International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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1. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-863 C/A Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Nephrotic Syndrome
Zainab J. Fadhil, Ahmed Abdul-Hassan Abbas, Shatha Hussein Ali
Background: Cytokines act as a mediator of inflammation in childhood nephrotic syndrome. Polymorphisms of cytokines genes may influence susceptibility to nephrotic syndrome (NS), as well as, patients’ steroid responses. Objective: To study the association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha single nucleotide polymorphisms (TNF-α SNP) (-863 C/A)   with the development of NS in addition to access to their effects on serum level of TNF and the response to steroid therapy. Methods: This study included 60 patients (19 female and 41 male) with nephrotic syndrome; their ages ranged from 2 to  18 years. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) was used to assess the TNF-α gene polymorphism. Results: According to the digestion pattern of RFLP-PCR products of TNF-α-863, this polymorphism had three genotypes, which were CC, CA, and AA, in both NS patients and controls. Also, the current result observed that -863 SNP do not affect the serum level of TNF-α and steroid responsiveness in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Conclusion: This polymorphism did not show any significant association with response to steroid therapy and TNF serum level neither at genotype nor at allele level.

2. Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Oxidative Coupling Reaction
Abdul Majeed Khorsheed Ahmed, Sunbul M. Anwar, Ahmed Hamdi Hattab
Phenylephrine is a medication mainly applied as a decongestant to relieve hemorrhoids, increase blood pressure, and dilate the pupil. It is the first-line choice for prevention and treatment of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. However, many methods were used for the determination of this drug and its properties. This paper proposes a method that uses N, N dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride as a new chromogenic reagent (NNDPH). This method is based  on the oxidative coupling reaction of phenylephrine with N, N dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride with ferric chloride in basic media to form green-blue soluble dye product. The outcomes demonstrate that the maximum absorption is at 680 nm, molar absorptivity of 5.54 × 103, and Sandell’s sensitivity of 0.038 µ The concentration range of 4 to 22 µg.mL-1 of the product is conformable to Beer’s law. Furthermore, it is applied successfully for estimating the drug properties on a simple condition or pharmaceutical preparations.

3. Thermodynamic Study of Adsorption of Tamoxifen Drug on Activated Nano-Coal Particles prepared from Stem of Eucalyptus and its Diagnosis by different Technies
Ahmed Taha Yaseen, Li’a Hussein Alwan
The research included preparing nano-activated charcoal from the stem of the eucalyptus trees. The prepared nano-coal particles were diagnosed using various technies, such as, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) technology. The research included a spectroscopic study of the adsorption of tamoxifen on the prepared nano-coal, and the results showed that the appropriate concentration is 2.5 × 10-5 molar, with an appropriate weight of the adsorbent material which is 0.4-gram, the time of eilibrium is 40 minutes, and the percentage of adsorption efficiency increases with passing time, the adsorption process is dependent to a second-degree eation, according to the correlation coefficient (R2), which gave the value of 0.9999. Thermodynamic functions were calculated for the adsorption process at different temperatures (17.5, 27.5, 37.5, and 47.5ºC), and it was found that the adsorption process is a heat emission process (ΔH negative), the adsorption is physical because it is less than 40 kJ/mol, and the free energy is negative (ΔG), and entropy adsorption was negative (ΔS), meaning less random.

4. Could the Vitacel R200 improve the Immune Response and Hemato- Biochemical Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila?
Ali Kane, Nabeel Al-Sharafi, Sabah Hamad
The fermentable fiber, Vitacel R200 is industrial compound cellulose exerting many beneficial health effects at the hosts. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerling (120 ± 4.5 grams) were fed dietary 1% (10 g/kg feed) Vitacel R200 for 7 weeks, then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Two weeks after the challenge, hemato-biochemical and immune parameters in the challenged fish were studied. The lysozyme and complement activity, as well as, white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb%), percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil in the fish fed Vitacel were significantly increased compared with the control group. Furthermore, the serum total protein, albumin, Na+, K+, P, and Ca++ concentrations in the fish fed diet containing 1% Vitacel were significantly increased, while alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as well as, cortisol, cholesterol, and glucose concentration were significantly decreased  in comparison to the control group. These results concluded that dietary Vitacel could improve the hemato-biochemical and immune parameters, as well as, the stress response in O. mykiss infected with A. hydrophila.

5. Co-existence of LasI, RhI, and Pseudomonas inolone Signal orum-sensing Genes in Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates
Anwer Jaber Faisal, Munim Radwan Ali, Layla Abdulhamid Said
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can regulate different group actives and physiological processes through the orum sensing mechanism. The aims of this research were to detect the presence of orum sensing genes in 50 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates, which represent by (lasI, lasR, rhlI, and rhlR) and Pseudomonas inolone signal (P) (PgsA, PgsB, PgsC, PgsD, PgsE, and MvfR) genes by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technie and interaction between the two systems. Isolates were subjected to test their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial drugs, 64% of isolates showed resistance to ceftazidime, followed by carbencillin (56%), while only 8% were resistant to imipenem. In addition, all of the bacterial isolates were distributed within three multidrug-resistant (MDR) patterns, viz., A, B, and C. The highest rate of MDR was showed with MDR pattern C, in which bacterial isolates showed resistance to resist (9→11) antimicrobial drugs. Results revealed that P. aeruginosa isolates have different gene patterns, viz., A to E. According to orum sensing genes production, pattern A found to express all the genes in LasI, RhI, and P system, while pattern B has a defective for the production of lasR, rhlR genes, while the same isolates have the P system all present. Significantly, there is a positive relationship between las and rhl system and regulation of antibiotics resistance, in which the bacterial isolates that have las and rhl genes showed high resistance to common antimicrobial agents under study. These findings suggest that P can function as an intercellular signal in P. aeruginosa that is not restricted only to alkyl homoserine lactones (AHL).

6. A Study of Retention Behavior and Method Development of Salbutamol Sulfate in Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography
Ali Saad Ali, Ashraf Saad Rasheed
For chromatographical separation and estimation of salbutamol sulfate, zwitterionic stationary phases with large capacity were obtained by zwitter-molecules attached to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS/DVB) particle. Salbutamol sulfate retention activity was studied with eluent at various pH mobile phase, mobile phase concentrations, and acetonitrile (ACN) percentage. The methods of separation are based on separating the salbutamol sulfate into hydrophobic and cations interactions. Linearity of0.01 to 0.9 μg.mL-1 for two columns was developed with direct calibration curves, RSD percent (0.48 ± 0.12 and 0.49 ± 0.22), LOD (0.058 and 0.04 μg.mL-1), and LO(0.203 and 0.14 μg.mL-1) were created, respectively.

7. Investigate Retention Behavior of 2-deoxycytidine in Hydrophilic Interaction Liid Chromatography
Yaut Abd Al-Hakeem Hamed, Ashraf Saad Rasheed
A hydrophilic interaction chromatography has been investigated to separate 2-deoxycytidine chosen for nucleoside. A  small molecule with specific features for human serum samples was 2-deoxycytidine tested. 2-deoxycytidine has been applied to self-made stationary hydrophilic phases (ZIC1 and ZIC5). The deoxycytidine (dCD) retention was investigated with varying concentrations of sodium acetate buffer, acetonitrile%, and pH. The results confirmed the hydrophilicity of 2-deoxycytidine. The exchanger retention mechanism was studied taking into account 2-deoxycytidine used for describing the interaction of hydrophilic and cation. For both ZIC1 and ZIC5 exchangers, we described and discussed the influence of chromatographic conditions (concentration of sodium acetate buffer, a percent of CAN, and pH). The two methods developed are a useful alternative to current 2-deoxycytidine separation methods.

8. Redounding of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. on BxPC-3, HepG2, and U2OS Human Cancer Cell Lines
Basma Talib Al-Sudani, Nadia H. Mohammed, Fadia H. Al-Sultany
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate in vitro cytotoxic effect of aqueous extract from whole Cuscuta chinensis on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), biopsy xenograft of pancreatic carcinoma line-3 (BxPC-3), and children human bone osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS). Materials and Methods: The anticancer effectiveness of the methanol-watery extract of C. chinensis Lam. was determined by using methyl tetrazolium bromide test (MTT) assay against cancer cells by using suspensions of BxPC-3, HepG2, and U2OS cell lines. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was tested for each cancer cell line. BxPC-3, HepG2, and U2OS cell line death percent after incubation with extract for 24, 48, and 72-hours interval was compared with cisplatin death percent. Results: The results showed that the IC50 of Cuscuta extract for BxPC-3, HepG2, and U2OS cell lines was 13, 6.5, and 0.73 μg/mL, respectively. The HepG2 cell line death%, when treated with 50 μg/mL Cuscuta extract at 24, 48, and 72-hour time interval, was 90.41, 91.45, and 92.93%, while cells were treated with 15 μg/mL cisplatin, the death percent was 88.8, 93.7, and 96.61%, respectively. The BxPC-3 cell line death%, when treated with 50 μg/mL Cuscuta extract, was 51.46, 83.37, and 91.28%, respectively, and when treated with 15 μg/mL cisplatin was 81.64, 88.02, and 96.67%, respectively. The U2OS cell line death%, when treated with 50 μg/mL Cuscuta extract, was 69.43, 69.75, and 88.89%, and was 74.1, 84.61, and 93.39%, respectively, when treated with 15 μg/mL cisplatin. Conclusion: The methanol-watery extract of C. chinensis Lam. may have a potential role as an adjunct therapy for cancers in the future.

9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Drug Release Study of Modified Chitosan
Farah. Kh. H. Al-Juboory, Ali Azeez Mahmood, Hala. M. G. Al-Zahawi
This research included loading of drugs (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and fenoprofen) on a chitosan polymer to produce drug- loading polymer by entering the chitosan in a Schiff base reaction to protect -NH2 group, the reacting of the product with drug chloride. The prepared compounds were identified spectroscopically, by using infrared spectroscopy, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal stability of chitosan was measured by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The drug release of ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and fenoprofen from chitosan in hypothetical stomach fluid was studied. The drug concentration that was released in stomach fluid several times was determined by measuring the absorbance in ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy.

10. Virus-like Particles—Application in Nano Vaccines: A Review
Ghassa Tari Alubaidi
Nanomaterials are increasingly applied to develop new vaccines with new strategies. Implementation of such substances in vaccines will enhance vaccine formula immunogenicity, target delivery, and antigen stability control release. Genetically engineered virus-like particles (VLPs), structurally mimic the viruses and had been successfully used as nano vaccines. VLPs- based vaccines possess the advantage of being safe, effective, and non-infectious. Moreover, due to the optimized nano-size and repetitive structural units of the VLPs, it is suspected that those particles are highly immunogenic, even in absence of adjuvant substances. VLPs could be formulated to carry an array of heterogeneous antigens of different viruses. For all, they are considered as ideal nano vaccine model.

11. Isolation and Identification of two Cucurbitacins B and E, and Detection of Phytosterols in Cucurbita pepo L. var. pepo (Pumpkin) Leaves Extract
Haider M. Kadhim, Maha N. Hamad, Yasir M. Kadhim
Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin), a Cucurbitaceae membered plant, is considered one of the oldest cultivated plants; it has been cultivated about 7,000 to 5,500 BC. Traditionally, C. pepo is cultivated from very close to sea level in semi-dry climates, to others, which are cultivated at altitudes greater than 2,000 meters. Ethnopharmacological studies show that C. pepo is used in many countries for treating several diseases, e.g., as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, urinary disorders, anti-ulcer, anti- diabetic, and anti-oxidant. C. pepo leaves extracted with 90% methanol by maceration with continuous shaking at room temperature for three days. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), (analytical and preparative) high-performance liid chromatography, and liid mass chromatography used for isolation and identification of two Cucurbitacins from C. pepo (pumpkin) leaves methanolic extract and detection of phytosterols. Cucurbitacins are triterpenes based structure isolated from many members of Cucurbitaceae families and other plants. Cucurbitacins exhibit polar properties, so they are isolated from plant extracts, which are extracted with methanol. Cucurbitacins exhibit anti-cancer activity, anti-atherosclerotic activity, and anti-arthritis activity, so Cucurbitacins may be an important lead molecule for future new medicinal preparation.

12. Producing Drink like Grafted Milk from Chickpeas and Evaluation of its alitative Properties
Ibtihal Ismail Muhammad Al-Ani
The present study aimed to study the possibility of producing a drink that looks like grafted milk by using chickpeas and evaluate its physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties. The result showed the superiority of F treatment (soaking 100 grams of chickpeas at the refrigerator temperature 4ºC for   12 hours) over the rest seven treatments in extraction efficiency, which was 70%, while, it was 50.5% in H treatment (soaking 100 grams of chickpeas in the heated water at 60ºC for 30 minutes). The highest value of the product density was after water and flavorings addition in the D treatment (soaking 100 grams chickpeas in 0.05 soda solution at 60ºC for 30 minutes), and it was 0.97 g cm-3, compared with the lowest density 0.57 g cm-3 in A treatment (soaking 100 grams chickpeas in 0.05 soda solution at room temperature 25ºC for 12 hours). pH values were highest in A treatment compared with the other treatments, and its value was 7.66 in the 1st and 2nd day, after dissolving in a refrigerator at 4ºC, and then, for 5 minutes at room temperature 30ºC. The lowest value in the D treatment was 6.45 on the 1st day, and 6.87 on the 2nd day in the G treatment. On the 3rd day, the highest pH value was 7.13 in the   D treatment, and the lowest value 6.79 was in the E treatment. pH highest value was 6.2 on the 4th day in A treatment. From the last results, it may be concluded that F treatment was the best in extraction efficiency, the final product density, and less total bacterial number, after dissolving for 5 days at refrigerator temperature 4ºC, and then, at room temperature 30ºC for 3 and 48 hours incubation. The best extraction volume and pH were in A treatment.

13. Green Synthesis and Evaluation of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles using Fig Leaves and their Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities
Jenan Hussien Taha, Nada Khudair Abbas, Azhar A. F. Al-Attrahi
In this article, a simple new technie for the green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using peroxidases oxidoreductases (POX) enzyme extracted from fig leaves for antifungal and antibacterial activities has been reported. Subseently, a comprehensive investigation of the structural, optical, and morphological properties of the synthesized CuO NPs was elucidated, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), EDX, atomic       force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis technies. Specifically,  the  resultant nanoparticles are spherical with a diameter ranging from 28 to 68. CuO NPs were further tested for their antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus species, while the antibacterial activity was screened in contradiction of pathogenic bacterial strains namely gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Asinobacterial species. The present study reveals a convenient use of POX fig leaves extract as fuel, for the well-organized synthesis of CuO NPs via green synthesis technie to acire considerably active antifungal and antibacterial materials.

14. Identification of Clinical Pseudomonas spp. by VITEK 2 Compact System and Species-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Sawsan Saeed Hasan, Layla Abdulhamed Said, Saad L Hamed
The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and diagnose Pseudomonas spp. from different clinical sources in Baghdad, Ira VITEK 2 compact system identification gram-negative bacteria (ID gNB) cards were used to confirm the identification. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technie and seencing were used for recognition of the 16S rDNA gene, by two pairs of primers, universal primers (930 bp fragments) for recognition of Pseudomonas spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa specific species (PASS) primers (956 bp fragments) for differentiation of P. aeruginosa from other species. Amplified PCR products of PASS primers were sent for DNA Sanger seencing to Macrogen Company, Seoul, Korea; data were compared with the database using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Ninety-two Pseudomonas spp., including 86 isolates of aeruginosa and 1, 2, 3 isolates of Pseudomonas luteola, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, were obtained using VITEK 2 compact system ID gNB cards with a percentage of identification ranging from 91 to 99%. Gene amplification and seencing results confirm identification ranging from 99 to 100%. After seencing analysis, eleventh of the P. aeruginosa isolates had been submitted in GenBank National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under accession numbers MN630696–MN630707. It was observed that phenotypic tests supported by PCR technies have enabled to conduct a detailed characterization of Pseudomonas bacteria isolates.

15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Azithromycin using Oxidative Coupling Reaction
Maadh T. Abdulrahman, Ihab M. Rashid, Nashwan H. Ali
For determining the azithromycin (AZT) in medicinal and pure formulas, a simple spectrophotometric technie was developed. An approach suggested is dependent on an AZT’s oxidative coupling reaction by sodium period (SPI) and 4-amino antipyrine (AAP) producing a pink colored compound with optimum absorption of 480 nm. Different experimental parameters are extensively researched and mastered, which affects the stability of a colored product formed, then developed. The law of the Beer is obeyed over its concentration range 3 to 44 ppm, whereas the limit of detection and antification is 0.1908 and 0.5726 ppm, respectively, for a connection factor (r) = 0.9998. Also calculated are the molar absorption of 8.23 × 103 L/, and the sensitivity index for Sandell is 7 × 10-5 mg/cm2. A method’s accuracy and precision are tested by also determining a relative standard deviation (RSD) < 0.645 percent, and 100.189 percent average recovery. Practically possible external interferences about a calculation for AZT are checked in drug tablets. The results demonstrated that the procedure for determining AZT was successful in its application in pharmaceutical preparations. Comparing the literature survey that shows good sensitivity and selectivity, the reliability of the proposed method is chalked in.

16. Simultaneous Determination of Trace Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical Samples via Flow Injection Fluorometry
Maryam Hamed, Mohammad K. Hammood
Mefenamic acid belongs to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are used widely for the treatment of analgesia. Our aim from this study is to establish a new assay for the antitative determination of mefenamic acid (MFA) in the pharmaceutical sample by two sensitive and rapid flow injection-fluorometric methods. A homemade fluorometer was used in fluorescence measurements, which using solid-state laser diode 405 and 532 nm as a source, combined with a continuous flow injection technie. The first method depends on the effect of MFA on calcein blue (CLB) fluorescence at 405 nm. Another method is a study of rhodamine-6G (Rh-6G) fluorescence after adding MFA, and recording at 532 nm. Optimum parameters as fluorescent dye concentration, basic medium, flow rate, sample volume, purge time, and delay coil have been investigated. The dynamic range of MFA was 0.2 to 2 mmol.L-1; 0.5 to 2.3 mmol.L-1 with linearity percentage (% r2) 98.92 and 99.83%, for Rh-6G and CLB, respectively. Limit of detection at a minimum concentration in calibration curve 189.34 and 199.89 ng/sample, for Rh-6G and CLB, respectively. The comparison of developed methods with the classical method (UV-vis spectrophotometry) was achieved. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of MFA in the pharmaceutical samples and can be used as an alternative method.

17. Synthesis and Characterization of O-(carboxyl) Chitosan Schiff Base Derivatives and Study Antibacterial Activity
Ruwaidah S. Saeed
2-mercaptobenzothiazol [1] was reacted with anhydrous carbonate sodium and ClCH2COOH in distilled water to produce a compound [2]. Compound [3] was synthesized by reaction compound [2] with SOCl2 in benzene. O,N-chitosan derivative [4] had synthesized by reacted chitosan with compound [3] in trichloromethane and pyridine. O-chitosan derivative synthesized according to the method of Fischer and Speier from the reaction of chitosan with compound [2] in distilled water in      acidic media to produce compound [5]. O-(carboxyl) chitosan Schiff base derivatives [6-9] had synthesized by reaction O-(carboxyl) chitosan [5] with aromatic aldehydes (syringaldehyde, 3-methoxy,4-hydroxybenzeldehyde, 4-nitrobenzeldehyde, 4-bromobenzeldehyde). The structure of produced compounds has been characterized through their spectral and analytical data, as in fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, 1H-NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis (CHNS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermo gravimetry analysis (TGA). Finally, study the antibacterial activity of some prepared polymers.

18. Synthesis of Levofloxacin Derivatives with some Amines and their Complexes with Copper(II) Salts and Evaluation of their Biological Activity
Shaker M. Alwan, Shayma L. Abdulhadi, Amera Abbas
Levofloxacin belongs to the fluoroinolone family; it is a potent broad-spectrum bactericidal agent. The pharmacophore reired for significant antibacterial activity is the C-3 carboxylic acid group and the 4-pyridine ring with the C-4 carbonyl group, into which binding to the DNA bases occur. In this work, we tried to show that by masking the carboxyl group through amide formation using certain amines to form levofloxacin carboxamides, an interesting activity is kept. Levofloxacin carboxamides on the C-3 group were prepared, followed by the formation of their copper complexes. The target compounds were characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the target compounds was evaluated and showed satisfactory results compared with levofloxacin. This has indicated that the presence of the carbonyl of C-3 carboxyl moiety is not essential, as levofloxacin carboxamides showed interesting copper complexes indicating that they retain the activity of levofloxacin, since its activity depends on binding to DNA gyrase via magnesium binding.

19. Transdermal Patches: State of the Art
Sharma C, Thakur N, Kaur B, Goswami M
There is a considerable increase in preference for use of transdermal patches over conventional dosage forms owing to the advantages it possesses over them. Transdermal delivery of drugs has undergone rapid advancements through technies like electroporation, microneedles, iontophoresis etc. This review is aimed at providing deep insight into transdermal technology and its types. An overview of the present market size of transdermal patches along with future prospects has been discussed. Transdermal products being manufactured by Indian pharmaceuticals also has been presented. Various components of transdermal patches being explored have been elaborated. After studying this review, it could be concluded that there are huge prospects for transdermal systems, and research aimed at the delivery of sparingly soluble drugs needs to be done to overcome limitations.

20. Association of Viral Hepatitis with ABO Blood Group in apparently Normal Ira Blood Donors
Suad Azeez Hassan, Suhair Hassan Alkutbi, Eman S. Nassir, Haider Moamin Lilo
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are counted as a public health issue worldwide. The virus is transmitted to infect others through blood and blood products. Appointed blood groups and Rh-positive are more prone to the transmission of the infection by blood transfusion. The aim of this study is to find out the freency of hepatitis B and C in apparently healthy blood donors and whether there is an association between ABO and Rh blood groups. ABO blood groups and their relationship with HBV and HCV infections were studied in 87,124 blood donors of both genders. Out of these donors, 353 individuals were found to be infected with HBV and HCV with a ratio of 1:250. The study was conducted between January to June 2018, which was presented to the Central Blood Bank in Baghdad and Al-Razi Medical Centre. It found that most hepatitis B and C blood donors were blood group O with a prevalence of 33.7 and 45.5%, respectively, while the results for those with blood group A showed 28.5 and 22.7% HBV and HCV infections, respectively. On the other hand, the incidence of HBV in individuals with blood group B was 29.8%, and HCV was 23.8%. AB        blood group donors demonstrated the least incidence at 7.9% for both HBV and HCV. In conclusion, it has been found that there is a significant association between blood groups and Rh factor with hepatitis B and C infections.

21. Resistance Rates of the most Isolated Bacteria from different Clinical Samples, Kerbala Iraq
Maysaa Saleh Mahdi, Suhad Hadi Mohammed, Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed, Ali Najm Al- Deen, Nargis Fadhil, Noor Yahya Abid Zaid, Ibrahim Hayder Jasim Alkhafaji
Determining the bacterial causative agents of infections by identifying their antimicrobial patterns will enable health institutions to limit the unnecessary use of antibiotics, and take active ways in preventing the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. This study aimed to identify the most common bacterial isolates responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance rates. The results showed that Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa represent the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 23.9, 18.8, and 16.2%, respectively. High resistance rates were found for the most common bacterial isolates. Other important findings are the presence of extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria and the appearance of hetero-resistance phenomenon. Moreover, the bacterial infection is mainly occurring in men. No significant correlation was observed in the type of isolated bacteria with patient admission status.E. coli strains were found to be highly resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone (88.9%), ceftazidime (85.2%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (74.1%), and ciprofloxacin (59.3%). Whereas, the highest sensitivity rates were seen with meropenem antibiotic (92.6%). Concerning S. aureus isolates, 100, and approximately 91% of resistant rates were seen to penicillin and cefoxitin, respectively [methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)]. Approximately 50% of MRSA were vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Resistant rates of P. aeruginosa isolates to gentamycin and ciprofloxacin were 47.1%, amikacin 41.2%, and levofloxacin 35.3%. In conclusion, the current study might reveal that the isolated bacteria could be of critical priority carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant and 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. In addition, the isolation of high priority bacteria includes vancomycin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

22. Phenotypic Detection of Macrolide-Lincosamide- Streptogramin Resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in Baghdad, Iraq
Mustafa M. Al-isi, Tu S. Al-Salmani
Introduction: Staphylococci emerged as  the  most freent nosocomial and     community-acired pathogens.         Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics resistance was increasing among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. Objective: In the present study, the aim was to detect the phenotypic resistance pattern of MLS (constitutive and inducible) among S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolated from Ira patients. Methods: A total of 120 staphylococcal isolates (60 S. aureus and 60 S. epidermidis) were isolated from urine, wound swab, blood, and sputum specimens, then specified by the VITEK 2 system. Whole isolates were investigated by the disk-diffusion method against many antibiotics, then they were checked for the MLS phenotype by the D-zone test. Results: Out of 60 S. aureus isolates and 60 S. epidermidis, the isolation rates from wound, urine, blood, and sputum were 66.6 and 50%, 16.7 and 26.7%, 11.7 and 18.3%, and 5% for each species, respectively. The higher freency rates of resistance were showed against erythromycin, clindamycin, and streptomycin, for both S. aureus with 83.3, 53.3, and 83.3%, respectively, and S. epidermidis with 73.3, 45, and 76.7%, respectively. Constitutive MLS resistance phenotype (MLSc) was shown in 32 isolates (53.3%) of S. aureus and inducible MLS resistance phenotype (MLSi) was noted in 16 isolates (26.7%). Conclusion: The current study concluded that the D-zone test must be applied within the routine work of the antimicrobial susceptibility test for staphylococcal isolates, to exclude the false results of staphylococcal isolates sensitivity against clindamycin.

23. Radiofrequency Endovenous Ablation: A Safe and Effective Modality for Varicose Veins Treatment
Yaser Aamer Alhaibi, Yaser Hussain Mutla
Varicose veins are dilated, tortuous superficial veins, causing aching pain, swelling, and cramps in the affected lower limb. The key behind having such a problem is venous insufficiency after valve failure in the involved dilated vein. Surgery was the standard procedure for removing these dilated veins. A new era of treatment emerged, where endovenous radiofreency ablation is applied under local and tumescent anesthesia by the aid of Doppler ultrasound. This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of radiofreency ablation in treating varicose veins. Our center is the first center in Baghdad, Irausing this technie for treating varicose veins. Forty-five patients with varicose veins were enrolled in a prospective study from October 2017, through March 2019, aged 20 to 56 years; females 27 (60%), and males 18 (40%). Their veins were scanned by Doppler ultrasound and were diagnosed as having venous insufficiency; a total of sixty veins were ablated by radiofreency, fifty (83%) long saphenous veins, and only ten (17%) short saphenous veins. The patients were scored clinically using comprehensive classification system for chronic venous disorders (CEAP) clinical score, 75% of patients were C2-C4, while only 25% of patients C5-C6. The time for each limb was around 20 minutes. A 100% technical success, and an excellent vein occlusion rate postoperatively. No postoperative complications were noted. After 1-week’, 1-month’, and 6 months’ follow-up, there was an improvement in CEAP clinical score, an early post-procedure return to daily activities. Therefore, endovenous radiofreency ablation shows excellent results in terms of safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction.

24. Preparation of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles: Study their Characterization and Antibacterial Activity
Zainab A. Fadhil Al-Mimar, Hussain S. Hasan, GhassaTari Al-Ubaidi
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNPs) have been synthesized by chemical precipitation method and were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) was performed by well diffusion method, using different concentrations of CPNPs and different combinations of CPNPs with ciprofloxacin (CIP) (CIP-CPNP100, CIP-CPNP50, and CIP-CPNP25). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) were evaluated by the broth dilution method and optical density. Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on polymorphonuclear cells. Results indicated that synthesized CPNPs sized 28.02 ± 3.2 nm in diameter as average, with distorted spherical shape appears as agglomerates. CPNPs showed no antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria, but combining them with CIP recorded antibacterial activity represented by inhibition zone against MDR bacteria. It was found that the inhibition zone increases when the concentration of CIP and particle size decreases. The MTT assay reveals the acceptable toxicity of the synthesized nanoparticles. The present study can be helpful to formulate nano-drug conjugates as antimicrobial agents in various fields of medical research.

25. Oxidant-Antioxidant Status in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Zindan Y. Ameen, Najlaa K. Issa
The major famous degenerative joint disease is osteoarthritis (OA), which leads to disability, reduced motion, pain, swelling, and crepitus. Thus, this research aimed to determine the statuses of oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidants in blood patients with primary OA and to compare serum levels of some inflammatory markers between control and knee OA patients groups. In this case-control study, 126 knee OA patients and 49 control individuals were taken, who visited the Center of Rheumatoid in Duhok city, Kurdistan region of Ira For the participant’s information, a study estionnaire was employed. Serum total bilirubin (TBIL), uric acid (UA), catalase, peroxynitrite (PN), malondialdehyde (MDA), and ceruloplasmin (CP) were evaluated. Some inflammatory markers were measured, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, body mass index (BMI) was measured. In the present study, the % of the control group was 28% and patients groups were 29.71, 28, and 14.29% for mild, moderate, and severe cases, respectively. The mean values of MDA and CP showed significant differences between knee OA and control groups. On the other hand, the mean values of catalase, PN, UA, and TBIL showed no significant differences among control and knee OA groups. A significant difference was found among control and knee OA groups for ESR, but CRP was non-significant. In the current study, elevated levels of lipid-peroxidation and CP in patients with knee OA were observed. OS may be involved in OA.

26. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Ibuprofen Derivatives and Study Antibacterial Activity
Khalida A. Thejeel
The major famous degenerative joint disease is osteoarthritis (OA), which leads to disability, reduced motion, pain, swelling, and crepitus. Thus, this research aimed to determine the statuses of oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidants in blood patients with primary OA and to compare serum levels of some inflammatory markers between control and knee OA patients groups. In this case-control study, 126 knee OA patients and 49 control individuals were taken, who visited the Center of Rheumatoid in Duhok city, Kurdistan region of Ira For the participant’s information, a study estionnaire was employed. Serum total bilirubin (TBIL), uric acid (UA), catalase, peroxynitrite (PN), malondialdehyde (MDA), and ceruloplasmin (CP) were evaluated. Some inflammatory markers were measured, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, body mass index (BMI) was measured. In the present study, the % of the control group was 28% and patients groups were 29.71, 28, and 14.29% for mild, moderate, and severe cases, respectively. The mean values of MDA and CP showed significant differences between knee OA and control groups. On the other hand, the mean values of catalase, PN, UA, and TBIL showed no significant differences among control and knee OA groups. A significant difference was found among control and knee OA groups for ESR, but CRP was non-significant. In the current study, elevated levels of lipid-peroxidation and CP in patients with knee OA were observed. OS may be involved in OA.

27. Cloud point extraction for Pre-concentration and Spectrophotometric Determination of trace amounts of silver ions
Azhar A. Ghali
During the last years, the cloud point extraction was applied for determination, separation and enrichment of the elements. The current study used CPE for the extraction of Ag(I) ions pre-concentration from watery solutions by a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) and chelating agent a 6-(4-bromo-phenylazo)m-anisidine[6-(4-BrPAA)]) then estimation by using the spectrophotometry at(514) nm. Several condition effect on the efficiency of the cloud-point extraction included Triton X-114 concentration, [6-(4-BrPAA)] concentration, pH, time and incubation temperature. The silver reacts with [6-(4-BrPAA)]to produce complex at ratio one to one.(0.009-1.5μg mL-1) is a range of the linearity. The detection limit and quantification of Ag (I) ion were(0.0054 and 0.0182 μg mL-1)respectuly. The interference of the cations was examined. The cloud-point extraction was used for evaluation of silver concentration in the water specimen.

28. Determination of Tetracycline in Capsule Dosage Form
Ali N. Hussein, Ahmed M.J. Jehan Yin, Murtada M. Hasan
Background: Tetracycline antibiotic is widely prescribed that encourages the finding of rapid and reliable protocol for the determination of tetracycline hydrochloride in hard gelatine capsules. Recently, the standard addition method is used commonly with the aid of UV-Vis spectrophotometer for such purpose. In this work, the authors aim to quantify the percent assay of Apcycline-250 capsules utilizing the standard addition protocol. Methods: Twenty filled and emptied capsules were weighed and an equivalent amount of 50 mg of tetracycline hydrochloride was diluted, filtered, and an appropriate standard was spiked and prepared for assay. Results: The lambda max was found to be 348 nm and the absorbance versus concentration standard addition curve was plotted for tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. This curve shows good linearity (R2=0.9994). The Limit of detection and Limit of quantification were observed as 0.007937 and 0.02646, respectively. While, the percent assay was 103.2%. Conclusion: The authors conclude that the standard addition technique is a reliable method to conduct rapid, economical, and validated day-by-day analyses work of tetracycline hydrochloride hard gelatine capsules.

29. Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on The Histology of Liver of White Male Rats
Fakhir M. ALzubaidy, Firas F. Almamori, Raad Jasim, Dhulfiqar Ali Abed
Background: Nanotechnology or Nano science considers as a new field of science which has an effective role in day to day life aspects. This field deals with production, processing and use of materials ranging in nanometers. Recently, this field becomes a confederate science which is usually used in other fields of science like electronic, physics and engineering. Materials and methods: Study design start with the choice of nanoparticles (Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles TiO2). Eighteen white male rats were used in this research. Study groups classified into six groups (each group includes three animals):- Two control groups (for oral and i.p. administration) and four treatment groups (group I: treated with 400 mg/kg orally and i.p. , group II: treated with 150 mg/kg orally and i.p.). Results and discussion: Results of this research include the presence of some inflammatory cells infiltration (lymphocyte infiltration), as it showed in the figures of the histological sections of the treated groups compared with control group. These results were found to be different than studies of other researches that refer to the presence of many undesired hepatic histological and biochemical changes, such as the effects on membrane structure, oxidative stress, binding protein or DNA, cell death or apoptosis, hepatocytes necrosis. Conclusion: In conclusion, Tio2 induce lymphocyte infiltration, but there are no additional deleterious histological changes in the liver tissue.

30. Expression of serum IL-22, IL-23 and TLR- 9 as tumor markers in untreated breast cancer patients
Alia Gh. Abdulwahid, Hanaa N. Abdullah
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women and is the most important cause of death among them. Breast cancer is a common malignancy, accounting for one-third of women cancers in Iraq. To the best of our knowledge, little literature information are available on the participation of IL-22, IL-23 & TLR-9 in BC patients.  Thus, the evaluation of serum IL-22, IL-23 and TLR-9 level changes can add new information on their roles in breast cancer development and progression. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of IL-22, IL-23 and TLR-9 as tumor markers in BC. Levels of circulating Interleukin-22, IL-23 and TLR-9 were estimated by Enzyme linked Immunoassay method. The serum level of IL-22 was highly significantly elevated in patients compared to the benign and healthy control groups (317.53±14.33 vs. 68.73±12.38 and 62.67±19.11pg/ml, P≤0.05), but the difference between the Benign tumor and healthy control groups means was not significant. Also, this results indicated that the mean level of IL-23 was higher significantly in breast cancer patients in comparison with the benign and healthy controls (887.89±199.04 vs. 146.86±84.26 and 72.26±12.76 pg/ml, P≤0.05). So, no significant difference was revealed between benign tumor and healthy control groups (146.86±84.26 and 72.26±12.76 pg/ml, P> 0.05). Finally, a serum level of TLR9 was significantly elevated in breast cancer patients in comparison with the control groups (16.89± 0.75 vs. 9.97 ±1.21 ng/ml, 9.06± 0.21 ng/ml, P<0.05. On estimating of IL-22, IL-23 and TLR-9, the results showed the concentrations of IL-22, IL-23 and TLR-9 in the sera of breast cancer were significantly elevated compared those in the control groups. Expression of IL-22, IL-23 and TLR-9   could be used as diagnostic tumor biomarker.

31. Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Piroxicam Conventional and Hollow Suppositories
Laila Abdulhussein Alwan, Entidhar J. Al- Akkam
Objective: The objective of this study was to develop higher and rapid release of piroxicam from suppositories of different types (conventional and hallow) using different bases. Methods:  Thirteen formulas (F1 – F13) were prepared (five were conventional and the rest were hollow type suppositories) by using different bases such as witepsol H35, polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with different ratio and glycerinated gelatin. The prepared suppositories were evaluated for physical properties such hardness, melting time, softening time and for dissolution profile. Results: All of the prepared suppositories had acceptable physical properties. The maximum percent release of piroxicam was 98%, 97%, 95% and 91% within 50min were obtained from hollow type suppositories containing piroxicam in a solution form and utilizing witepsol H35 base (F10), glycerinated gelatin base (F13), PEGs 400:4000 (70:30) (F12) and PEGs 200:6000 (70:30) (F11) , respectively. Also they exhibited rapid release of piroxicam however, F10 and F12 released 65% and 50% of piroxicam within   5 min while, F11 released 57% within 10 min. Conclusion: Hollow type suppositories containing piroxicam in a solution form can be considered as the most suitable formulas (F10 – F13). So that, hollow-type suppository is useful as a promising approach for enhancing the release of piroxicam to be administered rectally. Also, the study revealed that in addition to the type of suppositories, the type of the base, the grade and the ratio of PEGs bases are other important factors affecting the physical properties of suppositories and the dissolution profile of piroxicam.

32. Synthesis, Antibacterial and Molecular Docking Study of Novel 2-Chloro-8-Methoxy-3-Aryl-[1,3] Benzoxazine Derivatives Using  Vilsmeier Reagent
Shaimaa Abed Saoud, Dhuha Faruk. Hussain, Raied Mustafa Shakir
Reducing of ethyl 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)amino)benzoate (1) afford ethyl 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)amino)benzoate (2). Reaction this compound with vilsmeier reagent afford novel 2-Chloro -[1,3] Benzoxazine ring (3). The corresponding acid hydrazide of compound 3 was synthesized from reaction compound (3) with hydrazine hydrate. Newly series of hydrazones (5a-i) were synthesized from reaction the acid hydrazide with various aryl aldehydes. Antibacterial activity of the hydrazones was secerned utilizing Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Compound (5b) and (5c) exhibited significant antibacterial ability against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, while the compounds (5a) showed mild antibacterial activity. Compounds (5d-5i) did not display notable activity.the molecular docking of synthesised compounds were tested inside the pocket of  bacterial gyrase enzyme Target site by using MOE 2015 Software, which act as ATP binding domain bacterial gyrase enzyme pocket and Novobiocin was used as reference.

33. Effect of MgO and CuO Nanoparticles on increasing Tannin and Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum L. using Shoot Tip In vitro
Manar F. Jassim Al-Khafagi, Hashim K. Mohammed Al-Oubaidi
Secondary metabolites are the bioactive compounds in plants used pharmacologically for human health. For the development and growth, Punica granatum L. plants produce tannin and phenol compounds in addition to those primary metabolic and biosynthetic routes for associated compounds. Many such compounds are medicinal and play an important role in various treatments. However, these medicinal compounds are produced in small quantities within the plant; thus it is necessary to stimulate the plant to increase the amount of production. This research aimed at increasing the said compounds, viz., secondary metabolites (tannins and phenols) in the P. granatum L. plant. In order to achieve this, different concentrations of MgO nanoparticles (NPs) (i.e., 3.5, 5.5, 8, and 12 mg/L) and CuO NPs (i.e., 4.5, 8, 13, and 18 mg/L) were added to the callus media in vitro. Then, using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, the quantity of these compounds was measured, and a comparison was drawn with the quantity of these compounds present in the mother plant. From the results, it was observed that using MgO and CuO NPs, highly significant differences were caused. It was found that the tannin compounds got increased using 8 and 12 mg/L, and 8, 13, and 18 mg/L of MgO and CuO NPs, respectively. Whereas the phenol compounds got increased using 3.5, 8, and 12 mg/L, and 4.5, 8, 13, and 18 mg/L of MgO and CuO NPs, respectively.

34. Lactuca serriola: Short Review of its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles
Thukaa Z. Abdul-Jalil
Lactuca serriola Linn (prickly lettuce) is a common weed in cultivated fields belong to the Asteraceae family. Its leaves are used as a vegetable, eaten raw, or cooked. The present review attempts to furnish a brief overview of pharmacognosy, traditional uses, phytochemical, pharmacological activities, and the industrial applications of the Lactuca serriola (L. serriola) that will further explore its potential using the scientific process. Notarized information on pharmacognosy, traditional uses, phytochemical, pharmacological activities, and industrial applications of the L. serriola was gathered from authenticated online sources, like Scopus, Google Scholar, Research Gate, Science Direct, Elsevier, PubMed, and Web of Science. Additional information was collected from traditional sources, such as, books, book chapters, journal articles, and scientific publications sourced from the college library. L. serriola has a conventional use in the treatment of headache, insomnia, nervousness, hypertension, palpitation, fever, etc. It has been found in a recent finding that L. serriola contains active components that have biological functions in disease control. They display diverse pharmacological activities, including sedative, hypnotic, diuretic, antioxidant, anesthetic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, a bronchodilator, and vasorelaxant. The interest was due to its availability and cost-effectiveness, drawing the attention of many researchers screening for various bioactive substances.

35. Micro Evaluation of Sulphonamide in Biological Samples by Coupling Reaction
Ahmed J. Muklive Al-Ogaidi, Aliaa A. Razzak Mohammed, Abeer Abdul Razak Mohammed
This study aimed to test the efficiency of eucalyptus extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) supplemented with zinc nanoparticles in inhibiting gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria isolated in patients and their identification. The results showed the identification of two gram-negative bacteria: Salmonella and Entamoeba coli. Three types of gram-positive bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus epidermidis The effect of the aqueous extract of eucalyptus on the aforementioned species was tested, as it proved highly effective in influencing the growth of gram-positive bacteria than it is with gram-negative bacteria. While the effect of the alcoholic extract on the growth of negative bacteria was greater than its effect on the gram-positive bacteria and it proved highly effective on E. coli compared to Salmonella. The results of the synergistic action of the above-mentioned extracts when mixed with nano-zinc, showed a significant increase in the inhibition of the growth of bacterial species. Whereas the turbulent effect of the alcoholic extract with nano-zinc showed a significant effect on the growth of dye-negative bacteria compared to the effect of the aqueous extract supplemented with nano-zinc, which gave the highest effect in inhibiting the growth of gram-positive bacteria.

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