International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

Disclimer: Scopus and Crossref are registered trademark of respective companies.

This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Aquatic Fungi in Tigris River for some Areas in Salah Al-Din province and Evaluating their Enzymatic Activity
Abier R. M. Al-Qaissi*, Abdel H. M. Hamoudi, Khulood W. S. Hassoun
Thirty-eight fungal isolates were isolated from the water of Tigris river for three districts within Salah Al-Din Governorate, including Tikrit (the university site), Al-Dur, and Samarra, from November 2020 to January 2021. These isolates were identified phenotypically and molecularly into 16 species using nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5.8s rRNA gene, four isolates for each of Phytopythium palingenes (J21, J33, J5, and J14), Fusarium graminearium (D1, D10, J4, and J31) and Penicillium expansum (D8. D37, D38, and J36) with an appearance of 10.53% for each of them, three isolates for each species Saprolegnia australis (S20, S18, and D2), Aspergillus sydowii (S35, D12, and J11) and Geotrichum candidum (S17, J15, J27) with an appearance rate of 7.90 %, two isolates of species Saporlegnia polymorpha (S24, S26), Boeremia exigua (J6, S25), Cladosporium allicinum (J19, J3), Pencillium spinulosum (S22, D34), Cytospora chrysosperma (J7, J16) and Pencillium polonicum (D9, D30) with an appearance rate of 5.26%. Finally, one isolate of the species Cladosporium cladosporioids (J13), Phytopythium oedochilum(J28), Pilidium concavum (D29), Phytophthora hydropathica (J32) and isolate S23 with an appearance rate of 2.63%. The fungal isolate S23 was identified phenotypically within sterile hyphae, with no match for this isolate in the NCBI World Genetic Bank, as it is either a new isolate that has not been discovered or that has not been registered at the NCBI site yet. The results showed the ability of these fungal isolates to produce protease, lipase, and laccase. The production of all fungal isolates of these enzymes was recorded with the superiority of isolates of Penicillium polonium (D9), Saprolegnia australis (S18 and S20) in protease activity reached 1.57, 1.17, and 1.15 units per mg (U/mg), respectively. The fungal isolates Boeremia exigua (J6), Saprolegnia australis (S18), and Fusarium graminearium (D1) were significantly superior on other isolates, with the highest lipase-specific activity reaching 5.81, 5.65 and 5.22 U/mg, respectively. At the same time, P. expansum (D8), Cladosporium allicinum (J3) and Aspergillus sydowii (J11) were significantly superior to other isolates, with the highest laccase specific activity reaching 0.42, 0.32 and 0.26 unit/mg protein, respectively.

2. Formulation and Evaluation of Carbamazepine Nanosuspension with the Help of Cosolvent Technique
C.K. Sahoo*, A. K. Mishra, A. K. Moharana
The nanosuspensions of carbamazepine (CZ) were developed by cosolvent technique. Various formulations were optimized to achieve desired size and solubility. Characterization of the prepared nanosuspension was done with respect to particle size, zeta potential, solubility, and dissolution rate. The results indicated that the optimized formulation showed more dissolution rate than a pure drug. Hence nanosuspension is a promising approach for bioavailability enhancement.

3. Evaluation of Drop Volume Consistency of Eyedrop Bottles for New Generic Prostaglandin Analogue, Latanost® in Glaucoma Treatment
Jessica S. C. Ng, Yi X. Tan, Nor A. A. Alwi, Kar M. Yee, Ahmad H. A. Rashid, Ka-Liong Tan, Chuei W. Leong*
Difficulty in instilling eyedrop is a concern for it may cause a progression of blindness in glaucoma patients. Early depletion of eyedrop before the next scheduled medication refill is a common issue faced by patients, resulting in poorer compliance to the therapy. Hence, we hypothesize that the lack of drop volume consistency is due to the eye drop bottle-related mechanics during drop instillation. This study aims to select the best bottle designs by examining drop volume consistency during drop instillation. Ten eyedrop bottles of different volumes were filled with 2.5 mL purified water. Next, the drop uniformity test was performed by expelling 10 droplets by holding the bottle vertically and weighing with an analytical balance. Based on the outcome, bottle C, which demonstrated high drop consistency with low percentage standard deviation and near-linear regression, was chosen as the eyedrop container for Latanost® 0.005% w/v eye drops. Using bottle C, the drop volume of Latanost® was estimated at 25.30 ± 1.87 μL. A 2.5 mL latanoprost solution can yield approximately 99.36 ± 7.52 drops per bottle. Besides that, the design of the eyedrop nozzle could determine the consistency of medication delivery. This report could better inform prescribers and patients in predicting the course of treatment. The selection of the right design of container closure system with a consistent drop delivery could significantly address the issue of early depletion of eyedrop before the next scheduled medication refill and difficulty in instilling eyedrop in glaucoma patients. This helps to improve medical treatment compliance in glaucoma patients.

4. Synthesis of Zinc Nanoparticles using Portulaca oleracea Plant Extract
Sazan M. Haidary*
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized using green synthesis techniques, which was the focus of this study by using Portulaca oleracea extract, a reducing, capping, and stabilizing agent alongside with zinc acetate dihydrate acts as a precursor. The functionalization of Zn nanoparticles is investigated through (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), dynamic light scattering DLS and zeta potential, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. UV-vis analysis revealed that the indirect bandgap of the biosynthesized ZnO NPs is 3.54 eV. In addition, the XRD and EDX analysis found that the structure of the nanoparticles is Wurtzite hexagonal with an average crystalline size of 16.58 nm. Moreover, the FT-IR spectra revealed the functional groups and the presence of ZnO NPs. According to the FE-SEM study, the average diameter of the grains was 95.53 nm. TEM analysis showed that the shape of the biosynthesized ZnO NPs was quasi-spherical, and their diameter was around 21.13 nm. Furthermore, DLS analysis demonstrated that the particle size distribution of ZnO NPs ranged from 40–55 nm. This study has that the specific surface area to volume ratios of the biosynthesized ZnO NPs was equal to 5.8772 m2/g.

5. Kinetic Study of Adsorption of Murexide Dye Polluting the Aquatic Environment Using one of the Industrial Wastes, Antimony Trioxide, and its Applicability to Freundlich Isotherm
Afaf M. Kadhum, Shaymaa A. Mohammed, Duha H. Attol, Eatmad A. A. A. Alshawi*
The study concerted on the adsorption of (Murexide dye). It was used in analytical chemistry such as evidence and used as coloring of tissue, animal cells, and plant cells—the effective method, which could use verity concentrations range. Adsorption is often applied to surfaces with pores; widely available industrial wastage produced Antimony trioxide Sb2O3, is chosen such as an adsorbent to Murexide dye. From 303 to 313 K. The application of Freundlich isotherm models was tested as part of the research. The study used UV-vis spectroscopy of adsorption of dye. It was observed that the reaction kinetics apply to pseudo-second-order kinetics.

6. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity for New Nitroimidazole Derivatives
Ahlam A. Shafeeq, Zaid M. A. Hamandi, Mohammed H. Mohammed, Ghassan Al-Shamma
Background: The nitroimidazole ring has gained more importance in recent years because it is considered a potent biologically active nucleus. Methodology: The nitroimidazole derivative (ornidazole) was used to prepare some new azo compounds as possible antimicrobial agents. Different activated aromatic compounds containing primary amino groups with sodium nitrite were carried out to prepare diazounium salt which was coupled with ornidazole to form the azo linkage. Results: The reaction steps and the purity of the products were confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and melting points measurement. The chemical structures of the final compounds were characterized and confirmed by measuring their fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectra. These compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity on five different strains of bacteria and one strain of fungi by broth microdilution spectrometric method and for mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli employing BACTEC MGIT 960 System. These compounds show moderate to good activity against tested gram-positive bacteria and fungi using levofloxacin and nystatin as standard drugs, but no activity against mycobacterium tuberculosis.

7. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Convulsant Activity of Some Novel Substituted Chalcone Derivatives
Khushbu Jain*, Neetesh K. Jain
Objective: Present work emphasized on the search the some new chalcone derivatives and planned to screen for their anti-convulsant activity with potency and lesser adverse effect. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anticonvulsant activity. Method: The benzaldehyde derivative and acetophenone derivative were measured accurately and placed in a mortar in the presence of alkali the mixture was turned yellow and pasty after a few times of grinding. Product was mixed properly with the water using the spatula solid product was dislodged from the mortar’s wall and filtered and all the synthesized compounds were purified by recrystallization. Melting points were determined by using open capillary method and finally screened derivatives for anti-convulsion activity. Results: The pharmacological screening of the synthesized compounds showed anti-convulsant activity ranging 65.23 to 76.3% inhibition of epileptic seizures in mice, whereas the standard drug Phenytoin showed 83.95% inhibition of epileptic seizures in mice. Conclusion: The compound C2, C3 and C5 from each group was found to be nearly potent to Phenytoin which is used as standard drug. Compounds C6 shown less % of inhibition of epileptic seizures in mice than Phenytoin (standard drug).

8. The Potential Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Amide Derivative Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
Ahmed K. O. Aldulaimi*, Mahmood J. Jawad, Saif M. Hassan, Tahreer S. Alwan, Saripah S. S. A. Azziz, Yuhanis M. Bakri
This study aimed to synthesize new compounds containing the amide group and test their antibacterial activity. The new amides have been synthesized, and 1H, 13C NMR, IR, and LC-MS have been used to identify the chemical structures. The compounds were tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and compound 3 showed higher activity against the tested organisms.

9. Pharmacognostical, Hepatoprotective and Anthelmintic Evaluation of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. and Gymnema sylvestre (RETZ.) Rz BR. EX. SM.
Bishnupada Biswal*, Susanta K. Panda
The present study was designed to evaluate the pharmacognostic, hepatoprotective and anthelmintic study of methanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (MECR) and Gymnema Sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br. ex. Sm. (MEGS). Pharmacognostical studies were observed as macroscopic & microscopic characterization of the plants. An acute toxicity test was performed using albino mice according to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 425 guidelines. Hepatoprotective activity of MECR and MEGS in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride was performed by using albino rats. Anthelmintic activity was designed according to the standard methods on the adult Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Pharmacognostical study was observed the using of parts of plants through transverse section, powder microscopic and fluorescence analysis of powder studies. MECR and MEGS were showed a significant increase in all parameters for the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg in a dose dependent manner. Anthelmintic activity showed significant effect using of 25, 50, 100 mg/kg doses of MECR and MEGS. Methanolic extracts of C. reflexa Roxb. and G. sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br. ex. Sm. have hepatoprotective and anthelmintic activity.

10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cu(II) Using DMIPNI as a New Reagent Derived from 4,5-Diphenyl Imidazole
Alaa A. Nayif, Muneer A. Al-Da,amy, Salih H. Kadhim*
Copper (II) ion was determined spectrophotometrically by the reagent 1-(4-(((4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)diazenyl)methyl)phenyl)-N-(4-nitrobenzyl)ethan-1-imine (DMIPNI), prepared by condensing reaction between p-aminoacetophenone with p-nitroaniline, and the Schiff base results were undergone diazotization with 4,5-diphenyl imidazole. The reagent was used to determine Copper(II) ion in aqueous solution after optimizing the preparational conditions such as the pH of reaction solution, the best reagent concentration, and time reaction. The prepared complex was characterized by UV-visible, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopies, the stoichiometric composition of the complex was studied by mole ratio and continuous variation, which proves that the M:L ratio in the complex is equal to 1:2. The current study shows that the best pH and reagent concentration equal 9 and 3×10-5 molar, respectively. The stability time of Copper (II) complex after its preparation was still stable until to 120 minutes. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range (0.01–1.00) μg/mL of Cu(II), with a molar absorptivity 0.857 x 106 and Sandell’s sensitivity 7.418 x10-5 μ with an excellent linearity depicted by correlation coefficient value of 0.9995. Limit of detection (LoD) and Limit of quantification (LoQ) are 0.0105 and 0.035 μg/mL. Recovery and relative error values of precision and accuracy of method were found to be RSD% = 1.391, Re= 101.00% and Erel = 1.00%.

11. Lifestyle Practices among Menopausal Women in Erbil City, Iraq
Wahida A. Ibrahim, Madiha A. Mohammed*, Warda H. Abdullah
Background and Objective: Menopause is the time in a woman’s life when she stops having monthly periods, the ovaries stop releasing eggs and stop making hormones estrogen and progesterone, average age 51, 95% 45–55 years of age. Menopause is a transition into a new phase of life. It begins when the menstrual cycle finishes. Lifestyle is a part of life that is actually being realized and encompasses a full range of activities that people do in daily life. A healthy lifestyle includes proper nutrition, physical activity, avoiding drug use, protection against accidents, timely diagnosis of disease symptoms in the physical dimension, emotional control, and adaptation to the environment. The present study aimed to assess the lifestyle practices of menopausal women and find out the relationship between lifestyle and menopause-related symptoms in menopausal women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 women who experienced menopause from September 2020 until December 2021 at Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Erbil city. The data collection was performed using a questionnaire for interweaving the study participant, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 at a 0.05 level of significance. Results: The study findings revealed that most of the study participants were 41 to 69 years old, and most had a natural type of menopause. The most common symptoms of menopause among participants were (anxiety, irritability, hot flushes and sweating, sleeping problems, dryness of the vagina, and joint and muscular discomforts). A significant association was found between eating habits with symptoms in menopausal women. Furthermore, a highly significant association was found between smoking and exercise habits with symptoms in menopause women. Conclusion: According to the result of the study, the researchers concluded that the majority of women age at menopause between 40 to 49 years old, and the type of menopause is due to the natural causes. Most participants suffered from physical problems during menopause. The results of the study showed that there was a statistically significant association between dairy products with some symptoms in menopause and a highly significant statistical association between smoking and exercise with symptoms in menopausal women.

12. Study and Investigation of Ser447Ter Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism, and Obesity in Children and Adolescents
Alaa H. A. Ali*, Teplyakova E. Dmitrievna, Bocharova O. Vladimirovna, Tatyana P. Shkurat, Karantysh G. Vladimirovna, Alyaa R. Najm
Objectives: Obesity raises the risk for many chronic illnesses. Clinically, obesity is determined using the body mass index (BMI). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene was linked to the metabolism and obesity of lipoproteins. This study aimed to study investigate the Ser447ter (C-G) polymorphisms of the LPL gene and rs9939609 of the FTO gene and obesity in children and young Rostov people from Russia. Methods: The research investigated the relationship between the Ser447Ter in the LPL gene with obesity in 870 participants of both sexes aged (3– 17) years: the major group consisted of 540 obese, and the control group – had 330 participants without obesity. Genotyping of the gene LPL Ser447Ter polymorphisms rs328 was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- allele-specific primers. Polymorphisms (rs328) of the LPL gene in donor DNA samples were typed by the electrophoretic method using commercial test systems from the Litekh research and production company (Russia). Results: The relationship between the LPL Ser447Ter gene obesity (p > 0.05) was not significant established between the main and control groups in the frequency of occurrence of the genotype SerSer (p = 0.381) and allele Ser447 (p = 0.404; OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.82 – 1.67) of the rs328 polymorphism of the LPL gene. Even though recessive and dominant models are constructed, for LPL gene was statistically not significant TerTer vs SerTer + SerSer (p = 1.000 OR 1.84; 95% CI 0.07– 45.05). Conclusions: An observed absence of an association between the gene Ser447Ter of the LPL gene with the obesity. However, more studies are needed to confirm these findings.

13. 4-amino Antipyrine Spectrophotometric and Chromatographic Gas Determination of Phenols in the Water of Southern Iraq along with Density Functional Theory Study
Ali. H. Amteghy
Different methods based on spectrophotometric and chromatography were summarized for trace level determination of phenolics. Total phenols in the Tigris and Shatt –Al-Arab Rivers were determined using UV-vis Spectrophotometry at 500 nm after distillation, complexation with 4-amino antipyrine(4-AAP) in alkaline solution in the presence of potassium ferricyanide, then extraction by chloroform. Water samples from six stations were collected during the winter and summer of 2017–19. The seasonal and spatial variation concentrations ranged values 0.00982–0.132 mg/L. In winter, values of phenol were highest, but lower values appeared in the summer. The result has shown that the phenol concentrations in all stations were more than 0.001-mg/L in the World Health Organization (WHO) case and 0.005 mg/L in the Iraqi Standard for Drinking Water Quality (ISDWQ). Gas chromatography (GC) – flame ionization detection (FID) method is commonly used for quantification of phenolic compounds such as (Phenol;2,3 -DimethylPhenol; 2,3,5,6 -TetramethylPhenol;2,4,5-trichloroPhenol;2,6-DibromoPhenol; 3,4- DichloroPhenol; P-nitro phenol and Pentachloro Phenol) in river water. Water samples were collected from three different stations of the Euphrates River (Al-chibayish channel) during summer (2017). Various sample stations containing phenol’s concentration and its derivative in river water were obtained in the range of 0.013–24.183 ng/L. The highest concentrations found in the period examined were those of p-nitrophenol (24.183 ng/L), pentachlorophenol (1.285 ng/L), and 3,4-Dichloro Phenol (0.228 ng/L). Conclusion: The other phenolic compounds studied did not record any concentration in this sample. Substituent effects on the physical and chemical properties of phenol and its derivatives were studied using density functional theory (DFT)[B3LYP/6-31G (d, p)].

14. Rizatriptan Benzoate Nanoemulsion for Intranasal Drug Delivery: Preparation and Characterization
Amani S. Hadi*, Mowafaq M. Ghareeb
Rizatriptan benzoate is a selective 5-HT (1B/1D) receptor agonist used to treat migraine with an oral bioavailability equal to 45%. This research aimed to develop and optimize an intranasal nanoemulsion formulation to bypass first pass effect, enhance residence time, and permeability through nasal preparation. The aqueous titration method was used to prepare NE formula and assessed for droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), thermodynamic stability, drug content, viscosity, pH measurement also in-vitro drug dissolution studies. The selected formula was subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) compatibility studies and ex-vivo permeation studies. Ten formulas were prepared by using oleic acid as an oil phase, tween80, ethanol as a surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The results showed that the formula NE1 with oil: Smix(1:1):water (5:55:40) ratio was the optimized formula which has droplet size equal to 59.6 nm, polydispersity index (0.308), pH (5.6), drug content (98.78%), percent transmittance (99.4%), viscosity equal to (91.9 mPas.sec), and high release profile. Ex-vivo permeation study revealed that 88.27% of drug permeated within 5 hours; there was no interaction between the drug and the excipient, according to FTIR studies. In conclusion, intranasal NE was an efficient method to bypass first pass effect, enhance permeation and residence time, and increase patient compliance.

15. Synthesis and Modification of some New Progdrug Polymers Based on Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid with Chitosan and Study Some of their Applications
Ameer S. Muttaleb, Faris Hamood*
In this study, several medications with carboxylic groups (Diclofenac, Ciprofloxacin, Methyldopa) were used to make novel polymers for ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and chitosan, which were then transformed to chloride pharmaceuticals by SOCl2. The preparation of a new variety of drug delivery systems (DDS) allows us to modify and significantly improve drug polymer’s new therapeutic efficiency and safety (eliminates the toxic side effects). The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1H-NMR spectra of the resultant compounds were used to describe them.

16. Facile Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Pyrimidine Derivatives via Thienyl Chalcones Under Phase Transfer Catalysis Method
Asaad M. Mustafa*
A series of pyrimidine derivatives and were synthesized by condensation of thienylchalcones and urea, thiourea under phase transfer catalysis conditions (PTC) with short reaction time and excellent yields. The mechanism of reaction of the synthetic compounds and their structures were established using physical analysis methods 1H-NMR and IR. The compounds were also screened for radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Compounds A6 and A8 showed radical scavenging stronger than the standard antioxidant and ascorbic acid. While the other compounds showed mild and varying activities.

17. Fabrication and Optimization of Prolonged-release Microcapsules Containing Protein Drug (Erythropioten)
Anmar A. Issa, Nidhal K. Maraie*
Objectives: This study includes preparation, evaluation and in-vitro release profiles of erythropioten (EPO) microcapsules using poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer as coating material. Sustained release dosage form was grown up especially in the treatments of chronic disease to improve the drug efficacy, reduce side effects and improve patient compliance. EPO is a protein produced by the kidney to respond to a different type of anemia. Methods: Microcapsules of EPO with prolonged-release profile were prepared by double emulsion method (w\o\w) using probe sonicator to get a homogenous double emulsion. PLGA was used as wall material. Results: Eleven formulas of EPO-PLGA microcapsules were prepared to study the effect of different variables on the entrapment efficiency (EE) and %yield including the addition of plasticizer, NaCl, PLGA concentration and mixing type’s effect. The selected formula containing 95000 IU of EPO gave (89%) EE and (85%) %yield with particle size 293.5 nm, zeta potential -41.33 with prolonged-release profile (99.7% within 6 months). Such formula is suggested to be incorporated in a suitable implantable dosage form to treat anemia associated with renal disorder. Conclusion: EPO was successfully microcapsulated using PLGA polymer as a coat material by double emulsion method with good EE, %yield, particle size, and prolonged release profile continued up to 6 months.

18. Role of Micro-RNA 146a in Iraqi Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Azhar S. Muslim*, Ikbal K. AlJoofy, Khetam H. Rasool
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a progressive autoimmune disease. According to growing data, microRNAs (miRNAs) appear to have a crucial impact in processes associated with T1DM Mellitus pathogenesis, involving immune system activities, beta-cell metabolism, and apoptosis.1 So, this study aims to look into the amount of the expression of miRNA146a as a possible diagnosis biomarker in T1DM patients. The study population comprised 60 T1DM patients of both genders, 38 females and 22 males. In addition to 30 normal, healthy individuals with ages ranging between ≤16 years old and >16 years old. A biochemical test was performed to determine the concentration of random blood sugar (RBS). An enzymatic colorimetric assay measured blood glucose using kits supplied by Spinreact S, A. Spain. The sandwich immunodetection method was used to determine the percentage of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) in the blood of the study’s subjects. The miRNA extraction from the serum of all study subjects via a protocol of EasyPure® miRNA kit, relative quantification (RQ) of miRNA146a expression, in serum sample was estimated using reverse transcriptase quantitatively real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed no significant difference among age groups and study parameters, as well as non-significant differences between both genders and study parameters. There was a significant difference between the duration of diabetes and RBS (p = 0.020) and non-significant differences between duration and HbA1c (p = 0. 067). The findings clarified a significant (p = 0.0001) increase in expression of miRNA146a in the serum patients group depending on 2-ΔCt and 2-ΔΔCt methods (2.732 folding changes ± 0.11), compared with a control group (1.0 folding changes ± 0.00), and the non-significant difference between patients and control (p = 0.328) in fold expression of miRU6. (1.03 folding changes ± 0.07), (1.00 folding changes ± 0.00) respectively. However, the correlation coefficient between CT microRNA146a and parameters study showed that highly significant difference between CT microRNA146a and RBS (p = 0.0003), HbA1c(p = 0.0082). And non-significant difference between CT microRNA U6 and RBS, HbA1c (p = 0.392), (p = 0.911), respectively. The application of miRNA146a as a possible diagnostic biomarker of T1DM by using multiple techniques to get a more precise prediction of T1DM.

19. Some Immunological Aspects in Sera of Iraqi Patients Infected with Hydatid Cysts
Aisha S. Obaid*, Israa K. Al-Aubaidi, Intisar F. Abed
A disease causes hydatid cysts called cystic echinococcosis (CE), one of the most important zoonotic diseases due to the infection with Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. Bio immunological markers play an important role in human immunological response during infection with hydatid disease. This study aimed to determine levels of some chemokines such as (IP-10, MIP-1α, MCP-1) and CA19-9 tumor markers in 105 subjects 50 of them were CE patients compared with 25 healthy individuals and 30 cancer patients. All bio immuno-markers in sera were carried out using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) commercial kits. Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) was elevated in all CE patients (106.566 ± 10.422 pg/mL). Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α) concentrations were higher in the sera of the CE group (143.026 ± 15.842 pg/mL). Levels of Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) in serum are significantly higher in CE patients (202.546 ± 40.406 pg/mL). All data were compared with the values obtained from healthy individuals and showed statistically significant differences at (p < 0.01) in all chemokine levels. A statistically significant correlation between CA19-9 and hydatid disease and cancer was found. CA19-9 levels were elevated in the CE and cancer patients groups which recorded (52.071 ± 11.796 pg/mL) and (96.102 ± 13.262 pg/mL), respectively, significant differences from the healthy control group (5.401 ± 2.446 pg/mL).

20. Removal of Pollutants from Aqueous Solutions by using Natural Surfaces (Cotton) as a Model for Reusability and Highly Adsorbent Surface
Aseel M. Aljeboree*, Noora M. Hameed, Hadeer Jasem, Hayder D. Saleem, Emad S. Abood, Athraa G. Abdulrazaq, Ahmed K. O. Aldulaim, Ayad F. Alkaim
In this study, four types of textile dyes (Congo red CR, Maxellon blue GRL, crystal violet CV, Brilliant blue BB) were adsorbed from their aqueous solution using cotton as a highly efficient adsorbent surface. The method relied on using a syringe as a separating column, and the syringe was filled with cotton within a certain weight. The most crucial factors affecting the separation process were studied, including the effect of weight, and the effect of concentration of dyes. The surface (reusability) reuse was also studied several times in the separation process. It was found that the cotton keeps its efficiency after three cycles, but after the fourth cycle, it loses its efficiency as an effective adsorbent surface. The two types of adsorption isotherms were applied through the results that the Freundlich adsorption isotherm depending on the value of (Congo red CR, Maxellon blue GRL, crystal violet CV, Brilliant blue BB) dyes (R2= 0.9788, 0.9591, 0.9423, 0.9122) compared to the Langmuir isotherm.

21. Circulating Adipsin as Biomarker and its Implication in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Elaf M. M. Raoof, Hind S. Ahmed*
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous condition caused by insulin resistance and/or decreased insulin secretion. Adipsin is one of the adipokines secreted by adipose tissues, increasing insulin secretion. This study has investigated adipsin concentration in T2D patients and healthy subjects. This case-control study enrolled 30 patients with T2D who attended The Medical City Hospital-Baghdad from September 2020 to April 2021; their ages ranged from 40–55 years. They were compared with 30 healthy subjects as control group. The results showed significant glycemic and lipid profile increases with their ratios in diabetic patients compared to the controls. Also, there was a significant rise in insulin resistance represented by the homeostasis model assessment in diabetic patients as equated to the control. Moreover, a lower adipsin level was detected in diabetic patients as equated to the control (13.86 ± 3.49 vs. 29.00 ± 4.48, respectively). This data confirms that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) plays a progressive pathogenesis role in T2D Iraqi patients. Also, serum adipsin was interrelated with insulin resistance, particularly in subjects with greater body mass index (BMI) and higher blood glucose levels. These results recommend that Adipsin may be convoluted in the pathogenesis of irregular glucose metabolism, hence additional examination is required.

22. Effect of Azithromycin on Sperm DNA of Male Rats
Hameed F H*, AL-Qadhi H I
Background: Infertility is a psychological, economic, and medical problem that involves trauma and stress, with a strong emphasis on child-bearing. Antibacterial agents are used to treat a wide range of infections, cancer, protozoa, and helminths. However, antimicrobial therapy has been shown to significantly impact human and animal models sperm parameters Azithromycin is a new 15-membered ring azalide antibiotic that exhibits enhanced in vivo activity against local infections due to its enhanced efficacy against gram-negative bacteria and high persistent tissue levels. His study was designed to investigate the possible fertility (Azithromycin) side effects of male rats by assessing the DNA fragmentation of sperm. Methods: This study was performed on 24 grown-up Wistar pale-skinned adult rats. It matured for 11 to12 weeks and weighed (180–310) grams, according to the guidelines of the Biochemistry and Research Ethics Committee, approved by the Scientific Committee of the Center for Biotechnology Research, University of Al-Nahrain. The study was carried out from January 2021 to March 2021. The animals were sourced from the Animal Facility of the University of Al-Nahrain Biotechnology Center. It is then divided into three groups (8 animals each). They are housed in a highly ventilated room in a plastic housing and are fed on a standard pellet diet, and drinking water is not obligatory during the test. All animals were bred under standard laboratory conditions with a temperature of 25 ± 2°C and a 12 hours light and dark cycle. Azithromycin, a subclass of macrolide antibacterial, is marketed by pharmaceutical company Pfizer as (Zithromax®) in suspension dosage form as azithromycin dihydrate powder. Azithromycin was orally administered by gavage tube twice every day to rats (180–31) body weight with a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight (treatment dose) and 90 mg/kg body weight (double-treatment dose). Results: In concepts of DNA damage levels in testes, among the three groups (Azithromycin, both therapeutic & double therapeutic doses and control) and by the utilization of a one-way ANOVA test, the results indicate that DNA damage in testes was a significant effect (p < 0.05) in animals treated with all doses of Azithromycin & each compared with the control animals. Conclusion: DNA damage in testes by comet assay showed there was a significant effect (p < 0.05) in animals treated with all doses of Azithromycin each compared with the control animals in different degrees (low, medium, high) damage.

23. The Effect of Liraglutide on Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Rats Treated by Dexamethasone
Ghazwan Alhashem*, Ahmed R. A. Raghif, Alaa A. Abbas
Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis. Chronic uses of GCs have serious adverse effects on bone, including fragility fracture. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 which is a new class antidiabetic drug. Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist has shown a role in bone physiology and remodeling. Previous studies suggested promising results of using liraglutide on bone health. Objective: Evaluate the effects of a relatively low dose of liraglutide on bone turnover markers in dexamethasone-treated rats. Method: Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into three groups (Three months old; 300 to 325g). The normal control group (n=8) received intramuscular normal saline twice weekly (the vehicle of dexamethasone) and subcutaneous normal saline daily (the vehicle of liraglutide); the negative control group received intramuscular dexamethasone 2.5 mg twice weekly and subcutaneous normal saline (vehicle of liraglutide); liraglutide treatment group received intramuscular normal saline twice-weekly (vehicle of dexamethasone) and subcutaneous liraglutide 75 μg/mL daily. Blood was collected at week 4 and 8, via orbital sinuses. In addition, enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) tests for osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were performed. Results: Dexamethasone causes deterioration of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b compared to the control group. Liraglutide improved week 8 alkaline phosphatase and cross-linked CTX compared to week 4 and dexamethasone group results. Moreover, liraglutide improves Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b compared to the dexamethasone-treated group. Conclusion: Low dose liraglutide can prevent deterioration of bone formation and bone resorption biochemical parameters after dexamethasone treatment.

24. Incorporation of Nickel with Azo Dye and its Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Eman H. Sahap*, Fatima A. A. Sajad, Hutham M. Y. Al-Labban
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was Prepared at 180°C for 4 hours by using an unpretentious hydrothermal method. TiO2 was inspected by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. This work expresses the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from TiO2 thin films with complex Ni-azo dye and azo ligand. The spectroscopic studies (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR)) are used to identify the azo ligand and its complex Ni (II) to synthesize the DSSCS. Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics show that the DSSCs is the highest change efficiency for TiO2/ Ni-azo dye than TiO2/azo dye, about 2.30 and 1.88%, respectively, under 100 mW/cm2 standard visible light.

25. Screening for Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Some Plant Extract and Chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans
Hala Hussein*, Abdalnabi J. Abid, Zainab H. Alsaadi
Objectives: Dental caries is an oral illness caused by Streptococcus mutans formation biofilms, which playing an important role in the formation of virulent cariogenic biofilms. As a result, the most important biological aim in avoiding dental caries is to reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. Controlling the proliferation of S. mutans in the oral cavity is critical for excellent oral hygiene. Additionally, antibiotic abuse and misuse in dentistry concludes in drug resistance among commensal and pathogenic bacteria of the oral cavity, including S. mutans. As a result, alternatives to traditional antimicrobials are urgently needed. Plant-based materials are one of the alternative antimicrobials. Aim: This study tests the inhibitory efficacy of certain herbal plant extracts and chlorohexidine on S. mutans bacterial growth and biofilm forming abilities. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples were considered from dental caries patients. S. mutans was found in 41 of the isolates. These bacterial isolates were identified using normal laboratory procedures, followed by molecular detection utilizing particular primers based on the 16srRNA gene and the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer gene as a genetic marker for S. mutans separation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There are only 35 isolates that test positive for these genes. The antibacterial activity of plant extract and chlorhexidine against S. mutans was determined using the agar diffusion method. Tissue culture plate technique (TCP) experiment was used to investigate their activity on biofilm development. Results: Between150 samples were collected from patients with dental caries 41 isolates were diagnosed as S. mutans. Only 35 of these isolates gives positive results for 16srRNA gene and 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer gene (MUT gene). all S. mutans isolates were biofilm former, high and moderate biofilm formation mode were account for (65.7%) and (34.2%) respectively while there is no isolates that express non biofilm formation. Regarding to effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate (0.12%) on biofilm formation, the result of this study demonstrate CHX effectively reduces the biofilm formation to 22% moderate ability, 77% weak and no strong. While ginger and clove aqueous extract at different concentrations also prevents the biofilm formation by S. mutans except 3% of both plant extract was no effect on biofilm. Regarding to antibacterial activity, the results found that the CHX (0.12 %) produced the highest inhibition activity against S. mutans with inhibition zone range 25 to 40 mm. Regarded aqueous plant extracts the maximum inhibition zone was observed in 50% concentration Clove (28 mm) and Ginger (25 mm). Conclusion: Our study results showed the molecular technique by using specific primers based on 16srRNA gene and 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer gene as a genetic marker give accurate identification for S. mutans. chlorhexidine, Clove and ginger have an effect on S. mutans growth and biofilm formation.

26. Visible Spectrophotometry Method for Quantification of Atenolol Using Cerium IV-Rodamin 6G Complex
Fayhaa K. Al-Jarrah, Basima A. A. Saleem*, Enaam A. Hamdon
Atenolol is a very important drug used to treat chest pain (angina) and high blood pressure. Due to this, medical importance, a spectrophotometric method is proposed to determine Atenolol in its pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method relies on two important steps, the first is the oxidation-reduction reaction between Atenolol and an excess amount of cerium (IV) as an oxidizing agent in the presence of acidic medium, then the second step occurs between unreacted cerium (IV) that was deceased rhodamine 6G absorption intensity. This is an indirect method for estimating Atenolol as it relies on the decreased color intensity of a dye Rhodamine 6G, which is proportional to the increase in the amount of the cerium (IV) in the acid medium at the wavelength of 525 nm. The proposed method follows Beer’s law within the range (50–800) μg/25 mL, with good sensitivity relative to the molar absorption coefficient value 2.53×104 and the Sandell value equal to 0.0105 μ The proposed method has been successfully applied to quantify Atenolol in pure form and its pharmaceutical preparations.

27. Escherichia coli Biomarker Types in Colorectal Cancer Patients
Heba M. Jassim*, Shehab A. Lafi, Yasin H. Majeed
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer in the globe; increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota is a key factor associated with carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and colonic polyps. This study was conducted on 50 adult patients of both genders. These patients were proved colorectal cancer of different stages, and they were attending gastrointestinal center in Ramadi city, Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Center at Medical City Hospital Baghdad, during the period extended from November to February 2021. Thirty-five biopsies were taken from patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed in colonoscopy, and fifteen (15) stool specimens were taken from them. Each specimen was cultivated on blood agar, MacConkey agar, at 37°C for 24 hours. Then bacterial colonies were studied grossly, their size, color, elevation, texture, and odor; dry, stained smear was stained with Gram stain. A part of the test colony was submitted to biochemical investigation using a suitable sterile medium for each test. The bacterial diagnosis was confirmed using the VITIC system. For molecular research, Escherichia coli isolates were purified and maintained frozen at -20°C in a brain heart infusion broth containing 20% glycerol. Another 50 control adults with normal colonoscopy from both genders. A stool specimen was taken from each control individually and processed as soon as possible in the same way for the patient group. Test E. coli isolated from both patient group and control group were tested for virulence genes different Frequency of 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) gene, cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF) gene, cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene, and polyketide synthase (PKS) genes. The Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) was measured in sera from patients with CRC and compared to healthy individuals. The genes implicated in carcinogenesis in E. coli strains, such as 16SrRNA, CNF, and CTD, were only found in test isolates of E. coli from patients, indicating that local E. coli containing such genes could become pathogens in such persons, contributing to CRC induction.

28. Study the Effect of Laser Irradiation on Bacterial Susceptibility of Pseudomonas euroginosa Isolated from Different Source Infections
Hedaa M. Nahab*
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that does not infect healthy individuals but does cause a broad variety of severe infections in immunocompromised patients. Samples were collected from 345 patients who suffered from diabetic foot infection (115), wounds and burns infection (115), and abortion cases (115) by use of the swabbing method; the diagnosis of samples depending on the morphological examinations, biochemical tests and culturing on selective or suitable media, to confirm the use of the API system was done. These samples include 52 isolates of P. aeruginosa, which consider the aims of this study at a rate of (15.07%) from the total number of samples (345). The current study demonstrates that the age group (31–40) years had a higher rate of isolation 52.9% while a reduced number of isolation occurred in the age group (61–70) year at rate of 5.88%. The sensitivity of P. aeruginosa before irradiation to a number of antibiotics gives high resistance to the antibiotics used in this study. There is a significant decrease in the viability of the bacterial cell where the Laser effect on the bacterial isolates by increasing the dose, while the killing of bacteria occurs after 30 minutes and more. We conclude that bacterial isolates of P. aeruginosa were affected with exposure to irradiation of laser with 820 and 915 nm at 50–250 MW using different times.

29. Formulation and Evaluation of Nanosponges-loaded Gel of Lornoxicam for Topical Delivery
Shabaraya A. R, Sumana G*, K Vineetha
Nanosponge loaded gels are novel drug delivery system that combine the advantages of achieving optimum concentration of drug at site of action and reduction in systemic side effects. The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate gel loaded with nanosponges of Lornoxicam for topical delivery. Lornoxicam nanosponges were prepared successfully using ethyl cellulose as polymer, polyvinyl alcohol as cross-linking agent and dichloromethane as solvent by emulsion solvent diffusion method, which undergo analysis of drug entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, particle size analysis and zeta potential. Among all 6 different formulations, F5 batch was considered as the best with 89% of drug entrapment efficiency and least particle size. From the SEM analysis it was found that nanosponges are spherical, discrete with smooth surface. The nanosponge of the best formulation F5 was loaded into the Carbopol 394P gel which was evaluated for viscosity, spreadability, pH, drug content, in vitro drug diffusion study, release kinetics and stability studies. From the study it was found that the prepared Lornoxicam nanosponge topical gel shows promised drug release and good stability.

30. Synthesis and Characterization of New Ligand for β-enaminone and its Mixed Ligand Complexes with some Metal Ions and Evaluation of their Biological Activity
Hassan J. Kadhom, Ahmed T. Numan, Eman M. Atiyah*
The synthesized ligand (3-(2-amino-5-(3,4,5-tri-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enone] [H1L1] was characterized via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H, 13C-NMR, Mass spectra, CHN analysis, UV-vis spectroscopic approaches. Analytical and spectroscopic techniques like chloride content, micro-analysis, magnetic susceptibility UV-visible, conductance, and FTIR spectra were used to identify mixed ligand complexes. Its (ML13ph) mixed ligand complexes [M= Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), and Cd (II); (H1L1) = β-enaminone ligand=L1 and (3ph) =3-aminophenol= L2]. The results demonstrate that the complexes are produced with a molar ratio of M: L1:L2 (1:1:1). To generate the appropriate complex, a tetradentate β-enaminone ligand with N3O donor atoms is coordinated to Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd (II) ions. The synthesized ligand and its mixed ligand complexes have been tested against various pathogenic fungi and bacteria for antifungal and antibacterial activities. In this case, when compared with conventional antibiotic ciprofloxacin, the biological activity regarding such compounds was good.

31. Extraction, Isolation and Identification of Caffeic Acid and p-Coumaric acid from N-butanol Fraction of Iraqi Osteospermum ecklonis (F. Asteraceae)
Hind M. Jewely*, Thukaa Z. Abdul-Jalil
Osteospermum ecklonis, known as the African daisy, is a member of the Asteraceae family that includes more than 600 genera of various daisies. Traditionally O. ecklonis was used for its whitening effect to fight skin hyperpigmentation, implemented recently in several anti-scar topical formulations and as a promising remedy with anti-parasitic activity in India to treat malaria. The available literature survey revealed no studies about Iraqi O. ecklonis phenolic acids, especially caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extract and isolate these powerful phenolic acids for their promising pharmacological activities. This goal was achieved using 85% methanol followed by fractionation with different solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) that differ in their polarities. Two phenolic acids were isolated from aerial parts n- butanol fraction by preparative thin-layer chromatography (PLC), then identified by measuring melting point (m.p.), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra, and by analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This study implements a consensus about the Iraqi O. ecklonis plant as a promising plant for its different secondary metabolites, especially the phenolic acids, which detected novelty in this study.

32. Method Development and Validation by UV Spectrophotometric Analysis and RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Risperidone and Trihexyphenidyl
Rupsi*, Rakesh Kumar
Risperidone is of the chemical class of benzisoxazole derivatives. Risperidone chemically name is 3-[2-[4-(6-fluoro-1, 2-benzisoxazol-3-yl)-1- piperidinyl] ethyl]-6, 7, 8, 9-tetrahydro- 2-methyl-4H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-4-one. It is effective in treating positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms with high effectiveness on 5HT and D2 receptors with less incidence of EPS. Trihexyphenidyl chemically name as 1-cyclohexyl-1-phenyl-3-(1- piperidyl)-1-propanol. It treats Parkinson’s disorder and acts on a muscarinic receptor in the central nervous system.3 Both Risperidone and Trihexyphenidyl are official in IP. RP-HPLC and UV-visible Spectrophotometer, simultaneous estimating Risperidone and Trihexyphenidyl, has developed a validation method.

33. New Benzohydrazide Schiff Base: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies
Huda Mahdi, Azhar Hameed, Alaa Mohammed, Issraa A. Jassem*
In this study, two new Schiff bases are produced via condensation reaction of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy benzaldehyde compounds with benzohydrazide compound. The products are investigated by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), and mass spectroscopy. Antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds are scanned versus Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (gram negative) strains. The results showed that the Schiff bases compounds illustrated weak effectiveness against S. aureus. At the same time, these compounds are found inactive against E. coli.

34. The Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Salicylic Acid, and their Synergistic Effect on Protein, Carbohydrates Content and Leaf Area of Two Varieties of Triticum aestivum L. Plant
Hussein M. Hameed, Faiq H. Ali*, Maytham A. Makki
The study aims to show the effect of salicylic acid at concertation (50–100 and 150 ppm) and Pseudomonas fluorescens at (105,106,107 cfu/mL) on protein, carbohydrates content and leaf area for two varieties (Abu-Ghraib, Abaa 99) of Triticum aestivum L. The results are indicated the significant effect of P. fluorescens and salicylic acid (SA) at the combination of concentration of P. fluorescens (FP2) and SA (SA2) for variety (Abu-Ghraib) was more impact than (Abaa 99) on the physiological aspect like protein, carbohydrates content and leaf area (7.427, 55.55, 26.42) mg/g dry weight respectively while the value of control was (0.969, 4.158, 4.100) mg/g, respectively. The results showed that salicylic acid and P. fluorescens induced better than the sole application of SA or P. fluorescens.

35. Medication Dispensing Errors in Liquid Dosage Form in Some Iraqi Governorates
Hussam H. Tizkam*, Sana A.-J. Ali, Ghazwan Alhashem, Maher Darwish
Domestic measures such as a tea spoon (tsp) and a table spoon (tbsp) may be confusing and result in drug dispensing errors that may eventually lead to adverse consequences, especially with drugs with a small therapeutic window. This study investigates the relationship between the unit of measure used, dispensing errors, and whether household devices mediate this relationship. The results manifested that 95% of error was made by parents when measuring the dose intended by the physician. Moreover, 99.4% made an error in measuring the prescribed dose approved by the standards of USP and BP, and 69% used a nonstandard instrument. It is best to provide standard measures with each liquid drug and avoid using terms like “tablespoon or teaspoon” in patient education as they are confusing terms.

36. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Methotrexate Nanoemulsion using Natural Oil
Jamal A. Ashoor*, Mowafaq M. Ghareeb
Objective: The objective of the research was the preparation and evaluation of methotrexate nanoemulsion to improve its solubility, permeability, and bioavailability. Methods: The formulation components were selected based on the solubility study, and the pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by the aqueous phase titration method. Result and discussion: The prepared nanoemulsions were exposed to several thermodynamic stability studies and then to many characterizations tests for the selection of the best formulation. F 11 is the best formula since it has a 57 nm globule size, 0.21 polydispersity index, +23.67 zeta potential, and 99.57% light transmittance. FTIR study confirmed no incompatibility between drug and excipients. Conclusion: F 11 was a promising nanoemulsion formula that improved methotrexate permeability and bioavailability.

37. Histological Changes of Liver and Lung Induced by Bisphenol a in Pregnant Mice
Sarab S. Al-Mustafa, Rayya G. Al-Sultan*
The current study was conducted to investigate the tissue lesions induced by Bisphenol (BPA) in pregnant mice. The administration of BPA (450 mg/kg) begins from the seventh to the eighteenth day of pregnancy. The results showed behavioral changes that include increased activity and movement excessive, aggressive behavior and irritability for 15 minutes after the dose, sensitivity and itching in the ear area, and sleeping for several hours with decreased activity and loss of appetite, especially on the 17th and 18th days of pregnancy, bleeding and inflammation in the vaginal area was also observed on the 16th day of pregnancy. On the other hand, the results showed that the weights of pregnant mothers increased with the increase in BPA concentration compared to the control group. Histological changes in the fetus included congestion and swelling of sinusoids, necrosis, degeneration of hepatocytes, and infiltration of mono-nucleated cells. The lung showed destruction of bronchi, and thickening of inflamed cells. Alveolar walls were showed inflammatory cell infiltration and hemorrhage.

38. Synthesis and Evaluating the Antimicrobial Activities of Various Adducts Prepared from Isatins and Proline
Maadh Q. Abdulkadir*, Abdulhafeedh H. Abdulwahab, May M. J. Al-Mudhafar
Isatin (indolines) play a well-known role as building units for so many compounds synthesized to obtain certain agents that target characteristic tissues and cells, exerting their pharmacological aspects and alleviating a lot of diseased processes. Accordingly, this research is about introducing some isatins to be nucleophilically attacked at C3 forming products of azomethine ylide functionality. These iminium compounds were made by allowing certain isatins to be reacted with the secondary amino acid, proline, at acetic acid and methanol medium and then collected after purification to be identified with total Leukocyte count (TLC) and melting point. The structural characterization was performed by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and community health nursing (CHN) analysis. The microbiological evaluation was proved with the disc diffusion method on cultured agars of Staphylococcus aureus, some Gram-negative bacilli, and the fungus Candida albicans using more than one concentration of the prepared molecules. It was found that the isatin adduct has no activity, whereas the others, having changed in substituents at position 5, are fluctuated in their action results.

39. Vitamin D and its Relationship with Female Outfit Dressing Style
Manar G. Sabbagha, Zayd K. Omer, Alyaa F. Al-Omari*
Background: Vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients we get from food can keep our bodies healthy, and to get strong bones, we need calcium and vitamin D. Vit D3 titled the “sunshine vitamin,” is one of the important nutrients needed for a female’s health. Vit D had a constant function in adaptive and inherent immunity. Exposure to sunlight has a major role in providing adequate Vit D for most people in the world. Aim of the study: Our study aims to evaluate Vit D and calcium levels in healthy young females of child-bearing age and to inspect the effects of their outfit dressing. Methods: A total of 108 women were included, those wearing full cover outfit style clothing covering all body leaving the face area and hand exposed group I (74 women), and uncovered women with exposed head, arms, and legs group II (34 women). A quantitative test was used to determine 25-hydroxy Vit D in human serum using minividase and for total calcium measurement atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: All women in both groups had a blood test for calcium (Ca) and Vit D3 level levels, and a calculation of body mass index (BMI) was done. Using t-test for the comparison between (group I and group II).A significant difference (p < 0.005) was found in serum Vit D3, which was lower in group I with a mean (12.09 ± 7.59), and for group II, it was (16.56 ± 7.61). Serum calcium was slightly elevated in group II than in group I, but there was no significant between the two groups. The mean serum calcium level was (9.41) in group I and (9.56) (p < 0.3) in group II. Although body mass index was higher in group I mean (28.73 ± 0.61) than group II mean (27.25 ± 4.88), it was statistically not significant (p < 0.2). Conclusion: The finding of this study revealed that many factors could affect Vit D levels, like clothing styles and lifestyle. Inadequate Vit D intake and covered dress style can lead to low Vit D levels. A recommendation that has been suggested when there is no Vit D intake is to expose the face area, arms, and hands for a short duration in the middle of the day many times a week to have normal Vit D levels.

40. Epidemiological Study of Internal Parasites in the Usual Carp Fish Cypinus Carpio
Marwa J. Mohammad*, Aysir S. M. Al-Samarrai
Samples of 90 Carp fish (cyprinid fish) were collected from the basins for several areas (Isaac, al-Sa’i, Castle, Heat, Talker) between January and February 2021 to show that they were infected with gastrointestinal parasites and using direct examination with crystal violet dye. The results of a direct examination with crystal violet showed a variation in the types of parasites detected, with the highest rate of Rhabdochonakazirensisk parasites at 20%, Neoechinorhynchus at 16.5%, Cryptosporidium parasites at 10%, and Cucullanellus minutes at 6.5%. Monthly changes in the incidence of fish with various parasites were also studied, with the highest incidence for December being cryptosporidium at 13.3%. While January recorded the highest incidence of Rhabdochonakazirensisk parasite by 50% in The Good Month of February, the highest rate of Neoechinorhynchus parasite was 33.3%. The study also recorded a different infection rate depending on the type of parasite and its relation to fish weight, with 100% infection rates with Neoechinorhynchus and Rhabdochonakazirensisk parasites in fish weights ranging from 710 to 800 g. In comparison, the highest 100% showed duck infection Cucullanellus minutes at fish weights between 110 and 200 g and the highest incidence of cryptosporidium was recorded at 100% at fish weights 40–100 g and 210–300 g.

41. Investigation of Biofilm Formation Efficiency in ESβLs of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates
May A. J. Raoof, Mohammed A. Fayidh*
Up to 70 clinical Escherichia coli samples were examined, with 30 identified as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) isolates. These isolates were gathered from inpatients and outpatients at some Baghdad hospitals. Urine, pus, feces, and blood samples were obtained from government hospital patients of both genders and diverse age groups. Production of ESβL and the quick antibacterial diagnosis was checked using the VITEK2 for susceptibility experimentation and identification of the bacterial sample. The results showed that 30 isolates only in the current study were ESβL producers. Furthermore, all showed biofilm formation after 24 hours of incubation some of these isolates were the ability of biofilm formation decreased after 48 hours compared with negative control. The formation of biofilm has founded a vary from strong to weak. The variation in the bacterial study may depend on their antibiotic resistance and the sample’s source. Therefore, this study considers the need to focus in subsequent studies on the effect of biofilm formation and resistance of isolates, which produce beta-lactamase enzymes for many antibiotics, thus avoiding the occurrence of double health crises for infected patients.

42. Molecular Identification of Cystoisospora Belli in Patients Infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Maytham T. Qasim*, Mohammed N. Fenjan, Hayfaa A. Thijail
Infection with Cystoisospora belli causes severe diarrhea, bile duct involvement, and Extra-intestinal spread in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study included eight adult patients with AIDS and chronic diarrhea diagnosed stool cystosisporiasis (oocysts) and / or duodenal biopsies (asexual and sexual stages in epithelium). Identification was carried out at the molecular level using a nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique that amplifies a fragment of the ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) small subunit gene, using DNA extracted from feces and biopsies. This work allowed us to make the diagnosis of cystosisporiasis through analysis coproparasitological, optimize the DNA extraction protocol from samples fecal and implement the nested -PCR technique for the diagnosis of C. belli in biological samples from infected patients.

43. Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking and Antifungal Evaluation of Mixed Heterocyclic Moieties Containing Pyridine, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and 1,2,3-Triazol Rings
Mazen M. Jwaid*
In the current study, derivatives containing pyridine, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,3-triazole heterocycles in their structures have been synthesized, 1,2,3-triazole moiety was synthesized using click chemistry, a powerful modular synthesis approach, and evaluated for in-vitro antifungal activity. When compared to the regular medicine Fluconazole, one derivative (5a) showed superior fungicidal action. Prior to synthesis, an in silico computational analysis was conducted to determine the binding interactions of these synthesized compounds in the active sites of the fungal enzyme sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) through molecular docking via Genetic Optimization for Ligand Docking (GOLD) suite v.5.6.2. Most of the tested compounds in molecular docking showed significant activities compared with fluconazole as reference compound due to their hydrogen bonding interaction with key amino acids in Sterol 14-demethylase enzyme Tyr116 and iron metal, and these results are compatible with their in vitro anti-fungal study.

44. Effect of Homocysteine and Vitamin D in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Iraqi Women
Mohanad S. Al-Fayyadh*
This research has been carried out on the effect of some biochemical parameters on women with polycystic ovaries. The presented work aims to determine the levels of a few biochemical parameters in females with polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS) attending the Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad’s. The study comprised 35 women between 18 and 35 who had PCOS based upon complete Rotterdam criteria. The control group comprised 35 healthy females of one age who had a regular menstrual cycle. The results indicated that females with PCOS have been obese or overweight when their body mass index (BMI) was more than 30. Insulin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) have all been higher (≤ 0.05) in females with PCOS in comparison with a control group, showing that insulin resistance (IR) has been present. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels have been higher (≤ 0.05). Still, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) levels were within the normal reference range without considerable differences compared to the control group. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been lower than the control group. According to this work, the majority of females with PCOS had a high BMI. Those patients showed signs of IR. It was discovered that the patient had dyslipidemia. Those results vary from previous studies that found no evidence of IR. The primary goal of this work is to assess the effects of homocysteine and vitamin D in females who have PCOS, and the findings revealed a significant increase in the homocysteine levels and a considerable drop or deficiency in vitamin D in Iraqi females who have PCOS.

45. Evaluation of IL17A, FGF21 and CXC12 in Post-menopause Iraqi Sample with Osteoporosis and Osteopenia
Murooj G. Jameel*, Zainab M. Hashim, Mohammad H. AL-Osami
Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic skeletal disorder that is characterized by reduced bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. The most frequent osteoporotic fractures are fractures of the hip, wrist, and spine. The exact causes of OP are still unknown; several factors contribute to the disorder. Subjects and Methods: This study consists of patient groups, this group (Group A) was composed of 80 postmenopausal women with OP and osteopenia and the patient group was subdivided into two group; First group (GroupA1) was composed of 50 postmenopausal women with OP and the second group (Group A2) composed of (30) Postmenopausal Women with osteopenia. In addition, to control group (20), 5 mL of venous blood sample were collected from each patient and healthy control in the population study, and the blood sample was transferred to a clean gel tube, left at room temperature for at least 30 minutes for clotting, then centrifuged for 5–10 minutes at 3000 rpm. Then, separated and divided into aliquots to obtain the serum, then its kept frozen at -20°C until analysis. The obtained serum was used to measure IL17A, FGF21, CXC12, calcium, and alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). Measurement of IL17A, FGF21 and CXC12 levels were performed by ELISA. The total calcium and serum ALK were measured by spectrophotometric-based method. Results: Serum levels of IL17A, FGF21 and CXC12 are significantly increased in Group A and subgroup (A1 and A2). Serum levels of total calcium and ALP are non-significant in Group A and sub group patients. Significant negative correlation between serum levels of IL17A and T score, FGF21 and T score, CXC12 and T score, IL 17A and Z score, IL17A and Calcium. Conclusions: Serum levels of IL17A, FGF21 and CXC12 is significantly increased in Group A and subgroup patients. Serum levels of total calcium and ALP are non-significant in Group A and sub group patients. Significant negative correlation exists between serum levels of IL17A and T score, FGF21 and T score, CXC12 and T score in Groups A and A1.

46. Synthesis of Homo and Copolymerization of New Bicyclic Imide with Central Schiff Base Moiety
Mustafa D. M. Ali*, Ahlam M. Al-Azzawi
In this work, seven new bisimide polymers containing Schiff base component were synthesized through performing many steps. The first step involved reaction of maleic anhydride with 4-amino acetophenone producing maleamic acid which in turn was converted in the second step to corresponding maleimide via dehydration reaction. Treatment with benzidine in the third step afforded Schiff base which subsequently introduced in reaction with citraconic anhydride affording citraconamic acid and this was converted to bisimide through reaction with acetic anhydride and sodium acetate. The newly synthesized monomer was introduced in free radical homo and copolymerization producing the target new polymers.

47. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Some Heterocyclic Compounds
Murtadha H. Mohan*, Ibtisam K. Jassim
This work includes preparing various heterocyclic compound types, which include the phthalazin, pyridazin, pyrazol, phthalazin-3,8-dione [5] and pyridazin-3,6-dione [6] derivatives which derived from hydrazide compound [3]. The structures of those compounds have been identified by the fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and checked with the use of the TLC technique, and evaluated the antibacterial activities for some of the synthesized compounds. Those activities have been characterized in vitro using the well diffusion approach against three types of the pathogenic strains of the bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas (G-) and S. aureus (G+). Results have shown that some of those compounds have shown good activity.

48. Evaluation of Fetuin-A and Insulin Resistance among Iraqi Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and without Ischemic Heart Disease
Noor G. Elias, Nawal M. J. Al-Shammaa*
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder in which hyperglycemia is a characteristic feature due to impairment in insulin secretion, defective insulin action, or both reasons. One long-term complication is the ischemic heart disease (IHD) which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Insulin and fetuin-A are hormones that play a role in glucose metabolism regulation. Insulin is responsible for regulating glucose passage to the cells, while fetuin-A blocks insulin binding to its receptor, which is linked to insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. Higher fetuin-A level patients have 4 times greater risk of developing IHD compared to patients with lower fetuin-A levels. Studies found that both hormones participate in the development of T2DM and IHD, beside their role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Aim of the study: Evaluate serum fetuin-A concentrations in type2 diabetic (T2D) patients with and without IHD and compare them with healthy individuals. Assess serum glucose, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR in T2D patients and IHD and compare them with healthy individuals. Subjects and Methods: A case control study, that included 120 patients (60 have T2DM with IHD and 60 having T2DM without IHD age ranged from 30 to 70 years patient, who attended Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital and Iraqi Center for Myocardial Infarction, Medical City Hospital, Baghdad during the period from November 2020 until February 2021 and compare result with 60 healthy control which age ranged from 30 to 70 years. Female: male ratio is almost 1:1 in the three studied groups. The diagnosis of MI is based on medical reports, laboratory, and clinical tests for heart disease. Patients with neuropathy, retinopathy, thyroid dysfunction and liver diseases were excluded from the study. BMI, FBS, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, and fetuin-A were measured or calculated for each participant. Result: a statistical difference in BMI between participants is found; 46.70% of T2DM in the IHD group are obese. No significant association between disease duration and development of IHD is found. All the included markers showed statistical differences in mean ± SD between the diabetic and control group; fetuin-a mean ±SD level was 27.63 ± 13.31, 12.39 ± 5.61 and 9.93 ± 5.1 in T2DM with IHD, T2DM without IHD and control group, respectively. There was no statistical association between the markers and fetuin-A except a moderate positive correlation with insulin. Conclusion: Fetuin-A can be used as a predictor of IHD development in diabetic patients.

49. Analysis Polymorphism of DNA Repair Gene (OGG1) in some Kirkuk Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Muntaha R. Ibraheem*
The current study includes 200 subjects, 120 patients with diabetes mellitus type1 and 80 subjects as control group, the anthropometric characteristics of type1 diabetic (T1D) subjects and non-diabetic controls. The age difference was not significantly different (p > 0.05) in diabetic patients when compared with. The distribution of 8-Oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) frequency gene polymorphism was significantly difference (p ≥ 0.05. Frequency of OGG1 C/C (homozygous) genotype showed (32.43%) in patients and (100%) in control. The results of OGG1 heterozygous G/C genotype showed higher significantly in DM type1 (74.76%) and not found in controls (0.00%). The differences were significant. OGG1 G/G genotype frequency was not found, neither in the diabetes mellitus type1 nor controls (0.00%), consequently there was not significantly different (p ≥ 0.01). there were significant differences in body mass index (BMI) (p ≥ 0.01) in control group when matching with found in controls (0.00%). The differences were significant. OGG1 G/G genotype frequency was not found, neither in the diabetes mellitus type1 nor controls (0.00%), consequently there was not significantly different (p ≥ 0.01).

50. Synthesis and Identification of some New N-Topylated Ligand Complexes with some Metalic Ions Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)
Muath J. T. Al-Abbasee*, Afraa S. Shihab, Ahmood K. Jebur
In this contribution, modern metal ion complexes of the ions Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were gained through two steps. The first one involved a direct combination of tropylium tetrafluoroborate with some cyclic amino derivatives to produce N-tropylated ligands (M1-M5). The second one involved the reaction of these synthesized N-tropylated ligands (M1-M5) with the metal mentioned above ions in a molar ratio of 1:1 (except M4) was 1:2. The gained complexes were identified by physical measurements such as melting points and color and by chemical properties such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur (CHNS) analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility.

51. Effects of Methanol Extract of Corchorus olitorius Cultivated in Iraq on High Fat Diet plus Streptozotocin-induced Type II Diabetes in Rats
Noor H. Swayeh*, Haitham M. Kadhim
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a long-lasting clinical syndrome characterized by raised blood glucose leading to numerous other complications. Objective: To study the phytochemical, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidimic and histopathological effects of methanol extract of Corchorus olitorius cultivated in Iraq against induced type II diabetes in rats. Methods: C. olitorius leaves extracted with 60% methanol then phytochemical analysis done, forty male rats separated into four groups ten in each the first not received any treatment as a normal control, remaining rats were induced diabetes type 2 by 28 days feeding of high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 35 mg/kg, ten of them not received treatment served as diabetics, third and fourth groups received oral metformin (MET) 100 mg/kg and C. olitorius methanol extract (COME) 400 mg/kg respectively for 28 days. Blood samples collected at day 29 for biochemical study of lipid profile and glycemic indices as well as assessment of histological effects on pancreatic tissue sections after scarification. Results: C. olitorius methanol extract contains anthraquinons, flavonoids, saponines and steroids. Treatment with MET or COME significantly reduced the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein, while, enhance the reduced levels of adiponectin and high density lipoprotein, also COME enhanced insulin release. Histopathological picture of pancreatic tissues of COME or MET treated rats improved than diabetics. Conclusion: Methanol extract of C. olitorius cultivated in Iraq has anti-hyperglycemic, insulin releasing and sensitizing, anti-hyperlipidimic and pancreatic tissue protective effects in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats.

52. Evaluation of the Vitamin C and Some Antioxidants in Patients with COVID-19
Noor M. Jasim*, Entesar J. Fadhil
A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate the Vitamin C and some anti-oxidant in Sera of patients with corona virus. The study conducted on 60 blood samples, Group1(G1) includes 40 samples for patients with COVID-19, Control group which included 20 samples for healthy individuals with age range (35–60) year. Patient samples were collected from Al-Karama General Hospital (isolation unit), in Iraq. The present study includes the determination of serum C-reactive protein-CRP, Vitamin-C, Zinc, Glutathione (GSH) and Malonedialdehyde (MDA). The results indicate that the level of serum CRP significantly increased (p ≤ 0.01) in G1 compared with Control group. The level of Sera Vit. C, Zinc and GSH significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.01) in G1 compared with control group. The MDA level significantly increases (p ≤ 0.01) in G1 compared with a control group. From the present study, we conclude that the infection with coronavirus may reduce the antioxidant level and increase the oxidative stress in sera of patients with COVID-19.

53. Effects of Co-administration of Pyridoxine in Two Different Doses with Methotrexate-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats
Noor M. M. Zakri*, Nada N. Al-Shawi
Nephrotoxicity is defined as rapid deterioration in kidney functions that arises from direct exposure to a drug or its metabolite. Methotrexate is an anti-metabolite used in low doses for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders and high doses for different malignancies. Pyridoxine is the usual form of vitamin B6 included in pharmaceutical products. This study is designed to examine the effect of pyridoxine in two different doses, each co-administered with methotrexate at 20 mg/kg made renal toxicity in rats through the involvement of Nrf2/HO-1 molecular mechanism in this respect. The animals used in this research were allocated to four distinct groups (each group with 10 rats) of both sexes; as control, MTX, pyridoxine 33 mg/kg and MTX, Pyridoxine 100 mg/kg, and MTX. Serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and NrF2/HO-1 signaling pathway were determined. Administration of Pyridoxine (33 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in combination with MTX showed no significant differences (p >0.05) as compared to the MTX group. At the same time, administration of pyridoxine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in combination with methotrexate showed a significant reduction in serum activities of both neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and creatinine (p < 0.05) and significant upregulation in Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway each compared to corresponding levels in MTX-only group. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when pyridoxine (100 mg/kg IP) was administered in combination with methotrexate, the renal toxicity was reduced as a result.

54. Kinetics Study of the Reaction between Serine and N-Bromosuccinimide in the Presence of Palladium (Pd2+)
Noori Y. Salman*
The oxidation of serine using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) has been studied at fix pH value. The reaction presents a first-order reaction with respect to both substrate and oxidant. It is noted that the rate of reaction increases with increasing the palladium ion concentration. The addition of the reaction product (succinimide) affects the oxidation reaction rate. The protonated Br+ or NBrS and NBrS are used to be the reactive species of the N-bromosuccinimide. Furthermore, intermediate compounds are noticed through the reaction. Finally, a mechanism for the oxidation reaction is suggested in this work.

55. Preparation and In-vitro Evaluation of Darifenacin HBr as Nanoparticles Prepared as Nanosuspension
Rafid A. R. ALobaidy*, Nawal A. Rajab
Nanosuspension is a term that can be used to describe a colloidal dispersion of nanosized droplets of the drug in an aqueous medium with a size below 1-μm. Drug nanoparticles are one of the most significant methods to reduce the constituent part diameter and increase surface area, improving the dissolution and oral bioavailability of hydrophobic medicines, enhancing drug dissolution rate and bioavailability. Nanoparticles are produced using appropriate techniques for drug delivery applications and administered via various routes, including oral, topical, parenteral, ophthalmic, and pulmonary. Overactive bladder (OAB) affects around 16% of adults and is more common as people become older. It causes a variety of symptoms, including urgency, incontinence, urine frequency, and nocturia. DH. It is newly drug used to treat complicated OAB. It has a higher selectivity for the bladder’s muscarinic receptors. After intravenous and immediate-release oral dose forms. It suffers from extensive first-pass metabolism with a short elimination half-life and ranging between three to four hours). The current research focused on creating an extended-release dosage form utilizing Eudragit RS100. The solvent/anti-solvent precipitation method was used to make darifenacine nanoparticles. A certain quantity of medication was dissolved in a water-miscible solvent (methanol), then poured at a specific speed into water containing stabilizer on a magnetic stirrer for a 1/2-hour; after that, the resulted product was sonicated at 37°C for 15 minutes. The physicochemical interaction among medication with additives was explored utilizing fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC). The particle size and zeta potential of the generated nanosuspension were calculated.

56. Synthesis and Characterization of Formazan Derivatives from Schiff’s Base and Studying their Biological Activity
Rafid Q. Kmal*, Shaimaa A. Behget, Meaad N. Husean
A group of substituted formazine derivatives was prepared through several steps where the first step was the preparation of compound (1) by reacting chloroacetyl chloride with 2-aminopyrimidine, and the second step was the reaction of compound (1) with hydrazine hydrate to obtain the derivative (2) and in the third step was prepared Schiff’s base (3) by reaction of derivative (2) with para-dimethyl benzaldehyde and then a number of formazine derivatives were synthesized by reaction of derivative (3) with a number of substituted aromatic amines. The newly prepared derivatives are distinguished by their melting points (1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) spectra. The biological activity of the prepared derivatives was studied on two types of bacteria that cause urinary tract and measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone against the growth of these bacteria.

57. Perspective Impact of Gelling Agents on the Mechanistic Behavior for the Topical Delivery of Flufenamic Acid Nano-Ethosomal Dispersion
Rana K. Muslim1, Nidhal K. Maraie2*
Objective: This work involves the preparation and in vitro characterization of a topical gel formulation that is capable of deep skin permeation, providing the anti-inflammatory effect for the optimum nano ethosomal dispersion formula. Methods: The optimum ethosomal dispersion was prepared (in our laboratory) by utilizing 3% flufenamic acid (FA), 30% ethanol, 1% phosphatidylcholine (PC), 10% propylene glycol, and 1% cholesterol by cold method and 20 minutes’ ultra-sonication. Four ethosomal gel formulas (G1-G4) were prepared by using carbopol 934 and carbopol 940 at 1% and 1.5% concentration at a 1:1 ratio as a gelling agent. These formulas were further subjected to in vitro characterization to assess their physical appearance, consistency, viscosity, spreadability, in vitro drug release, and exvivo skin permeation and deposition. Results: The results revealed that the formula (G1) demonstrated the best homogeneity, consistency, and spreadability as well as an initial release of 68.53% after 10 hours, that continued up to 89.36% after 24 hours, and a significantly higher drug release percentage at pH 7.4 than pH 5.5 with substantially higher ex vivo abdominal rat skin permeation (60.74%) and deposition percentages (36.87%%) in comparison to flufenamic acid plain gel prepared conventionally which demonstrated 23.73% and 14.96% skin permeation and deposition percentages after 24 hours. Conclusion: This work was successful in preparing a novel topical gel using ethosomal nanocarriers, promoting efficient topical skin delivery of the anti-inflammatory FA with a once-daily application, which improved patient compliance

58. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Aflatoxin B1 in Freshly Slaughtered Iraqi Sheep Meat, using CD Marker of TNF-α
Rawaa E. Jaloud, Fadia F. Hassan*, Rana A. Al-Aamery, Rasha T. Hashim
The current study was conducted in Baghdad governorate (Karkh and Al-Rasafa regions) which included collecting 50 samples of freshly slaughtered sheep meat randomly collected from local slaughter areas and approved governmental slaughterhouses (25 liver and 25 ulna muscles). The results of the aflatoxin B1 detection showed that all samples were contaminated with this toxin at different concentrations ranging from 25–422 ppb and 65–492 ppb for each ulna muscles and liver, respectively. The histopathological and immunological study was conducted in meat samples containing higher and lower concentrations of the toxin. The results of the pathological study in the liver revealed that the concentration (492 ppb) caused thickening of the nuclei, water degeneration and necrosis, but the concentration (467 ppb) caused several damages represented by thickening of the nuclei and an increase in the number of kepffer cells. In contrast, no obvious damages was observed at the concentration (65 ppb). In the muscles, the results showed that the concentrations (422 and 384 ppb) caused tissue damage represented by the homogeneous acid aggregation, while no damage was found at the concentration 25 ppb. The findings of the immunohistochemical study showed the same concentrations for both liver and muscle samples using CD marker of TNF-α; in the liver, at the concentration (492 ppb), there was strong immune expression (+++), while the immune expression was (++) at the concentration (467 ppb), and no expression (-) was detected at the concentration (65 ppb). In addition, the results in the muscles samples showed that samples that contain (422 ppb), the immune expression was (+++), while the expression at the concentration (384 ppb) was (++), whereas no expression was seen at the concentration (25 ppb).

59. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effect of the Epoxyconazole and Difenoconazole on Human Colorectal Cancer HCT116 Cell Line
Seher A. R. Almedeny, Zena H. Sahib*, Entisar J. Al Mukhtar, Khalda K. Alkelaby
Since the anticancer role of itraconazole has been approved, interest in other triazole members has been increased. In this study, we try to investigate the anticancer effect of two triazole members, difenoconazole (DIF) and epoxyconazole (EPO) on the HCT116 human colorectal cancer cell line and compare their effect with the standard anticancer agent: methotrexate (MTX) by MTT cytotoxicity assay. Aim: To assess the cytotoxic effect of epoxyconazole and difenoconazole on human colorectal cancer HCT116 cell line. Results: The DIF, EPO, and MTX in all concentrations resulted in highly significant (p < 0.001) growth rate inhibition in the HCT-116 and Vero cells compared to the dose-dependent negative control group. All concentrations of DIF and EPO (except the concentration of 1000 μg/mL of EPO) show significant (p < 0.01) higher growth rate inhibition in the vero cell line in comparison to the HCT 116 cell line. The MTX group in all concentrations showed highly significant inhibition in the growth percentage of the HCT116cell line in comparison to the vero cell line except for the concentration of 1000 μg/ml in which no significant (p > 0.05) difference was seen between cell lines. Conclusions: EPO and DIF are ineffective as anticancer drugs; EPO and DIF are toxic to the normal cells and nonselective in their action toward cancer cells.

60. Relation between Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase with some Biochemical Variables in Iraqi Men with Acute Myocardial Infarction and Diabetes
Shahad A. Abdulkareem, Susan J. Ali*, Dlnya A. Mohamad
Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a widespread cause of death in numerous parts of the world. Many factors raise the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). One of the most of it is atherosclerosis, caused by many factors such as Hyperlipidemia. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the key regulatory enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. The disorder of lipid metabolism is one of the characteristics of diabetes, which is considered a risk factor for MI. Therefore, the activity ACC was estimated in patients with AMI and Diabetes. Method: The study included estimation of ACC activity and correlated with other biochemical variables such as Troponin T(cTnT), C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose‚ lipid profile, electrolytes [Sodium (Na⁺), Potassium(K⁺), Chloride (Cl⁻)]‚ urea and creatinine (Crea.), and evaluation of body mass index (BMI) effect in serum of 60 patients with AMI and diabetes compared with 30 serum from apparently healthy individuals as a control group, both groups are of males with an average age (25–60 years). Results and Conclusions: Results showed a significant increase in levels of ACC, cTnT, CRP, Glucose, and Lipid profile except for high-density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C) and urea, while a significant decrease with Na⁺ and K⁺ also a non-significant variation was observed with Cl⁻ and creatinine in AMI and diabetes patients compared to control group.

61. The Effect of Extracts and Phenolic Compounds Isolation from Rosmarinus officinalis Plant Leaves on Tribolium castaneum Mortality
Shaymaa M. Hisham, Adnan M. Mohammad, Muthanna J. Mohammed*
The current laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20%) of the ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate, and hexane at a concentration (1, 2, and 4%) of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis against adults of the insect Trabolium castaneum for three periods (24, 48, and 72 hours). Results showed that the ethanolic extract, ethyl phenolic components (catechol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, calic acid, vanillic acid, coumarin, and cinnamic acid) of rosemary leaves were detected using HPLC technology over a 24 hours treatment period, and their effect on the adult stage of the insect was investigated. The results showed that catechol, calic acid, vanillic acid, and cinnamic acid had a killing rate of 93.33% at a concentration of 20%. In contrast, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid and coumarin had a killing rate of 90% at a concentration of 20%.

62. Formulation and Evaluation of Topical Formula Gel for Dermatitis and Inflammations
Suaad T. Zamil, Suhad T. Zamil, Naser A. Naser*, Hussein A. Kadhim
Skin allergy is a widespread skin problem at the level of different ages, and it occurs when an irritant comes into contact with the skin, and immune system believes it is under attack, so it overreacts and sends antibodies to help fight invaders. Oral corticosteroids are used to treat the symptoms caused by all kinds of allergic reactions. Long-term use may cause many side effects, such as white water on the eyes, brittleness, weak bones, and stomach ulcers and an increase in blood sugar (glucose) and growth retardation for children. Oral corticosteroids may also worsen high blood pressure. This study has the advantage of designing and testing new topical formulas with standard kinetics and efficacy properties by combining tocopherol with glycolate in addition to antihistamines (phenylephrine hydrochloride and diphenhydramine) to form a Noder formula for the treatment of hypersensitivity. The current study was formulated to manufacture the Noder formula which was submitted to extensive investigations and analyzes by four important models. The results showed that the Noder formula has the ideal physical properties and the absorption is higher than the commercial formula and it has stability for a period of 24 months. The therapeutic efficiency in reducing the degree of redness and sensitivity was 60% compared to 56% in the commercial formula, as well as the clinical safety parameters are better from its comparison of general results, there is a significant increase in absorptivity, efficacy, safety, and consistency of the formula Noder compared to the commercial formula.

63. Formulation, Characterization and Evaluation of the Topical Nano-formula Gel to Treat Acne Vulgaris
Suhad T. Zamil1*, Suaad T. Zamil2, Hussein A. Kadhim3
Acne and its harmful effects are considered reasons for the deterioration of the health, social, professional and psychological status of many people, especially in the age of sexual maturity and may lead to chronic skin abnormalities. The treatments used orally and parenterally cause hormonal disorders in addition to side effects on the digestive system. Topical treatment is one of the most important ways to treat acne and the skin abnormalities associated with it, which is characterized by lack of absorption through the skin, but modulating the local formula with nanotechnology and adding absorption stimuli increases the effectiveness of topical treatments. This study has advantage of designing and testing a new topical formula with standard kinetic and effective properties with the nano crystallization of spironolactone-ciprofloxacin-clindamycin-ascorbic acid to form the acne free formula to treat acne as no such design has been tested in laboratory studies. The study aims to increase the absorption, efficacy, and stability of topical treatment through the combination of nano crystalline crystals of spironolactone-ofloxacin-clindamycin-ascorbic acid and then test the resulting compound by diagnosing physical-chemical properties and measuring the absorptivity of the formula across the skin as well as measuring response and clinical safety. The study was conducted within three designs, which are laboratory, animal, and clinical. The laboratory study included diagnosing the physical and chemical properties of the formula by means of optical spectroscopy, pH measurement, peroxide, viscosity, and image processor technology in comparison to the traditional formula. The longitudinal and cross-sectional clinical study of the reviewers’ registry included finding anti-inflammatory efficacy and assessing therapeutic safety. The random sample method and the statistical analysis of the results were adopted, the results showed that the acne free formula had the ideal physical properties as in Table 1 and the absorption is higher than the commercial formula and has stability for a period about 36 months. The rate of active substance absorption was 8% compared to 5% in the commercial formula. Also, the clinical safety parameters are better than their comparison. As in Figure 1 From the general results, there is a significant increase in absorptivity, efficacy, safety, and consistency of the formula acne-free compared to the commercial formula.

64. The Correlation of BMI and Age to Some Hormonal Indices in Iraqi Women with the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Sumayah F. Kasim*, Sarah J. Saadoon
Only a few researchers have looked at the link between age and the occurrence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The goal of this study was to see if there was a link between age and body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of PCOS and to compare the levels of certain endocrine profiles in PCOS and healthy females. In this study, 75 random females participate, 75 healthy females, and fifty are patients in PCOS. Age has no significant difference among females with PCOS as compared with females with normal ovaries. Otherwise, thirty cases of PCOS group occurred in a high percentage (64%) at (18–26) years. Also, highly significant differences in BMI of the PCOS group as compared with a control group, in which in 30 cases (60%) of total study cases, 50 (100%) of females diagnosed with PCOS were obese, and their BMI over 30. On the other hand, the results of the control group (healthy females) were categorized mostly under an average weight 24 (96.0%) from a total study count of 25 (100%). Finally, highly significant differences in serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone of the PCOS group compared with the control group and non-significant differences in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) serum levels of the PCOS group compared with the control group. In summary, we observed that women with PCOS with signs and symptoms of PCOS represented mainly in obesity, menstrual irregularity, and hirsutism had higher body mass index, LH levels, and testosterone than women with normal ovaries.

65. Comparative Study of Liver Function Test in Cholelithiasis Patient Pre and Post Cholecystectomy
Taban S. Hawar*, Diyari A. Lor
This study aimed to investigate the changes that occur in liver function tests in cholelithiasis and relate those changes to it. For this purpose, 38 blood specimens were collected from the patients with cholelithiasis undergoing/underwent Cholecystectomy at Azadi-teaching and Kirkuk hospital from January to June 2021, 19 pre-operative samples, and 19 four weeks post-operatively. Our study showed that the gallstone disease was more common in females 17 (89.46%) than males 2 (10.54%). Age was a major risk factor as the patients’ mean age was 39.26 years. Out of 19 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, pre-operative liver function tests (LFT) were normal in 11(61.11%) patients, and abnormal LFT was detected in 8 (44.44 %) patients. Eight (42.1%) patients had elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALK)-P levels%), and also had an elevated of AST and ALT. In the serum, slight elevations in the level of total bilirubin 5 (26.3%), and direct bilirubin 3 (15.8) were also noticed in those patients. Following Cholecystectomy (after 4 weeks), in some cases, changes occur in liver function tests where the finding of ALT, AST, and ALK-P closely shows restoration to normal. However, some cases show no significant variation. Statistically, big distinctions between levels of ALK-P, AST, and ALT have been found before and after Cholecystectomy (p < 0.0050, p < 0.0124, and p < 0.0115). The statistical result shows no significance in total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) in postoperative cases. At all, there were big distinctions between levels of ALK-P, AST, and ALT before and after Cholecystectomy (p < 0.0050, p < 0.0124, and p < 0.0115, respectively), but levels of total and direct bilirubin revealed no significant distinctions before and after Cholecystectomy.

66. The Effect of Bacterial Infection with Helicobacter pylori on Thyroid Hormones
Alaa A. H. K. Al-Daamy*
Objective: Our current research aimed to see if there was a link between Helicobacter pylori infection and thyroid hormone levels. Methods: In Karbala, Iraq, samples were obtained from 84 individuals with H. pylori (42 patients tested positive for H. pylori antigen test and 42 patients tested negative) between December 2021 and January 2022. All subjects had five milliliters of whole blood drawn into clot tubes and centrifuged for 30 minutes to obtain serum. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to measure the amounts of free T4 and TSH in the blood. Results: Females are more susceptible to H. pylori infection than males (p = 0.00001), according to the findings. Furthermore, the mean age of positive test patients is 49.66 years, which is considerably (p = 0.0177) higher than the mean age of negative test patients (43.38 years), and the oldest men are more infected with H. pylori than young men. The results show no significant variations in free T4 concentrations between males and females for both positive and negative tests (p > 0.05). This implies that while infected with H. pylori, the concentration of free T4 was unaffected. Finally, H. pylori infection causes a considerable increase in stomach acid, according to the research. (p = 0.0037) in FSH levels in both sexes. Conclusions: We can determine that females are more likely than males to be infected with H. pylori. And that most patients are aged, particularly men. Furthermore, there is no partnership between H. pylori infection and free F4 hormone levels, and patients with H. pylori have a higher FSH hormone concentration than those with a negative H. pylori antigen test.

67. Effects of Meropenem at Sub-inhibitory Doses on the Expression of Biofilm-associated Protein by Acinetobacter baumannii
Wathiq A. Al-Draghi, Sajjad A. Wahab*, Shahad T. Hamad
Objective(s): Acinetobacter baumannii has a high proclivity for forming biofilm and is a common source of multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections caused by medical devices in hospitals. This research aims to see how sub-inhibitory meropenem doses affect the expression of biofilm-associated proteins. Methods: Two hundred and fifty samples were collected from various sites in Baghdad, Iraq hospitals and divided into two groups based on their source: clinical 150 and environmental (100) samples, collected from October 2020 to March 2021. Five bacterial isolates were examined for the presence of the bap gene, were treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of meropenem to evaluate gene expression level. Results: Eighty-three A. baumannii isolates were identified by microscopic examination and biochemical tests. The identification of 83 isolates was verified using a molecular approach based on the rplB gene, an essential gene found in this genus. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on all 83 identified isolates, and the findings revealed that 36 isolates had MDR. This study found that 30 isolates from these 36 isolates carrying the Bap gene that confirmed by molecular detection methods, meropenem dose (0.0005 mg/mL) were with very low inhibition activity against the bacterial strains for that they were considered as sub-inhibitory concentrations, Bap gene expression showed an almost apparent decrease in all isolates in antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: There was a clear link between the presence of the bap gene and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant isolates. These findings point to the importance of isolate resistance and the role of the bap gene in biofilm formation by A. baumannii strains. Furthermore, these findings point to the necessity for more research. This study demonstrated the role of rplB gene for molecular detection A. baumannii at the level of genus and species, respectively. Meropenem at sub-inhibitory concentration has decreased Bap gene expression level.

68. Study of Histological Structure of Mesencephalon in White Cheeked Bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis)
Wijdan B. Abid*, Hanan R. D. Hussain, Dalia H. Al-Hamawandy
The histological structure of Pycnonotus leucotis was investigated to fill the dearth of information on the histology of mid-brain from available literature and help understand its brain. The brain is wide and short and its length 1.5 cm, and it consists of three regions. The middle region is the mesencephalon. The mesencephalon was divided into optic tectum and tegmentum. The optic tectum consists of six main layers, while the tegmentum contains nuclei of cranial nerves.

69. Zinc Status in Children with Bronchial Asthma
Yahya Al–Tufaily*, Qusay N. Hussein, Kassim F. Hussein
Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lung resulting in episodic airflow obstruction resulting from chronic inflammation of the conducting zone of the airways. Zinc, an essential dietary metallic, shows different parts in the leading routes and partially underwrites numerous organic enzymes’ construction and purpose. It also controls ion trailers applicable to pulmonary illnesses. Objectives: Difference in serum zinc level in asthmatic kids and the non-asthmatic kids according to the period and harshness of asthma. Methods: A total of 200 children aged 1–12 years enrolled in this case-control study. Children were categorized into two groups, the first group included 100 patients with asthma, and the second group was the control group that included 100 healthy Children. Age and sex-matched children. Serum zinc was measured from the collected blood samples using APEL/SPECTROPHOTOMETER for both asthmatic patients and control group. Results: A total of 59 patients (59%) were males and 41 patients (41%) were females for patients with asthma. Low serum zinc in asthmatic children (64.22 μg/dL). There is a significant difference in serum zinc between asthmatic and non-asthmatic collection, also significant differences according to severity and period of asthma. Conclusion: Level of serum zinc is low in asthmatic kids, and differs according to severity, period of asthma in steroid usage.

70. Evaluation Fitness of Alcoholic Extract of Laurus nobilis Leaves on Lipid Profile and some Physiological Parameters in Female Albino Rats Treated with Depakin Drug
Zainab S. M. Al-turfi*
The present study aimed to explain the effect of ethanolic extract of Laurus nobilis leaves on lipid profile and some physiological parameters in treated with depakin drug in the female albino rats. Twenty subjects were used in the experimental and were divided into four groups, G1 control, G2 with alcoholic extract, G3 only depakin drug, G4 alcoholic extract, and depakin drug. The first group was dosed with a concentration of 0.9 mL physiological saline solution. Each group animal was given an intraperitoneal injection, and the dose lasted 30 days once daily. The results reveal a substantial drop (p 0.05) in weight, lower cholesterol, triglyceride, Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) levels, and a significant rise in LDL and VLDL levels. (p < 0.05) in the red blood cells (RBCs), Hb, WBCs, and PLT count in alcoholic extract compared with the rest of the group rats. The ethanolic extract of Laurus nobilis leaves possesses loss of weight and hypolipidemia.

71. Statistical Association Between Age Groups, Body Mass Index and Cancer Grade with Serological Concentrations of Immunological Biomarkers (Interleukin IL-1β, IL-6) among Females with Breast Cancer
Zeina F. Jamel, Dawood S. Mahdi*, Ihsan E. Alsaimary
Statistical association between age groups, body mass index and cancer grade with serological concentrations of immunological biomarkers (interleukin IL-1B, IL-6) among females with breast cancer was carried out in this study. The total number of breast cancer patients involved in this study are 80 individuals were taken from Basrah oncology center in Basrah province, the age of patients ranging from 20–80 years and 80 individuals considered as control group after they were checked and confirmed to be free from any chest or any other health problems. the lowest rate of breast cancer females was found within the age groups 20–29 years (2.5%), and highest rate in age group 50 to 59 years (32.5%). The levels of Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) pg/mL were (5.04 pg/mL) in (>60) years and 2.87 pg/mL in age 20–29 yrs., with significant differences. The levels of IL-1β fluctuated between stages with high value in stage IV was (2.675 pg/mL). The levels of interleukin IL-6 were high value in (>60) years (6.65 pg/mL) with p = 0.01. The levels of IL-6 show high value in stage IIIC (18.5650 pg/mL). The mean of IL-6 pg/mL with body mass index, shown overweight recorded (6.797 pg/mL).

72. Comparative Study of Monopolar and Bipolar Transurethral Resection in Patients with Benign Prostatic Adenoma
Falah M. Ali, Ahmed A. Obaid*
A prospective controlled study at Al-Diwaniya Urological center was compared two procedures (M-TURP and B-TURP-PLASMA ADGE). A total of 120 men were included in our study for 2 years. In 60 men with M-TURP, their age ranged from 49-89 years, size of prostate /mL ranged from 35 to 90, IPSS ranged from 8 to 34, and their SPSA ranged from 0.1–3.4 ng/mL. In the other 60 men with B-TURP (plasma edge), their ages ranged from 47 to 89 years, the size of prostate/ml ranged from 36 to 90, IPSS ranged from 9 to 34, and their S.PSA were ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 ng/mL. There was no significant difference in mean age, mean prostate size, mean IPSS, mean serum PSA, mean maximum flow rate (Q max), mean residual volume, mean hemoglobin (Hb), mean serum sodium, mean serum potassium, mean serum chloride and, mean serum creatinine (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the mean duration of operation between the monopolar group and plasma edge group (p = 0.019), in such a way that the duration is less in the plasma edge group, 56.75 ± 9.02 minutes versus 53.10 ± 7.73 minutes. The intra-operative level of Hb was significantly higher in a monopolar group than in the plasma edge group, 13.87 ± 1.87 g/dL versus 15.06 ± 1.28 g/dL, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in intra-operative mean serum sodium, potassium, chloride, and creatinine between both groups (p > 0.05). The mean duration of hospital admission was more in the monopolar group compared with the plasma edge group, 1.57 ± 0.83 days versus 1.03 ± 0.18 days, respectively, in a highly significant manner (p < 0.001). Mean Hb level was significantly lower in the monopolar group compared to the plasma edge group, 14.00 ± 1.64 g/dL versus 15.03 ± 1.26 g/dL, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean IPSS was significantly lower in the monopolar group compared to the plasma edge group, 26.18 ± 4.12 versus 28.05 ± 4.09, respectively (p = 0.014). Maximum flow rate (Q max) was significantly more in the monopolar group in comparison to the plasma edge group, 16.62 ± 1.89 versus 15.03 ± 2.20, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of urethral stricture between the monopolar group and plasma edge group, 1 (1.7%) versus 1 (1.7%), respectively (p = 1.000). In addition, there was no significant difference in the rate of repetition of TURP between the monopolar group and plasma edge group, 1 (1.7%) versus 1 (1.7%), respectively (p = 1.000). Our study showed that there was a shorter duration of the procedure, less bleeding, shorter duration of admission, and improvement in IPSS and Qmax.

73. Blood Hemolytic Activity and Acute Toxicity of Saponins extract from Lepudium aucheri Boiss.
Mohammed Q. Sultan*, Husam M. Kredy, Bassem Charfeddine
The hemolytic activity process was applied to erythrocytes by an analyst, as well as the lysis of erythrocytes resulted in a positive test result. The L. aucheri Boiss. extracts are high in triterpenoids saponins, according to the findings. Both extracts were used in acute toxicity in vivo research on four groups of rats (six rats in each group). After 72 hours of treatment with various concentrations of terpenoids saponins extracts (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg BW), no mortality was detected in the rats of the trials. This demonstrated that both extracts are harmless when taken orally.

74. The Pathological Basis for Severe Corona Virus Disease-19 in Diabetic Patients
Esraah Alharris*, Dina Saleh
Background: It has been documented that the mortality rate in diabetic persons can reach 10%. In addition, it has been shown that the rate of mortality and the need for respiratory support are higher among newly diagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus compared with patients known to have diabetes mellitus for a relatively long duration. In the setting of the pandemic of COVID-19, glycemic control for the patients admitted to hospitals is critical, as is diabetes screening to uncover undiagnosed cases. Aim of the study: To explore the possible link between diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 in Iraq. Patients and methods: The current research was carried out in Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq, in Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, including the word of medicine, respiratory unit, and intensive care unit. The study started on Sept 15, 2021 and ended on Apr 15, 2022. The study was cross-sectional and included 100 patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 evidenced by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and CT-scan “computed tomography scan of the chest. Those patients were chosen randomly from the pool of patients visiting the teaching hospital. The age range of patients was between 18 and 94 years, with 45 males and 55 females. Laboratory investigation results were retrieved from patients’ records and included random blood sugar, lactate dehydrogenase, d-dimer, HbA1c%, and “C-reactive protein (CRP).” Results: The mean values of age, random blood sugar (RBS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), d-dimer, HbA1c, and HS-CRP were comparable between males and females (p > 0.05). Patients with high HbA1c levels (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) were older and had significantly higher levels of random blood sugar and d-dimer than patients with HbA1c < 6.5%. The d-dimer level showed a significant positive correlation to RBS, LDH, HbA1c, and HS-CRP (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Higher levels of markers of inflammation were associated with HbA1c levels in the diabetic range, indicating a bi-directional relation between diabetes mellitus and the severity of COVID-19.

75. Scientific Basis of Ethno-pharmacological Claims of Moringa Oleifera Lam.
Md. Niyaz Alam*, Rahul Kaushik, Md. Sarfaraj Hussain, Lubhan Singh, Najam A. Khan
Moringa oleifera Lam. or munga is one of the most important plants widely cultivated in India. It belongs to family Moringaceae. It is a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used commonly in Ayurvedic system of medicine. M. oleifera is rich in various active phyto-constituents (tannins, sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, alkaloids, and vitamins) in addition to different minerals in its leaves and seeds. The plant has been found to exhibit diverse number of pharmacological activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticancer, antioxidant, nootropic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, anti-ulcer, cardiovascular, anti-obesity, antiepileptic, anti-asthmatic, antidiabetic, anti-urolithiatic, diuretic, local anaesthetic, anti-allergic, anthelmintic, wound healing, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and antidiarrheal properties. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. So, the aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive information from recognized sources on the ethnobotany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological efficacy and of the medicinal plant, M. oleifera. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits. Clinical trials using Moringa for a variety of combinations in different formulations should also be conducted.

76. Microneedles as A Magical Technology to facilitate Transdermal Drug Delivery: A Review Article
Omar S. Salih*, Entidhar J. Al-akkam
Skin drug administration is the method used to provide drugs for local or systemic therapy, which is recognized for clinical usage. It is the third-largest method of medication delivery, after only intravenous administration and oral administration. Using a transdermal delivery method makes the administration easy, and blood concentration and adverse effects can be reduced. A microneedle is a micron-sized needle with a short height of no more than 500 micrometers and a width of no more than 50 micrometers. The needle comes into contact with the epidermal layer of the skin before it gets to the dermal layer, where there is no discomfort. Several materials, such as metals, inorganic, and polymer materials, are used to create microneedles. All different types of microneedles are employed in different scientific disciplines. In recent years, microneedles have been utilized as a drug delivery method to carry pharmaceuticals, genetic codes, proteins, and vaccinations. In chemotherapy, diagnostics, treatment, and immunotherapy, microneedles were utilized.

77. Medical Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and the Challenges: A Review
Avijit Mazumder*, Naveen Kumar, Saumya Das
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder in the digestive system of the body. GERD in the acute stage is controlled by changing lifestyle. Medicines like antacids, mucosal protective, and prokinetic agents reduce acute GERD by reducing acidity and increasing the motility of the stomach. Proton pump inhibitors(PPIs) are the primary choice of medication for treating GERD, but it is an ineffective number of gastric hypersecretory and other disorders. Ilaprazole, and tenatoprazole are currently under trial in humans and reported to have a longer duration of action. Histamine2 receptors remove some of the PPIs side effects. Tegoprazan is a potent γ-amino butyric acid agonist to treat GERD but has central nervous system side effects, which could be removed as adjunct drugs. Raseglurant and mavogluran have a potential effect in treating GERD, but a major challenge is reducing hepatotoxicity. Dronabinol is the only approved medication for cannabinoid receptors with better efficacy in treating GERD. Challenges that arise during GERD are minimized by using a better combination of drugs. Mylanta, omeprazole, and sustained released baclofen, domperidone, omeprazole, esomeprazole, and rebamipide are more effective and have been used recently in combination for treating GERD patients. Combinations therapy is more effective than monotherapy and also decreases therapeutic challenges which arise by using monotherapy of these drugs in GERD patients.

78. The Antioxidant and DNA Protection Activity of the Tarragon’s Methanolic Extract
Yessar A. Dawood*, Rafeef A. Abdul-Jabar, Sabaa A. M. Al-Fadal
For many years plants were regarded as an important source of medical materials that are used extensively for treating and/or avoiding disease. Tarragons (Artemisia dracunculus) has a long history of medicinal uses and is applied for curative purposes. The important phytochemicals (flavonoid and tannin) in the methanolic extract of Tarragon’s dried leaves were estimated qualitatively and quantitatively, and the free radical scavenging activity against hydrogen peroxide was detected. Also, the methanolic extract’s ability to protect the human genomic DNA from Tarragon’s harmful compound was theoretically detected by doing a docking study for some tannin and flavonoid compounds in the DNA. And practically by incubating the human DNA with the Tarragon’s methanolic extract. Both flavonoid and tannin were found in Tarragon’s methanolic extract with about13.4 ± 0.133 mg of quercetin equivalent/gm of flavonoid and 17.7± 2.05 mg of tannic acid equivalent/gm of tannin. Additionally, the extract’s IC50 for H2O2 scavenging activity was about 3.42 ± 0.073 mg/mL, and the Tarragon’s extract’s highest inhibition percentage was about 34.37% compared with (48.57%) for ascorbic acid. Almost the Tarragon’s section has a protective and no damaging effect on DNA. That was confirmed by the high scores of binding energy between flavonoid and tannin compounds with DNA in the docking study. That means there is no direct damaging effect of edible tarragon leaves on the human genomic DNA, which may be strongly related to the content of active phytochemicals (tannin and flavonoids) in leaves.

79. Study of the Immunomodulatory Properties of Pistacia khinjuk Extract on Rats
Roqaya A. Salih*, Zahraa H. M. Kadri, Hazima M. Al-Abassi
Medicinal herbs are widely used as immunostimulants and immunomodulators in treating various ailments around the world. Many herbs used regularly have not been thoroughly studied for their immune-modifying properties. The immunostimulatory effect of the methanol extract of Pistacia Shinjuku was tested in male rats. The experiment consisted of seven groups of animals, each with eight healthy adult mice. Control group (G1): normal saline (0.5 mL) was taken for 14 days. Group 2 (G2) received intraperitoneal cyclosporine (CSA) (5 mg/kg/BW) for 14 days Group 3 (G3): interferon alfa-2a subcutaneous injection 34.5 mg/kg/BW) in two doses week for 14 days. Group 4 (G4) (methanol extract of P. khinjuk, 3 g/kg/body weight) for 14 days, Group 5 (G5): methanol extract of P. khinjuk, 1.5 g/kg/body weight) for 14 days. Group 6 (G6): methanol extract of P. khinjuk 3 g/kg/body weight) for 14 days after cyclosporine injection. Group 7 (G7): methanol extract of P. khinjuk 1.5 g/kg/body weight) for 14 days after cyclosporine injection. On day 15, whole blood was collected in clean ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-vacutainer. Total white blood cells (WBCs) count, differential count, In addition to measuring the level of (IgM, IgG) in the blood serum. According to the results, the group treated with CsA showed an immunosuppressive effect with a significant decrease (P > 0.05) in the total number of WBC, differential count, antibody concentration, and cytokine level (TNF-α, CCL5 NF-κB), but increased the level of TGF-β as compared with other groups. At the same time, there were immunostimulatory effects in groups treated with extract Group 4, 5, 6, and 7, with a significant increase (p > 0.05) in the total number of WBC, Differential count and antibody concentration, and Cytokine level (TNF-α, CCL5, NF-κB). The decreased level of TGF-β, as compared to the CsA-treated Group. In conclusion, P. khinjuk possesses immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties against the adverse effects of cyclosporine in rats.

80. Impacts of International Council for Harmonization Q12 in Lifecycle Management of the Post-Approval Changes
Pavithra G.M., Nagalakshmi S.*
The complexity of the current pharma market needs the most effective drug product development and production. Product lifecycle management (PLM) can produce pharmaceutical manufacturing more efficiently and with less risk. The life cycle approach became adopted in numerous stages within the pharmaceutical company, considering its inception. This International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Q12 guideline intends to enhance the supervision of the post-approval chemistry, manufacturing, and control changes most reliably and effectively both for pharmaceutical industries and regulatory authorities. In this review article, we discuss the benefits and challenges related to this enhanced framework. The new ICH Q12 guideline “Technical and regulatory considerations for pharmaceutical product lifecycle management” assist the management of post-approval chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) changes in an effective way with regard to the pharmaceutical companies.


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