International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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1. Glucose and Cholesterol Sensing in Blood Plasma Using Zno-Paper Based Microfluidics
Roekmono, Harsono Hadi, Hilya Nur Imtihani, Luthviyah Choirotul Muhimmah, Rio Akbar Yuwono, Ruri Agung Wahyuono
This work aims at investigating the reliability of ZnO-paper based microfluidic analytical devices (ZnO-µPAD) for blood plasma separation as well as bio-sensing of glucose and cholesterol. Two-layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers/ZnO spherical aggregates (ZnO-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing were developed. Plasma separation in ZnO-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose and cholesterol detection was carried out using spectroscopic techniques, both Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman measurements. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 250 s. The spectroscopic investigation reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose and cholesterol are increasing at higher concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO and the paper, a specific and linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

2. Formulation and Evaluation of Patient Centric Paper Dosage Form of Donepezil Hydrochloride
Arun Radhakrishnan, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Soni Abishek
The aim of this study was to develop a dose flexible paper dosage containing donepezil hydrochloride, with fast disintegration time and suitable mechanical strength, for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and pectin served as the hydrophilic polymeric bases of the ODF. The uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, drug release and the folding endurance of the ODF were examined. The in vitro results showed that 90% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 20 minutes with mean disintegration time of 32 seconds. The result of the film flexibility test showed that the number of folding time to crack the film was average 200 times, an indication of sufficient mechanical property for patient use. All the required evaluations were recorded. ODF containing 30 mg of sucralose were more superior to saccharin and aspartame in terms of taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel, and acceptance. Furthermore, the film forming capacity of the polymers was evaluated and resulted better than single polymers. The drug and polymers showed no major interactions which were displayed by the DSC studies. As per the required results for paper dosage form, all parameters were showing satisfactory results. Formulation F3 was selected as the ideal formulation for the development of paper dosage form. F3 showed a disintegration time less than 35 sec, which shows that the drug will start releasing in less than a minute and more than 60% drug was released in 5 mins which were required for the quick onset of action.

3. Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Controlled Release Dosage Form of Chlordiazepoxide
Rupalben K Jani, Amin Roshani P, Gohil Krupa M
The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate gastro retentive controlled release dosage form – Hydrodynamically balanced system of Chlordiazepoxide by using Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose K 4 M and Xanthum gum to avoid accumulation of metabolites of Chlordiazepoxide and to reduce dosing frequency. Tablets were prepared successfully by wet granulation method by using PVP K30 as binding agent and HPMC K4M, Xanthum gum as retarding polymer. Optimization of formulation was done by using 32 full factorial design where independent variables are X1 (concentration of HPMC K4M ) and  X2 (concentration of Xanthum gum).The prepared blend of tablet were evaluated for pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, carr’s index, hausner’ ratio, in vitro drug release, % swelling index and stability study. The prepared blend has good flow property and compressibility.Due to combination of HPMC K4M and Xanthum gum polymers tablets maintain its matrix integrity and show good prolonged release in controlled manner. Swelling index was in range from 33 to 75 %. In vitro drug release of tablet was carried in 0.1N HCL up to 18 hrs. and its show 95-98 % drug release. Use of Xanthum gum control the initial burst drug release effect of matrix tablet and HPMC is rapidly swelling hydrophilic polymer which form highly viscous gel barrier which control the drug release from system.

4. The Effect of Giving Formulation of Red Fruit Oil Gel Emulsion (Pandanus Conoideus Lamk.) on Healing Speed of Burns Degree IIA in White Male Rats Wistar Strain (Rattus Norvegicus L.)
Anggun Anjaswara, Fidia Rizkiah Inayatilah, Siti Maimunah, Rahmi Annisa
Aims: The aims this study was to obtain an gel emulsion of red fruit oil in accordance with chemical physics characteristics and to know the effect oil gel emulsion preparation of red fruit on healing burn degree IIA on male wistar rats. Methods: The design of this research used true experimental laboratory post test only control group design thats with 5 groups of treatment, with use 20 male wistar rats were given burns degree IIA and given treatment according to the group each divided into positive group (bioplasenton®), negative group (normal saline 0.9%), treatment group (gel emulsion of red fruit) concentration 3%, 5%, and 10%). The wound healing data measured on days 7, 14, and 21 and then analyzed it using one way Anova statistical test, then continued using LSD advanced test. Results: The research results showed that oil gel emulsion of red fruit had chemical physics characteristic in accordance with gel emulsion preparation specification including organoleptic test, pH test, physical homogeneity test, spreading test, and stability test. The result of oil gel emulsion of red fruit concentration of 3%, 5% and 10% influenced the healing of burn on the statistical test of the gel emulsion treatment group did not different significantly with positive group (p<0,005), so the oil gel emulsion preparation of fruit red that equal with group positive in the healing of burns.  Conclusion: Based on the results of the study and discussion, it can be concluded that the preparation of red fruit oil emulsion gel with concentrations of 3%, 5%, 10% has chemical physics characteristics in accordance with a good gel emulsion preparation and administration of emulsion of red fruit oil concentrations of 3%, 5%, 10% for 21 days had an effect on the speed of healing male white rat wistar strain.

5. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Vildagliptin Sustained Release Tablet
Sajal Kumar Jha, Chinna Devanna V, Kondapuram Parameshwar, Muthadi Radhika Reddy
Introduction: The present research work was to design and develop the sustained release tablets of Vildagliptin. It is having a short biological half-life (1.5 h) so it is considered as a suitable drug for the formulation of sustained release tablets to prolong its therapeutic action. Vildagliptin is an oral antihyperglycemic agent of the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor class of drug. Materials and Methods: Sustained release tablets were prepared by direct compression technique, using polymers at different ratios. Powder blend was evaluated for bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Hausner’s ratio, compressibility index. Results: The physicochemical properties of tablets were found within the limits. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, % friability, % drug contents, and in vitro release. In vitro dissolution studies (USP dissolution rate test apparatus II, 50 rpm, 37°C ± 0.5°C) was carried out for 10 h using 0.1 N HCl (1.2 pH) as a dissolution medium. Conclusion: The optimized formulation F-3 was shown maximum drug release 98.43 % in 10 h of dissolution studies.

6. Formulation and Evaluation of β-Cyclodextrin Grafted Chitosan Nanocomposites for Controlled release of Anticancer Drug Cyclophosphamide
Umakanta Sahoo, Mira Das, Padmolochan Nayak
In this paper β -cyclodextrin (β-CD) grafted chitosan (CS) with MMT was different feed ratio known as (β-CD-g-CS/MMT). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TGA, TDC and swelling in stimulated in different biological fluid. The model drug Cyclophosmide (CYC) was used for controlled drug delivery purpose. From FTIR result was clearly demonstrated that the model drug CYC did not change in any molecular level at β-CD-g-CS/MMT (i.e. at <10 nm scale). Additionally, in DSC result, CYC was interacted with nanocomposites at scale >100 nm level. In vitro drug release system was carried out by Korsmeyer Peppas’s power law. CYC and other drugs like Doxorubicin (DOX) and Curcumin (CUM) were presented exceptional higher drug result in different pH medium. It was observed that CS/MMT was decrease less drug release rate compared to β-CD-g-CS/MMT. So that it can be clearly understood that β-CD-g-CS/MMT grafted nanocomposites have enhanced drug release activity in different pH medium.

7. Compatibility Testing of Nateglinide with Different Grades of Cellulose Ethers and Excipients Used in Sustained Release Formulations
Amit J Kasabe, Ajit S Kulkarni, Vinod L Gaikwad
Compatibility testing was done to assess interaction between Nateglinide (NTG) and different pharmaceutical excipients and polymers, which are used in a sustained release formulation to manufacture tablet. To evaluate the compatibility between drug, excipients and polymers, different techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Infrared Spectroscopic study (IR) and Isothermal stress testing (IST) study were employed. The results of DSC curves showed that, all excipients and polymers are compatible with the NTG. Except DSC curves of magnesium stearate, which shows certain interaction with the NTG, however, it overcome in the results of IR and IST studies, which showed that all the excipients, polymers used in this study are compatible with the NTG.

8. Formulation and Invivoevaluation of Rosuvastatin Rapidmelts by Direct Compression and Sublimation Methods
T NeelimaRani, Y IndiraMuzib
In the present work an investigation was successfully made to formulate and evaluate rosuvastatin rapidmelts by direct compression and sublimation techniques. In direct compression method, as rosuvastatin comes under BCS class II drug, the solubility of the drug should be increased before formulation. For that solid dispersions were prepared with β-CD, PEG2000, and PEG4000 by using coevaporation and kneading method. Among those solid dispersions prepared with β-CD (1:1.5) by using coevaporation method has given better drug entrapment values compared to other solid dispersions. Selected solid dispersions were formulated as rapidmelts by using direct compression method. In direct compression method rapidmelts were prepared by using super disintegrants like ludiflash, crosscaramellosesodium, and lycoat. Those are evaluated for both precompression and post-compression parameters. Rosuvastatin rapidmelts were prepared by sublimation method using subliming agents camphor, menthol, and ammonium bicarbonate. Each subliming agent is used in three different concentrations (2.5,5.0,7.5%). Rapidmelts prepared with the two methods were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, %drug content and disintegration time. The best formulation was subjected to stability testing for 3 and 6 months at 25oC/60%RH and 40oC/75%RH. All the prepared formulations compiled with the pharmacopieal limits. The results suggested that R12 formulation has given the best disintegration and dissolution results compared to all other formulations. From the result, it was concluded that rapidmelts prepared by using sublimation method have given a better result than direct compression method. That optimized formulation was further evaluated for in-vivo studies. 

9. Moringa oleifera Lam.-Based Effervescent Tablets: Design, Formulation and Physicochemical Evaluation
Murdiana H E, Revika E, Rahmawati D, Puspitasari T R, Putri A D, Murti B T
Moringa oleifera Lam., locally known as Kelor, is widely acknowledged as phytopharmaceutical herbal due to the ability of increasing the 58% hemoglobin level in pregnant women as well as preventing the decrease of serum ferritin by 50% leading to anemia. Recently, the need of easy-to-dissolve tablet has been increased upon the natural extract and therefore, the choose of effervescent dosage form is highly preferable. This study was aimed at designing the optimal composition of antianemia effervescent drug based on Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract. The Moringa leaves extract was produced by maceration method using 70% ethanol. Effervescent tablets were prepared in four formulas based on acid-base (1: 2 and 1: 3) and taste variations (i.e. lemon and strawberry). The tablet was formulated using wet granulation method. Prior to tablet compressing, the granules were tested for the physical properties including water content, contact angle, flowability, tapped index, compactibility, and granule density. In the form of effervescent tablets, the further tests were applied i.e. weight and size uniformity, hardness, and effervescent time. The four designed formulas show excellent properties either for granules or tablet forms. All formulas showed acceptable physical properties of granules and tablets. In regards of acceptability, all formulas yield a fairly bitter taste which is possibly due to the tannins and phenolic compounds of the extract. Addition of flavoring agents, such as lemon and strawberry, is unable to mask the bitter taste of the final tablet. Herein, the first Moringa leaves effervescent tablet prepared using wet granulation was successfully formulated. This study is possibly advantageous as the bottom line for the further formulation of Moringa oleifera Lam.-based effervescent products.

10. Study of self Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (Snedds) Loaded Red Fruit Oil (Pandanus conoideus Lamk.) As an Eliminated Cancer Cell MCF-7
Satria Dwi Setiawan, Cempaka Chintya Ramadhani, Agustha Veronika, Aldia Dwi Karina Ningrum, Bambang Hernawan Nugroho, Yandi Syukri
Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lamk.) is one of the typical Indonesian plants effective in therapy the breast cancer. This study aimed to preparation and characterization of MCF-7 breast cancer cell test in Self-Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) loading red fruits. Emulsification technique prepared SNEDDS of red fruits with the ratio of red fruit oil, sugar monoester palmitate, propylene glycol and tween 20 and followed by characterization of MCF-7 breast cancer cell test. SNEDDS obtained was measured by the particle size and tested for breast cancer cells to obtain IC50. The result showed that the optimal ratio oil, surfactant and co-surfactant are 10: 62.5: 17.5) with 193.1 ± 1.68 nm of the particle size, 0.50 ± 0.01 of poly dispersion index, -43.26 ± 0.11 mV of zeta potential and 53.76 ± 0.01 of the transmittance. The determination of breast cell test MFC-7 showed 85.20 μg/mL of IC50. It can be concluded that red fruit in SNEDDS formulation useful in therapy breast cancer with the IC50 parameter.


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