International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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1. Antibacterial Activity  of Nanoparticles  Produced by Ethanol Extract of Boesenbergia rotunda  Rhizome  Loaded with Chitosan and Alginic Acid Against Streptococcus mutans by In Vitro
Sri Atun, Sri Handayani, Melia Aliffiana, Hajar Nur Afifah, Anna Rakhmawati
The objectives of this research is to analyze antibacterial activity of nanoparticles produced by ethanol extract Boesenbergia rotunda loaded with chitosan and alginic acid againts Streptococcus mutans.  Antimicrobial activity of the extract was screened for activities againts pathogenic bacteria S. mutans by the disk-diffusion method. The assay was done in triplicate, and chloramphenicol was used as the positive control. Different concentrations, 500 to 0.5µg/mL, of each sample showed dose-dependant antibacterial activity. The results presented in this study showed the maximum of diameter zone of inhibition from nanoparticles produced by ethanol extract B. rotunda loaded with chitosan and alginic acid at concentration of 500 µg/mL, while ethanol extract of B. rotunda at concentration of 50 µg/mL, and chloramphenicol at 250 µg/mL. The optimal incubation time on the diameter zone of inhibition against S. mutans of each sample was 6 hours. The effect of incubation time on the diameter zone of inhibition against S. mutants showed that nanoparticles produced by ethanol extract B. rotunda loaded with chitosan and alginic acid were relatively more stable than by ethanol extract of B. rotunda.The minimum inhibitory concentration of each sample against S. mutans was found to be 5 µg/mL.

2. Chitosan-Coated Vitis vinifera L Mediated Gold Nanoparticles for Controlled Released of Anticancer Drug Doxorubicin
Pradipta Das, Subash Das, Niranjan Rout, Umesh Kumar Parida
In this study, we developed encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX) drug loaded CS coated Vitis vinifera L mediated gold nanoparticles (V-AuNPs) [DOX loaded CS coated-V-AuNPs]. V-AuNPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD, TEM. The DOX-loaded CS coated-V-AuNPs was evaluated by particle size, surface charge, entrapment efficacy, and effect of pH in drug release profile. Additionally, drug entrapment efficacy (EE) was up to 56%; CS-DOX- V-AuNPs showed a pH-responsive drug release in vitro. The DOX release was nearly 84% at pH 5.4 and 67% at pH 7.4.The current work proves the potential of pharmacology that involves a fusion of advanced techniques from nanoscience to develop the biology and used in the fields of drug delivery, Bio Sensor Manufacturing, Medical therapy and the development of DOX-loaded CS coated-V-AuNPs nanoparticle for sustained, controlled release and may be useful for breast cancer treatment.

3. Applications of Ion Exchange Resin in Oral Drug Delivery Systems
KathpaliaHarsha, DasSukanya
Ion Exchange Resins (IER) are insoluble polymers having styrene divinylbenzene copolymer backbone that contain acidic or basic functional groups and have the ability to exchange counter ions with the surrounding aqueous solutions. From the past many years they have been widely used for purification and softening of water and in chromatographic columns, however recently their use in pharmaceutical industry has gained considerable importance. Due to the physical stability and inert nature of the resins, they can be used as a versatile vehicle to design several modified release dosage forms The ionizable drug is complexed with the resin owing to the property of ion exchange. This resin complex dissociatesin vivo to release the drug. Based on the dissociation strength of the drug from the drug resin complex, various release patterns can be achieved. Many formulation glitches can be circumvented using ion exchange resins such as bitter taste and deliquescence. These resins also aid in enhancing disintegrationand stability of formulation. This review focuses on different types of ion exchange resins, their preparation methods, chemistry, properties, incompatibilities and their application in various oral drug delivery systems as well as highlighting their use as therapeutic agents.

4. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Simarouba amara Aubl. Fruit Extract and their Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities
Guru Kumar Dugganaboyana, Chaitra Kyasandra Eranna
The green synthesis of nanoparticles has emerged as a cost-effective and environmentally benign technique for therapeutic applications. Nanomedicine utilizes biocompatible nanomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic potential for various biomedical applications. Different biological methods are gaining recognition over the physical and chemical methods of synthesis for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their multiple applications. The present study describes the synthesis of AgNPs using the fruit extract of Simarouba amara (S. amara)followed by characterization of AgNPs was done using different methods, which include; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) wherein it shows absorption peak at 410 nm confirming the AgNPs, from dynamic light scattering (DLS) the average particle size is 80nm with crystalline structure confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and zeta potential analysis shows the positive polarity of the particle favoring the drug targeting. The powder X-ray diffraction study (PXRD) revealed crystalline nature with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were also tested for antioxidant therein the particles could scavenge the stable free radical 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) of about 80% to that of positive control butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and antimicrobial studies indicated its microbicidal efficacy against both Gram positive and negative clinical pathogens. It could be concluded that Simarouba amara fruit extract can be used efficiently in the production of potential antioxidant and antimicrobial AgNPs for commercial application.

5. Comparative Study of Mucoadhesive Vaginal Film and Tablet of Curcumin
Kawathe N K, Nanadgude T D, Poddar S S
Vaginal candidiasis is a common condition and up to 75% of women suffer at least one episode of this infection during their life time. Candida albicans is the most important cause of this, accounting for over 80% of the infections.Curcumin is a phytochemical, a component of folklore medicine since ages. Ithas been investigated as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antifungal.Mucoadhesion has been propose for a variety of local as well as systemic purposes. Systems like tablets, films, gels, liquids and multiparticulates have been employed successfully. The objective of the present work was to formulate mucoadhesive vaginal film and tablet of Curcumin for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis is, and compare their performance. Film was cast by solvent evaporation method while tablet was prepared by direct compression. Both formulations were designed by using Xanthan gum and HPMC K15M. Evaluation and comparison was accomplished through parameters like mucoadhesion, drug release and zone of inhibition. Mucoadhesive strength of film was better at0.37mJ.Drug release found was 90-95% for film while 80-85% for tablet in 12 h.Antimicrobial study of film showed better performance than tablet against Candida albicans. The study reflected mucoadhesive curcumin films would be a better choice than tablets for vaginal candidiasis.

6. Phytosome Drug Delivery of Natural Products: A Promising Technique for Enhancing Bioavailability
Rani Anjana, Kumar Sunil, Sharma Hitender , Khar R K
The phytosome technology was developed by Indena markedly enhancing the bioavailability of selected phytomedicines, by incorporating phospholipids into standardized plant extract, which improve their absorption and utilization. Phytosome are advanced form of herbal extract that shows better absorption profile than conventional herbal extract. The present review focus on the preparation and characterization techniques of phytosomes, merits and various landmarks in the field of phytosomes.

7. Adverse Drug Reactions Viewpoints, and Reporting Status in Selected Ten Selected Developing Countries: A Brief Commentary
Mainul Haque
The World Health Organisation defines in 1972 an Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) as a response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in humans for the prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological function. Edwards and Aronson in 2000 recommend the subsequent definition an appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction, resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product, which predicts hazard from future administration and warrants prevention or specific treatment, or alteration of the dosage regimen, or withdrawal of the product. Very restricted number (500-3000) of people or patient with cautiously, judiciously, and carefully chosen during medicine development stage for testing efficacy and safety of every medicine. There are no pharmacological agents or medicines that are effective to cure or prevent or control any disease is free of adverse effects.  The thalidomide tragedy becomes visible in the late 1950s and early 1960s highlighted the inevitability generate the necessity and idea of a national and international program for post-marketing surveillance schemes to monitor the safety of medicines. The countries selected from Asia and conveniently. The articles were selected on basis of browsing in google and google scholar. This review has identified that these developing countries have achieved somewhat improvement but long way to go attain a high standard like of developed countries. Almost all studies reported that diverse educational interventions among varied health care professionals were the sole remedy for reporting ADRs.

8. Immunization Status of Children in Abbottabad, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study
Moshin Raza, Saira Azhar, Ghulam Murtaza, Akash Syed, Anam Khan, Fahad Saleem
Objective: Recent studies and surveys are detecting an ambiguous trend of routine immunization coverage and fully immunized children in KPK. Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to access immunization status among children of age group 12-23 months visiting fixed EPI centers in primary, secondary and tertiary health facilities in rural and urban areas. Methods: The study covered 436 children in five health facilities. Five fixed EPI centers are visited as per office order: BBS teaching hospital Abbottabad. (DHQ), Women and children hospital Abbottabad. (THQ), Type D hospital Havelain, Basic Heath Unit (BHU) Mangal and Ayub teaching hospital Abbottabad (AMI). A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect information. Analysis was performed on SPSS version 23 for frequencies, cross tabulation and percentages. Results: Estimation recorded fully immunized children as 275 (63.1%), partially immunized as 155 (35.6%), and unimmunized as 6 (1.3%). Only 157 (36.1%) children in rural area were fully immunized compared to 118 (27.1%) in urban. Primary respondents were mothers 320 (73.4%) whereas, father and other respondents are almost 13%. Vaccination cards were available with 386 (88.5%) respondents. High proportion of partially immunized children 77% in BHU. However, unimmunized 1.96% and 4.4% children in AMI and Type D hospital were present. Moreover 67% partially immunized are from rural origin. The coverage of various vaccines was BCG 421 (96.6%), Pentavalent 403 (96.6%): Penta-1 60 (13.8%), Penta-2 38 (8.7%), Penta-3 305 (70.0%), and Measles 375 (86.0%): Measles-1 127 (29.1%), Measles-2 248 (56.9%), and Polio 430 (98.6%): Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV-0) 51 (11.7%), OPV-1 32 (7.3%), OPV-2 44 (10.1%), OPV-3 165 (37.8%), Injectable polio vaccine (IPV) 138 (31.7%), Pneumococcal 409 (93.8%): Pneumo-1 75 (17.2%), Pneumo-2 46 (10.1%), Pneumo-3 288 (66.1%). No Sex-wise discrimination was found.   Conclusion: Hard work in policy making is needed to strengthen routine immunization programme in marginalized areas like rural areas (83.12% of KPK and 62.5% of Pakistan) with special emphasis on BHUs and groups such as those living in mountainous terrain. Inaccessibility, inconvenience and unavailability of timely EPI services at BHUs are among various reasons of unimmunized and partially immunized children. Targeted intervention are needed with special emphasis on people in slum and rural areas with low educational and socioeconomic status.

9. Development of Pulsatile Drug Delivery for Chronotherapeutics of Hypertension
A Y Kanugo, N I  Kochar, A V Chandewar
The goal of present work was to investigate the effects of rupturable material ethyl cellulose combines with erodible material Klucel EXF on the pulsatile release pattern of Candesartan cilexetil in order to prevent morning rise in blood pressure. A tablet prepared by compression coating method contains core and coat components. Core consists of active ingredients with its various superdisintegrants where as coat contains different grades of ethyl cellulose and Klucel HXF in various combinations. All these tablets were evaluated for its micromeritics, weight variations, hardness, friability and in vitro dissolution testing. Drug-excipients interactions were carried out by FTIR.  Dissolution studies were carried out in simulated gastric fluid followed by phosphate buffer of pH 6.5. The optimized formulation PT6 which give lag time of 6 hrs and released 99.10 % within 7 hr,  as well as found to be stable in  ICH stability testing guidelines.

10. Design, Development and Invivo Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Cardiovascular Drug Loaded Nano Structured Lipid Carrier System
Selvaraj Brito raj, Kothapalli Bonnoth Chandrasekhar, Kesavan Bhaskar Reddy
The Present investigation is to design, develop and optimize the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (NLC) containing cardiovascular drug by various independent variables like formulation variables (concentration of phospholipids, surfactants, co-surfactant) and process variables (homogenization time and ultrasonication time). The objective of this research is to choose the suitable and reproducible technique for the formulation of NLC based on dependent variables like Particle Size (PS) in nm, Polydispersity Index (PDI), Zeta potential (ZP) in mV and Entrapment efficiency (EE%) by applying Box Behnken design utilizing – Multiple linear regression method (Design expert 9 software, stat-ease, Inc. USA) and another objective is to prove the enhancement of bioavailability of drug  in developed NLC. Comparative invivo pharmacokinetic studies was carried out to determine AUC, Cmax, Tmax ,  Ke, Vd between drug loaded NLC and commercially available dosage form to prove the enhancement of bioavailability in NLC. From the results obtained, it was concluded that hot homogenization was an optimized technique for the preparation of NLC containing carvedilol and NLC shows better bioavailability when compare to commercial formulation. This data was related to the research project sanctioned by Department of science and technology (DST) entitled “Development of Lipid Nanoparticles Enriched Hydrogels for Transdermal Drug Delivery: Formulation, In vitro Characterization and Pharmacodynamic studies in Animals”

11. Olmesartan Medoxomil-Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems: Design, In-Vitro Characterization, and Pharmacokinetic Assessments in Rabbits Via LC-MS/MS
El-Assal M I A,   El-Gendy M A, Tadros M I, El-Gazayerly O N
Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) is a lipophilic (log P = 4.31) antihypertensive drug suffering from limited oral bioavailability in humans (26%) due to its low aqueous solubility, uncontrolled enzymatic conversion to the active metabolite (olmesartan; OL) and efflux by drug resistance pumps. Surmounting such limitations via incorporation of OLM into self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). Based on OLM-equilibrium solubility studies in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants, Capmul® MCM, Tween® 20, Cremophor® EL and polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG) were combined in different ratios to plot ternary phase diagrams. OLM-loaded SENDDS were developed and evaluated for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, self-emulsification time, morphology, drug released percentages after 5-min (Q5min%), 1-hour (Q1h%) and dissolution efficiency percentages (DE1h%). The OL pharmacokinetics from SNEDDS (F6) and Benicar® tablets were evaluated (LC-MS/MS) in rabbits. Spherical OLM-loaded SNEDDS were developed. The best-achieved SNEDDS (F6) showed short emulsification time (13 s), fine droplet size (60.00 nm), low PDI (0.25), negative zeta potential (-14.4 mV), promising dissolution parameters; Q5min% (29.78%), Q1h% (66.69%) and DE1h% (47.96%) and enhanced in vivo absorption characteristics; shorter Tmax, higher Cmax and larger AUC(0−48h; suggesting its potential for the enhancement of the oral absorption of practically insoluble drugs; like OLM.

12. Design, Development and Optimization of Pulsatile Core in Cup Tablets of Naproxen
Rutu H Patel, Harsh J Trivedi, Kunal N Patel, Madhabhai M Patel
The aim of the present study to prepare Pulsatile release tablet of naproxen for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The drug delivery system was designed to deliver the drug at a time when it could be most needful for the patient. Drug excipient compatibility studies were carried out using DSC and found to be compatible with each other. Pulsatile tablet was prepared by direct compression method using different type and amount of superdisintegrants and coating polymers and evaluated for pre and post compression parameters. Box Behnken design was applied to optimize responses. Concentrations of Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) (X1), Ethyl cellulose (EC) (X2), and HPMC K100M (X3) were selected as independent variables while Lag time (Y1) and % drug release at 8 hrs (Y2) were selected as dependent variables. The prepared tablets were evaluated for post compression parameters and results indicated that concentration of SSG has major effect on in vitro drug release while concentration of EC and HPMC K100M has major effect on Lag time. Batch BE13 prepared with SSG 35mg, EC 175mg, and HPMC K100M 75 mg was found to be best batch as it achieves predetermined lag time of 5 hr 02 min and 99.32% of drug release. There was no significant variation in formulation at the end of six month accelerated stability study.

13. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Taste Masked Chlorhexidine-Releasing Oral Films
Palekar – Shanbhag P, Belatikar S, Sahane C
The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of formulating chlorhexidine diacetate containing fast dissolving oral films to serve as superior alternative to mouthwash, aiming at consumer compliance. Various film forming agents, plasticizers and taste masking agents were evaluated for optimizing the composition of fast dissolving oral films. The potential of arginine hydrochloride as taste masking agent for fast dissolving oral films containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose E5 (HPMC E5), propylene glycol and sucralose were formulated. Fast dissolving oral films of chlorhexidine diacetate were evaluated for the in vitro dissolution profile and in vitro microbiological assay. Oral films exhibited satisfactory in vitro dissolution profile and in vitro antimicrobial activity. Effect of incorporation of eugenol on the in vivo performance of oral films was evaluated in human volunteers. Arginine hydrochloride and eugenol containing oral films improved effectiveness and acceptability of films with respect to taste masking, mouth feel and mouth freshening without compromising the in vivo dissolution time.


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