395 ng per location. FEB was not degraded under acid, UV, water, peroxide and photolytic conditions but showed degradation under alkaline conditions. Conclusion: Stability studies and quantification of FEB in bulk and pharmaceutical dose forms by QBD methodology have both been shown to benefit from the suggested HPTLC method. This technique can be utilized as a stability indicator because it successfully isolates the medication from the degradation product.

15. Impact of Carboxymethylation of Albizia procera Gum on Rheological Changes and Drug Release from Matrix Tablets
Sudipta Mukherjee, Biswanath SA, Jasmina Khanam, Sanmoy Karmakar, Rudranil Bhowmik
The use of carbohydrate polymers in pharmaceutical formulations as drug delivery carriers has gained significant interest from many perspectives. As an exudate of the Albizia tree, Albizia procera (Mimosaceae), a carbohydrate polymer, is used as an excipient to develop sustained-release drug delivery systems, owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of carboxymethylation of A. procera gum on rheological properties and drug release from the matrix tablet formulations. The study also revealed the comparative characterization of the native form of A. procera (NAP) as well as the carboxymethylated A. procera (CMAP). The rheological assessments of both polymers under different pH divulged the flow behavior, linear viscoelasticity (LVE), structural deformation, and gel network formation. The drug release from NAP and CMAP matrices of various formulations were evaluated and established correlations with rheology.

16. Development, Characterization and Short-Term Stability Studies of Chitosan-Lipid Hybrid Nanocarrier System
Manoj B. Shinde, Adhikrao V. Yadav
Pharmaceutical nanocarriers have recently been widely used to improve drug performance and reduce side effects. They have been shown to be effective for controlled release, sustained release, and targeted delivery. It is also possible to accomplish effective drug utilization, improve permeability, and attain selectivity of drugs. Chitosan polymer attracted the attention of formulation scientists due to its biocompatible, biodegradable nature and utility in drug delivery as a permeation enhancer, as well as its ability to achieve sustained, controlled, site-specific release. Furthermore, it has been shown to be an efficacious counter to both gram -ve and +ve bacteria. Chitosan is a useful carrier for a variety of nanosystems. Targeting the intestinal region of the gastrointestinal track the lymphatic system and other novel approaches will be possible if combined with long-chain fatty lipids. The present work developed a chitosan-lipid nanocarrier system (CLNS) by melt emulsification with sonication. The prepared system was assessed for size analysis, and determination of PDI, zeta potential and the findings were 221.3 ± 3.2 nm, 0.251 ± 0.01, 26.9 ± 2.2 mV, respectively. FTIR analysis reveals the polymer’s compatibility with lipid. DSC and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of amorphous CLNS. The TEM findings suggest that CLNS have a nearly spherical shape with a smooth surface morphology. Furthermore, the carrier system was tested for short-term stability studies, and it was observed that the system is more stable at refrigerated (4℃) and normal environmental conditions (25 ± 2℃ / 60 ± 5% RH)than that of the accelerated conditions (40 ± 2℃/75 ± 5% RH).

17. Screening for Alcohol Dehydrogenase Inhibitors from Dendrobium Using the In-silico Method
Samsul Hadi, Deni Setiawan, Kunti Nastiti, Muhammad R. Ridha, Yustinus Maladan
The incidence of acute kidney failure has become a concern and needs preventive action as soon as possible. Fomepizole and ethanol are the treatment options for acute kidney injury (AKI). The development approach is carried out through structural approaches to fomepizole or ethanol, anti-inflammatory activity, and chelate formation. Dendrobium is a potential plant with various activities and many secondary metabolites such as bibenzyl, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, and phenanthrenes. This study aims to find compounds that have the potential to be ADH inhibitors from Dendrobium using the in-silico method. To identify potential natural compounds, 94 compounds from Dendrobium were taken from the KNApSAcK family database. Files from the receptor were prepared with YASARA software. Protox-II used to predict compound toxicity. Three compounds were obtained: o-succinyl benzoic acid, 3,4’-Dihydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl, and gigantol. All of them interact stably with ADH based on energy binding values. O-succinyl benzoic acid as the strongest, followed by gigantol, and 3,4’-Dihydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl.

18. Design, Development, and Evaluation of Transdermal Patches Containing Donepezil Hydrochloride
Valeveti SK, Pashikanti S
This study aimed to develop a donepezil hydrochloride (DH) transdermal drug delivery system to address non-compliance due to dementia in Alzheimer’s patients. DH has a low dose, balanced hydrophilicity/lipophilicity, and low toxicity making it suitable for transdermal. DH transdermal patches were prepared using a polymer and plasticizer matrix system via box-Behnken design and evaluated for properties. Formulation B2 containing hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC), and xanthan gum was optimal, exhibiting a maximum of ~99.17% in-vitro drug release for 48 hours. In-vivo pharmacokinetic parameters studied in rabbits were superior to commercial DH tablets. The study demonstrates the potential for DH transdermal patches as an alternative to oral medication for Alzheimer’s patients. The patches can provide sustained release for prolonged periods without requiring multiple doses. However, further confirmation is needed via in-vivo pharmacodynamic and human pharmacokinetic studies.

19. Detecting the Concentration of Some Trace Elements in Blood Samples of Fuel Station Workers
Amani Q. Alhadithi, Faiza Kadhim
Trace elements mediate critical biological events by functioning as cofactors or catalysts for numerous enzymes and as centers for enzyme and protein structure stabilization. As a result, imbalances in trace element metabolism and homeostasis (deficiency or excess) may play a role in a number of disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood concentration of essential trace elements of fuel station workers blood in AL-Ramadi city compared with any people who didn’t work in fuel station (control) by measurement of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) because they have negative effects on metabolism and considered to be carcinogenic factors. Total 50 male fuel workers and 50 control from ten fuel stations at Al-Ramadi City- Iraq, were participated in the present study. The levels of Zn, Cu and Fe in serum were measured spectrophotometrically by using laboratory kits. The result clarified that there was a significant increase in zinc, copper and iron mean (p<0.05) in fuel workers group compared to control group. Age had a significant correlation with copper levels and no correlation with zinc and iron. The daily hours of exposure showed no significant correlation with zinc, copper and iron. There was a significant increase in zinc levels in smokers compared to nonsmokers; copper and iron showed no correlation with smoking. The years of work in fuel stations significantly correlated with zinc and copper levels, while it showed no correlation with iron levels. The results of this study showed that there is no significant correlation between zinc, copper and the worker’s weight, while it showed a significant weak positive correlation between iron and the worker’s weight (p<0.05). There was a significant increase in copper levels in the workers with chronic illnesses compared to healthy workers, while zinc and iron had no correlation with chronic illnesses. The conclusion of study is the role of the increase of trace elements on the health of the fuel workers group, attention to use of safety gloves and face mask is recommended for fuel workers and a long follow-up to the studied group is necessary to discover the developments. Also, it is highly recommended to reduce the working hours for fuel workers in order to decrease the accumulative effects of benzene exposure and to allow the body to detoxify the blood.

20. Formulation and Optimization of Colon-Specific Nanoparticles Containing A Herbal Anticancer Agent
Saraf A, Dubey N, Dubey N, Sharma M
Colon cancer is one of the major ailments associated with increased death rate globally. This study aimed to design and optimize a nanoparticulate system for delivering sulforaphane (SFN), a dietary phytochemical with anticancer properties, to the colon. Eudragit S100, a pH-sensitive polymer was utilized to fabricate polymeric nanoparticles for delivering the drug specifically to the colon. The nanoparticles were formulated by nanoprecipitation technique and applied design of experiments (DoE) for optimization and validation. The optimized formulation was characterized for its physicochemical properties, such as particle size, shape, surface morphology, encapsulation efficiency, zeta potential, polydispersity index, in-vitro drug release, and stability at refrigerated conditions. The prepared NPs revealed spherical and smooth surfaces and value of polydispersity index, particle size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were found to be 0.255, 119.46 ± 0.09 nm and -35.68 ± 0.75 mV and 64.17 ± 0.56%, respectively. The in-vitro drug release study showed that the optimized nanoparticles exhibited minimal drug release at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8, but significant and sustained drug release at pH 7.4 corresponded to the colon’s pH. The stability study indicated that the prepared formulation was stable at refrigerated condition for six months. These findings suggest that the developed delivery system could be a promising strategy for effectively encapsulating and delivering the phytochemical anticancer agent to the colon.

21. Development and Evaluation of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Freeze-Dried Injection
Amit R. Bukkawar, Amit K. Jain, Vivekanand K. Chatap
Introduction: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a ubiquitous, naturally synthesized human peptide is extensively documented to have diverse physiological effects like anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, anti-hypertensive, stimulation of contractility in the heart, vasodilation, and promoting neuroendocrine-immune communication. The synthetic form of VIP is called aviptadil (AVP). The main objective of this research was to develop a novel stable lyophilized dosage of VIP (Aviptadil) using sucrose as a bulking agent. AVP is a peptide with known concern for aqueous stability, which seems to be challenging for storing finished drug products and supply chain management. The VIP injection was developed using the lyophilization technique in the presence of bulking agent and some other pH-adjusting agent. The bulking agent and solvent system selection depends upon the solubility, stability of the drug substance, and feasibility during manufacturing. During product formulation development, the bulk solution was evaluated for processing time and temperature impact. The lyophilization cycle was developed using the most advanced freeze-drying technology. Result and discussion: With the usage of bulking agent (sucrose) as may act as a cryoprotectant for peptide, the formulated bulk solution was freeze-dried, and primary drying was done at-25°C (below than critical product temperature) followed by secondary drying at 25°C. The critical quality attributes of lyophilized drug products like the description of lyophilized cake/powder, moisture content, reconstitution time, active drug content and color of the solution were evaluated. The developed formulation bulk solution was stable and compatible with contact materials like SS vessels when hold up to 24 hours at 2 to 8°C. The optimized freeze-dried product meets the predefined acceptance criteria as part of the quality target product profile. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the research work carried out that a stable lyophilized parenteral formulation containing VIP (AVP) was developed using sucrose as a bulking agent. These findings show that the freeze-dried formulation is an appropriate technological remedy for stabilizing VIP in lyophilized injectable dosage form.

22. Role of higB-higA Novel Genes in Antibiotics Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Aysar A. Ali, Enass G. Sweedan
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a devious pathogen with the tendency to prompt many acute and serious chronic diseases. This study aims to detect novel genes (Toxins-Antitoxins II system), especially; higB and higA encoded from P. aeruginosa by PCR technique and the relation between these genes and antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa.Methods: This study detected 50 isolates of P. aeruginosa from distinct clinical sources. The most common origin of isolates was (44%) burn swabs, (22%) urine culture, (12%) wound swabs, (14%) sputum, and (8%) ear swabs. The bacteria were isolated using implantation MacConkey agar and blood agar, as well as biochemical tests including oxidase test, catalase test then VITEK-2 System of P. aeruginosa isolates was improved a final identification. While the determination of sensitivity to antibiotics by using the ASST-VITEK2 compact system method. Genotypic detection was carried out using conventional polymerase chain reaction for higB and higA.Also sequencing of products for higB-higA genes were detected. Results: The results revealed that 82% of isolates have novel genes higB in 823pb while only 30% have higA in 712pb have this gene. This study discovered correlations among toxins-antitoxins II (higB-higA ) genes and resistance to antibiotics in P. aeruginosa with significant when (p<0.05) and highly significant differences when (p<0.01).Conclusion: It was proposed that these genes have an important role in increasing resistant bacteria to antibiotics. As well as was introduced that antibiotic activity may be increased by the effecting of these genes and vice versa.

23. The Effect of Living Place and Smoking on Blood Level of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury: As a Model of Pollutants in Human Blood
Duha A. Mohammed, Munther H. Rathi, Talib J. Kadhim
It is known that heavy metals (as lead, cadmium and mercury) are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density 5 times greater than that of water. Their different industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications may led to distribution widely in the environment, raising their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Their effects and degree of toxicity depend on several factors, including the level of these metals in the blood and the age, gender, genetics, smoking, living place, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Accordingly and in fact is needed to estimate heavy metals levels in the blood of living people in different areas in Iraq from time to time. The present study was designed to search the relation between heavy metal (lead, cadmium, and mercury) levels in the blood of people and smoking, and living place (rural, and city center), gender, as factors that may aggravate heavy metal toxicity in Diyala Province. Total 72 patients were considered in this study. Group (A) of 21 males (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7) each sub group compose of three males, A1, A2, A3, from rural areas, while A4, A5, A6, A7,were from the center of the city, and group (B) of 51 females ( B1. B2. B3, B4) each sub group of 12, 13, 8, 18 in number respectively according to availability, at age (≤ 29), and at age (≥30). The results showed that in comparison 1 the level of lead and cadmium in the blood of individuals living in the center of the city was significantly higher in comparison to those living in the village in both mail and females at age (≤ 29), While in comparison 2, it was noted that the level of lead and cadmium together in the villagers was more than its level in the blood of city resident individuals, but statistically was not significant. The city’s residents than those in rural areas had more levels of mercury in their blood in all comparisons but statistically was not significant between the studied groups. The smoking factor had an effect on the levels of heavy metals in the blood, as the level of lead in smokers was higher compared to its level in non-smokers (control group) in comparisons 3 and 1, while the opposite was in comparison 2, the level of lead increased in non-smokers but statistically was not significant. The level of cadmium in the blood of smokers was higher compared to its level in non-smokers in all comparisons, as well as with mercury, its level increased in smokers in comparisons 3 and 1, except for comparison 2, where its level increased in non-smokers. The concentration of lead and mercury did not exceed the internationally permissible limits in individuals’ blood, while the cadmium level exceeded the internationally permissible limits.

24. Development of Novel Directly Compressible Isomalt-based Co-processed Excipient
Sandhan S B, Wagh M P, Inamdar Nazma
Objective: The study aims to improve the tableting qualities by coprocessing isomalt with PEG 4000 and crospovidone.Methodology: The melt granulation method was adopted for coprocessing isomalt with PEG 4000 and crospovidone. The proportion of constituents was optimized using full factorial design. Particle size distribution, true density, moisture content, flowability, flow rate, SEM analysis, dilution potential, and tablet ability were all examined for optimized co-processed isomalt-based excipient and compared with isomalt. Result and Discussion: Co-processed isomalt-based excipients had 40% dilution potential for paracetamol as compared with 20% for isomalt. Co-processed isomalt-based excipient showed 30% dilution potential for mefenamic acid and aspirin. Co-processed isomalt overcomes the lamination and sticking problem, which has better tablet ability, binding, disintegration, and lubricating potential.

25. Evaluation of Nephroprotective Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Trachyspermum ammi Leaves and Citrus paradisi Fruits against Prednisolone Induced ADPKD in Experimental Rats
T. Naga Varalakshmi, V. Chitra
The study evaluated the nephroprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Trachyspermum ammi leaves and Citrus paradisi fruits against prednisolone-induced ADPKD in experimental rats. The hydroalcoholic extracts were given orally at 100 and 200 mg/kg for a period of 28 days. Kidney function was evaluated by measuring serum and urine creatinine, urea, uric acid, and proteinuria. Histopathological studies were also conducted. Materials and methods: Animal model was used to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from T. ammi leaves & C. paradisi fruits against prednisolone induced ADPKD in Wistar rats.

26. Process Optimization of Carvacrol Nanobeads: DoE Approach
Falguni Tandel, Aanal Pandya, Bijal Prajapati
Present study aims optimization of critical process parameters of carvacrol nanobeads by DoE-based approach. Two factorial design was applied in which critical process parameters – mixing time of magnetic stirrer, mixing speed of magnetic stirrer and speed of homogenizer were chosen as factors against entrapment efficiency as responses. The entrapment efficiency of different trials of carvacrol-loaded nanobeads as per two factorial design was estimated as their responses. Carvacrolis is a phenolic monoterpenoid present in many essential oils of Labitae family. Carvacrol has antimicrobial action, so it kills many types of pathogens. For entrapment efficiency, UV spectrophotometric method was used using methanol as solvent. Two factorial design was successfully applied, and results were analyzed using Design Expert software. From the two-factorial design, it is concluded that there are significant changes occurs due to critical process parameters as the results of three factorial design shows significant data also calculated F-value is also more than tabulated F-value which indicates model is compatible and significant for mixing time and the speed of homogenizer. Optimized mixing speed and homogenizer speed are predicted by design of expert software. Coefficient of correlation was found to be 0.9820, indicating the model’s linearity. The p-value is more than 0.05 for mixing time which shows that the effect of mixing speed is not significant on entrapment efficiency, while mixing speed and speed of homogenizer have significant and positive effect on entrapment efficiency. So as we increases the mixing speed and speed of the homogenizer, entrapment efficiency increases. Optimize mixing time is 9.99 (~10) minutes, and mixing speed is 2000 rpm.

27. Ultra Sunscreen and Antiaging Potential of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Extract with Oxybenzone and Octyl Methoxycinnamate
Putri Peggy, Yanti Kosasih, Evelyn Anggie, Refi Ikhtiari
Arabica coffee has been known for its high antioxidant polyphenol compounds that can reduce free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we explore the sunscreen potential and antiaging effect of arabica coffee cream extract combined with UV filters such as oxybenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate. The as-prepared combination cream extract showed good physical stability, including homogeneity, organoleptic, pH, and spreadability. The phytochemical contents by GC-MS showed the presence of stigmasterol, beta-tocopherol, fatty acid, creatindial, and methyl icosanoate. The in-vitro test of the as-prepared combination cream at higher concentrations of 5 and 10% showed ultra-protection with SPF values of 17.3, and 22.3, respectively. The antioxidant activity with the DPPH method showed an outstanding value of IC50 about 353.72 mcg/mLwhich was better than vitamin C. The experimental animal design was the post-test-only control group design. The in-vivo antiaging tests were examined by anti-irritation, anti-wrinkle effect, and malondialdehyde analyses among 25 wistar rats. Application of combination cream showed no irritation and wrinkles on the soles of the feet of Wistar rats. At cellular levels, combination cream-induced MDA levels were 0.152 μmol/l, which was lower than vitamin E (0.160 μmol/l) and NA-CMC (0.186 μmol/l). This study showed the potential of arabica coffee cream combination extract with oxybenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate for ultra sunscreen and antiaging applications.

28. Statistical Design based on Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Production of a Yellow Pigment by Streptomyces thinghirensis AF7
Afnan R. A. Al-Tekreeti, Khalid J. K. Luti
Although its wide utilization in microbial cultures, the one factor-at-a-time method, failed to find the true optimum, this is due to the interaction between optimized parameters which is not taken into account. Therefore, in order to find the true optimum conditions, it is necessary to repeat the one factor-at-a-time method in many sequential experimental runs, which is extremely time-consuming and expensive for many variables. This work is an attempt to enhance bioactive yellow pigment production by Streptomyces thinghirensis based on a statistical design. The yellow pigment demonstrated inhibitory effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy which showed lambda maximum of 449. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis showed that the colorings in this type of product are due to the presence of chromo peptides. Furthermore, the GC-MS measurement determined the presence of 4 compounds, as it gave 4 different retention times within this yellow pigment, but with different percentages, except for the compound BHT when the retention time was 17.86 minutes. Starch casein broth (SCB) was selected as an optimized medium for yellow pigment production. The optimization process was first started with one factor at time method, revealing that maltose and casein were the best carbon and nitrogen sources. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was conducted to obtain the optimal combinations of maltose and casein concentrations, pH, and inoculum size for maximum production of yellow pigment. The results showed that casein was the most effective parameter with F-value 393.1 and the model exhibited good fitting with a correlation coefficient of 0.946. Moreover, the actual maximum yellow pigment product 0.80 nm which aggregated with a predicted value 0.835 nm at maltose concentration 8 g/L, casein 5 g/L, KNO3 0.01 g/L, pH 6 and inoculum size 5%.

29. Detect the Amount of CD4+ Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg) Cell in Iraqi Patients with Behcet’s Disease
Tharwa H. H. Al-Tai, Hayfaa S. Al-Hadithi, Dina S. AL-Yasiry
Background:- Behcet’s disease (BD) (beh-CHETS) disease also called Behcet’s syndrome. Characterized by urogenital ulcers, populopustular and erythema nodosum like skin lesion, uveitis, retinal vasculitis, thrombophlebitis, arterial aneurysms, and arthritis. Treg cells, whose primary roles are to reduce inflammation and decrease effector T cells, aid in maintaining the proper ratio between immunity and auto tolerance. The expression of CD4 + /CD25 + /Foxp3 + mostly identified them.

Objective: To detected the amount of CD4 + Foxp3 + Treg cells in BD patients and to asses their correlation to disease activity.

Patients and methods: This study was applied on 60 patients with BD compared to 30 healthy group as control group from December 2020 to the end of May 2021. Their blood samples were collected to investigate blood concentrations of CD4 + marker and Foxp3 + Treg by using flow cytometer technique.

Results: The (median) of CD4 + Tcells percentage for the patient group was 10.9%, significantly higher than that of the control group 8.30% ranged (0.80–17.30). While there was a highly significant increase in the (median) 26.20% of CD4 + Foxp3 + Tcells in the patients group in comparison with the control group median (4.65%). The Treg cells determined by the proportion of CD4 + Foxp3 + in all CD4 + Tcells showed a significant increase in the (median) for patient group (10.80% ) if compared with the control group (8.50% ) (p=0.045). A significant decrease CD4 + in monocyte was detected in patient group (8.50%) in comparison to control group (12.70%)(p=0.003).

Conclusion: Patients with BD had more CD4 + , Foxp3 + Treg cells than the control group did. Monocyte levels were lower in BD patients. There was a link between disease activity and Treg concentration.

30. Formulation and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Ointment from Acacia auriculiformis Leaves Extract
Umesh B. Telrandhe, Laxman G. Galat, Shailesha D. Chavan, Manish A. Kamble, Mahendra C. Gunde, Rajeshwar V. Khirsagar
The current experiment aims to create and test an ointment with an ethanolic extract from Acacia auriculiformis for antimicrobial action. The soxhalation procedure was used to create the ethanolic extract. After producing the ointment base, five batches of ointments were created by incorporating the extract into the base. Physical and chemical properties of each formulation, including color, flavor, pH, spreadability, consistency, solubility, and washability, were assessed. The formulation’s stability at different temperature conditions was also assessed, and the results show that neither its irritancy nor its spreadability has changed. F5 was discovered to be the ideal formulation among the ointment batches. It has a larger zone of inhibition over both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

31. Dispersion of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Raw Milk by Chlorogenic Acid and Phloridzin as Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Apples
Mohammad J. Al-Jassani, Zahraa F. Hassan, Hussein S. H. Ridha, Lamyaa Y. Radhi, Sarah A. Hamood
The development and spread of biofilms in the dairy sector are problematic because they increase cross-contamination, which reduces product safety and shelf life. This study’s goal was to use phenolic chemicals derived from apple fruit to limit the growth of biofilms. So, 12 Listeria monocytogenes isolates were isolated out of 40 samples of raw milk from buffalo, cows, sheep, and goats. Most of the strongest biofilm producers were isolated from sheep and gout. Water: methanol (20:60 v/v) for 20 minutes at 40°C resulted in the highest total phenol content values with 37 mg. The methanol extract of apples had significant quantities of chlorogenic acid and phloridzin by chromatographic analysis with HPLC. After 24 hours, the proportion of biofilm inhibition was 44 to 77%; the inhibitory activity grew as phenolic component concentration increased. The proportion of inhibition for L. monocytogenes isolates from sheep and goats was highest, whereas the percentage for isolates from cows was lowest.

32. Effect of NiO Nanoparticles on Increasing Medical Compounds (Alkaloids) of Catharanthus vinca (L.) G Don. in Callus In-vitro
Mervat A. A. Al-Karkhi, Hashim K. M. Al-oubaidi
This study was carried out to boost Catharanthus vinca secondary metabolites (Alkaloids) production. NiO NPs were tested at 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/l in callus media in-vitro.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of the alkaloids components and compare them to their levels in the plant. Significant variations were seen at the higher (400 mg/l) concentration of NiO NPs for boosting alkaloids molecules.

33. Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Studies for New Schiff Base Complexes derived from 4-Bromo-O-toluidine
Nazar M. Abdalsahib, Lekaa K. A. Karem
In this article, new Schiff base ligand LH-prepared Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pd(II), and Pt(II) materials were analyzed using spectroscopy (1 Metal: 2 LH). The ligand was identified using techniques such as FTIR, UV-vis, 1H-13C-NMR, and mass spectra, and their complexes were identified using CHN microanalysis, UV-vis and FTIR spectral studies, atomic absorption, chloride content, molar conductivity measurements, and magnetic susceptibility. According to the measurements, the ligand was bound to the divalent metal ions as a bidentate through oxygen and nitrogen atoms. The complexes that were created had microbicide activity against two different bacterial species and one type of fungus. DPPH techniques were being used to test the ligand and its complexes for antioxidant activity.

34. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Study of New Complexes Schiff Base Derived from 2, 5-diChloroaniline
Adnan A. Amer, Lekaa K. A. Karem
Metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Pd(II), and Pt(II) with Schiff base ligand (LH) derived from 2,5-dichloroaniline and 2-hydroxy-5-metheylbenzalaldehyde were synthesized and characterized using a variety of spectrophotometric techniques The findings of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that (LH) behaved as a binary coordinating agent to the metal ion by the N and O atoms, and the geometry shape of the complexes was octahedral, with the exception of the Pd and Pt complexes, which had a square planar geometry. Using the DPPH radical scavenging method, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of the compound against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as well as the antifungal activity of the compound against Candida albicans. In addition, the Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested to determine their effectiveness as antioxidants. Antioxidant activities were demonstrated by the compounds, which worked to eliminate potentially damaging free radicals from the system.

35. Analytical Method Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Domperidone and Omeprazole by RP-HPLC Method
R. R. Tanpure, M. H. Kolhe, G. S. Shinde, R. J. Bhor
The developed RP-HPLC technique lets in speedy and particular omeprazole and domperidone determinations, the goal of the current painting is to improve and extend the chromatographic circumstances, to broaden RP-HPLC method. a variety of mobility phases were tested for the duration of technique improvement, some of the numerous cell phases methanol, acetonitrile and phosphate buffer changed into discovered to be a perfect cell phase, because it provided optimal peak forms and high resolution. The go with the flow rate changed into optimized at 0.90 mL/min. The development of the isocratic elution method for omeprazole and domperidone made it perfect for quick and routine analysis. Omeprazole and domperidone linearity and correlation coefficient had been located to be 10 to 50 ug/mL 0.997, and 0.998, respectively. The restriction of detection for omeprazole and domperidone turned into discovered to be 1.78 and 3.15 and the limit of quantification changed into observed to be 544 and 956. With the assay procedure, the methodology has been recognized as accurate. The %assay become determined to be 98 and 73. The evolved technique changed into confirmed to an excellent accuracy and precision. The isocratic elution approach evolved for the dedication of omeprazole and domperidone perfectly suited for rapid and ordinary evaluation. This technique shows that right reproducibility of the effects. moreover this approach become easy, touchy, and accurate. Degradation studies had been accomplished, right here the drug stability outcomes have been within the variety of acceptance standards 85 to 115%. Moreover, this approach was easy, touchy, and correct.

36. Response of Patients with Acromegaly to Long-acting Octreotide with regard to Regression of Pituitary Adenoma, Growth Hormone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1
Hesham I. Kadhim, Anwer T. Obaid, Abbas M. Rahmah
Introduction: Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disease; its treatment is surgical (Hypophysectomy). However, somatostatin analogs represent another modality of therapy in addition to deep X-ray therapy as a third, option. The aim of the study is to find out the response of patients with acromegaly to octreotide as reflected on regression of adenoma size, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and growth hormone (GH) by studying the medical records of many patients with acromegaly.

Method: A total of 80 patients with acromegaly are enrolled in the study from July/2019 to April/2020. Their age range (20–72 years). They are 47 men and 33 women. Their selection was based on their visits to NDC on the basis of prescheduled appointments to be given their monthly injections of long-acting octreotide (LAR) and to be examined clinically plus conducting various types of hormonal studies and biochemical workups to assess their response to treatment on the following parameters: Adenoma size, IGF-1 and GH and its correlation with octreotide dose.

Results: It is a cross-sectional comparative clinical trial study of 80 patients with acromegaly. Mean of age was 46.7 ± 12.4 years’, and their age range (20–72 year) minimum and maximum-year-old. Mean duration of taking drug was 8 ± 6.7 years. The mean of total LRA injection was (1073.6 ± 666.2 mg). 58.75% of patients were male while 41.25% were female. 46.25% of patients do not have transsphenoidal direct surgery, but 46.25% undergo one surgery, 7.5% undergo two transsphenoidal hypophysectomies. 87.5% of patients have no gamma knife while 12.5% have gamma knife radiosurgery. Conclusion: Acromegaly is a multi systemic disease that should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible to prevent complications and improve mortality rates.

37. Exploiting the Diazotization Reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline for Determination of Metoclopramide-hydrochloric acid in Pharmaceutical Preparations
Aseel M. Aljeboree, Faraj Mohammed, Mohammed A. Jawad, Ayad F. Alkaim
A sample, fast, precise and accurate spectrophotometric method to the quantitative determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) in pure and pharmaceutical preparations, a simple, sensitive and high-purity method has been developed. This method is based on the diazotization of the primary amine group of metoclopramide hydrochloride by reaction hydrochloric acid with sodium nitrite followed by conjugation in an alkaline medium with 8-hydroxyquinoline against the reagent blank. The effect of several acids like hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, and sulfuriHc acid. That found hydrochloric acid the most excellent acid, to give the maximum absorption and sensitivity and the best volume NaNO2 solution about 1 and 3 mL of an 8-hydroxyquinoline reagent gives high intensity and stability to the color formed, also azo dye give a maximum absorption and best sensitivity after 10 minutes and the color remains stable about 1-hour. Where the concentration range was 1-20 mg/L, it was found that it obeys law Beer-Lambert correlation coefficient (R2 =0.9997). They have a detection limit LoD (0.274 μg mL-1)and limit of Quantitation LoQ (0.915 μg mL-1), respectively. This method has also been used in many pharmaceutical preparations (capsules, tablets and syrup) to determine the drug metoclopramide.

38. Study on Control-release and Synchronized of Metformin Hydrochloride Drug from Hydrophilic Polymers AgNP/SCC-g-poly (AAc-AAm)
Aseel M. Aljeboree, Nadher D. Radia, Zeina M. Kadam, Yahya A. Faleh,Usama S. Altimari, Ashour H. Dawood, Ayad F. Alkaim
In this study, based on the free radical polymerization, a high-efficiency sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-grafted-Poly (acryl acid-acrylic amide) (SCC-g-Poly (AAc-AAm) hydrogel was prepared using initiators for the generation of free radicals (KPs) and a cross-linking agent, N,N’-Methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as well as loading silver nanoparticles onto SCC-g-poly (AAc-AAm) hydrogel cross-linked by silver nitrate was added at the concentration (1000 mg/L) for about one day to load silver ions on the surface. utilized this AgNP/SCC-g-poly (AAc-AAm) hydrogel to drug release of metformin hydrochloride (MH) was studied at different acid mediums (pH = 7.4 and 1.2) and temperatures of 37℃. This study then studied the ability of the surface to release silver controlled. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), were among the techniques used to examine the prepared surface’s properties. The highest reported drug release rates occurred at (pH = 7.4) when the rate of drug release was 97.19% after 500 minutes. This is caused by the hydrogel containing COOH, C=O, and OH groups that ionize in the neutral medium (pH = 7.4), forming negative ions, which electrostatically repel each other with the unshared electron pair of the NH group. On the contrary to in an acidic medium(pH = 1.2), the hydrophilic groups included in the hydrogel composition are saturated, making them bond with hydrogen bonds with each other and the percentage of swelling of hydrogel is very small. Two different bacteria species (Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria) were used to study the AgNP/SCC-g-poly (AAc-AAm) hydrogel and the ability of the surface to inhibit the two types of bacteria.

39. Study the Effect of Polymers Type on Preparation and Characterization of Etoposide-loaded Gold Nanoparticles
Maha M. Ali, Wissam S. Mahmod, Afaq M. Ali
In the last few years, the discoveries in pharmaceutical nanotechnology have triggered a revolution in the field of therapeutic, delivering an abundance of novel applications and actual approaches of metallic nanoformulations for the treatment and diagnosis of tenacious diseases. From this point of view, gold nanoparticles (GN) have been awarded an attractive platform for the development of efficient multifunctional therapeutic, controlled release systems, targeted delivery and diagnostic. The objective of this research was to prepare etoposide-loaded gold nanoparticles (E-GN) by incorporating of etoposide in to the functionalized GN by using different biocompatible polymers. In the present study, GN suspension was prepared by inverse citrate reduction method. Polymeric suspensions 19 (PGN 1-19) were prepared and characterized by atomic force microscopy measurement (AFM). The obtained results indicated that PGN10, PGN13, PGN17 and PGN19 with the preferable polymers and their concentration of (1-mg/mL HPMC-E5, 1-mg/mL PVA, 1.5 mg/mL gelatin and 0.5: 0.5 mg/mL of HPMC-E5: PVA combination) respectively, showed the better morphology, particles size (PS), and particles size distribution (PSD). Subsequently, eight formulas were prepared and optimized through the study of various variables as PS, PSD, etoposide loading efficiency (LE) and in-vitro dissolution profile. F7 revealed a greater LE of 99.39% with higher loading capacity (1 mg/mL) and in-vitro dissolution with controlled mode also, AFM results showed smooth surface nanoparticles, average PS (24.43 nm) with uniform PSD (9.84%). In addition, the result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a spherical uniform shape with zeta potential of -34.13. In conclusion, polymeric functionalization of GN improved the etoposide loading efficiency and capacity and controlled the in-vitro dissolution profile and enhanced their colloidal stability.

40. Overview on Solid Lipid Nanoparticle for Topical Delivery and its Inevitable Applications
Nandgude TD, Parakhe PS, Mishra RK
Solid lipid nanoparticle is a novel approach for topical drug delivery. As lipids used in preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) will also get absorbed in skin layers, enhancing permeation across the biological membranes. For the stability of SLN dispersion, several surfactants were used. Mechanism incorporating for the preparation of SLN also impacts particle size and stability. Since the mechanism of SLN through the biological membrane is still under research as it may follow various skin penetration pathways. This review suggests the various method of preparation, common pathways of skin permeation, lipids and surfactant utilized in the production of SLN.

41. Deformable Lipid Vesicular Colloidal Carriers: A Paradigm Shift in Vaginal Drug Delivery
Sahil Goel, Ankita Thakur, Pallavi Bassi, Parveen Kumar, Arindam Chatterjee, Omprakash Sharma
Vaginal drug delivery is a promising route. However, conventional formulations are leaky with low residence time and tissue permeation. Deformable lipid vesicular carriers (DLVC) formulated with lipidic vehicles like phospholipids are a propitious approach. Besides improving drug solubility, stability and encapsulation, DLVC can penetrate deeply into mucosal layers, leading to bioavailability enhancement. Scientific research suggests better penetration of DLVC is due to their elastic and deformable membrane. This review provides an overview on the DLVC with special emphasis on transferosomes. The formulation aspects, advantages, mechanism of penetration, method of preparation and applications have been discussed.

42. A Critical Review on Natural Bioactive of Jasminum Genus as Potential Therapeutics in Various Disorders
Manish Kushwah, Avijit Mazumder, Richa Shakya
There are many widely used medicinal plants in the Oleaceae family, which also includes the species Jasminum. Typical uses for the Jasminum species, which include Jasminum auriculatum vahl, J. humile, J. flexile Vahl, J. grandiflorum L, J. polyanthum, J. officinale, J. multiflorum, J. aungustifolium, J. pubescens, and J. sambac, include anti-Jasmine oil is commonly used in aromatherapy. The presence of a wide range of bioactive substances in Jasminum plants, including fatty acids, glycosides, coumarins, sterols, terpenoids, esters, and phenolics, may be the cause of their therapeutic effects. The combined impact of essential oils is responsible for the aromatherapy’s antibacterial, anti-acne, spasmolytic, and other properties. According to phytochemical studies, phenolic compounds are significantly more bioactive than the bulk of terpenoids and other chemicals. The medicinal potentials of phenolic components have been extensively studied, including their anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, ACE inhibitor, vasodilation, antioxidant, and antiaging capabilities, as well as their wound healing and protective characteristics. The medicinal potentials of phenolic chemicals are reviewed in the current research, coupled with Jasminum’s phyto screening and ethnobotanical features.

43. A Comprehensive Review of Deflazacort with Special Reference to Pharmacological Profile and Pharmaceutical Validation Processes
Swati Pund, Vaibhav Changediya, Vikas Rajurkar
Deflazacort is a prednisolone-derived immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory. It controls cytokines and immune cell development. It may increase muscle cell proliferation and reduce muscle breakdown to enhance Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscle strength and function. Pharmaceutical companies aim to produce high-quality drugs at low prices. Pharmaceutical formulation discovery, development, and evaluation require validated methods. Validation ensures quality and reliability throughout the manufacturing process. The validation procedure evaluates accuracy, specificity, precision, and system applicability to guarantee the analytical technique used to analyze medicine-related samples is reliable. This paper describes the deflazacort technique development and validation. Google Scholar, Pub-Med, and Shodganga are utilized to gather information.

44. Therapeutic Potential of Schiff and Mannich Bases of 2-Substituted Benzimidazole Analogues
Ritchu Babbar, Swikriti, Sandeep Arora, Thakur G. Singh
Heterocyclic scaffolds reveal extensive biological profiles, and several drugs were employed therapeutically which possess heterocyclic framework. Likewise, 2-substituted benzimidazoles play a significant role in novel drug development. In addition, Mannich and schiff base derivatives of benzimidazole acknowledged them as favorable anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, anthelmintic, antiviral scaffolds. Schiff bases in innumerable organic reactions show affirmative catalytic activity. The current scenario also emphasizes the spectacular activity displayed by schiff bases in the biochemical, coordination and analytical industry. Similarly, aminoalkyl reactions are revealed by mannich bases as they enclose amino alkyl chain which is imperative for its therapeutic action. Mannich bases are the products of nucleophilic addition reaction with the elimination of hydrogen atom of the amine radical for its biological venture. From the latest era, the efficacy of mannich bases as ligands and in the petroleum and leather industry were perceptible. The entire review expounds the therapeutic profile of mannich and schiff bases of 2-substituted benzimidazoles as competent biologically dynamic hybrids. Neoteric analogues of mannich and schiff bases of 2-substituted benzimidazoles with their patents in diverse fields have also been summarized.

45. A Critical Study on the Synthetic Medication Pattern in the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Chauhan V.S., Mazumder Avijit, Chandel Shobhini
An inflammatory condition known as arthritis affects one or more joints in the body. The pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a diverse ailment with a complicated and still poorly known pathogenesis, involves many different cell types in the destruction of the joints. Due to this complexity, clinical course and severity vary widely amongst patients and genetic and/or environmental factors may also impact them. In addition to the conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, biologics have demonstrated efficacy and safety in symptomatic relief, reducing bone loss, and maintaining the function, which has considerably improved the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Since current drugs periodically fail, only substantially treat the ailment or have unfavorable side effects. There are still unmet treatment requirements in rheumatoid arthritis despite the availability of a wide range of therapeutic choices and their combinations. Unfortunately, the ‘nonresponse’ pathways are still not fully understood, although they most definitely have to do with the covert variability of the pathophysiology of the disease. In this research, we will narrate the current and upcoming biological treatments and their cellular aims.

46. An Overview of Multiple Hydrogel Formulations for Wound Healing
Aishwaray, Saumya Das, Ananya Pandey, Gajender
Wound healing is a complicated and active process involving four perfectly synchronized processes that compose the typical biological mechanism of wound healing in the body: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. In order to successfully healing of wounds, these four steps need to take place in the right order and timeframe. There are distinct types of wound healing, like acute and chronic wound healing, based on various conditions and causes. One or more steps of this operation may be impacted by a variety of variables, which may hinder or result in improper wound healing. The ideal wound dressing is crucial to heal the wound and keep it from getting infected again. Hydrogel is ideal because of its anti-inflammatory, microbiological, and readily available qualities. Numerous variables may interfere with or result in improper wound healing at one or more stages of this procedure. The appropriate wound dressing is crucial to heal the wound and prevent secondary infections. This page lists some of the numerous formulations where hydrogel is most suitable and frequently used now a day. This is because of its anti-inflammatory, microbiological, and easily accessible qualities.


Impact Factor: 1.529

UGC Approved Journal

This journal is present in UGC approved List of Journals for the purpose of Career Advancement Scheme (CAS) and Direct Recruitment of Teachers and other academic staff as required under the UGC (Minimum Qualifications for Appointment of Teachers and other Academic Staff in Universities and Colleges)

International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research

International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research

International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research

The publication is licensed under Creative Commons License creative commons View Legal Published by Dr. Yashwant Research Labs Pvt. Ltd. on behalf of International Society for Science and Nature