International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Effects of Misuse of Antibiotics on the Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from the Intestines of Broiler Chickens
Abbas Razzaq Abed, Aleem Mardas Khudhair, Ibtisam Mohammed Hussein
The Coliform Bacteria is one of the most important Bacterial diseases that threaten the poultry sector in Iraq, and the result of the excessive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics during the farming period to eliminate Coliform Bacteria has led to the development of antibiotics resistance. The current study aimed to investigate the Escherichia coli in the poultry intestines and to determine its ability to resist antibiotics to achieve this, One hundred seventy-seven samples of poultry intestines were collected from local poultry farming houses in Babil province included 142 isolates (80.22%) of Escherichia coli and 35 isolates (19.77%) for other intestinal Bacteria. In this study, the Bacterial susceptibility test for Escherichia coli showed a significant difference at a statistical level of p <0.05 by Chi-square method for the antibiotics resistance ratios, respectively Rifampicin (100%), Oxytetracycline (99.29%), Cefixime (98.59%), Sulfamethoxazole + Trimethoprim (95.77%), Norfloxacin (90.14%), Cefepime (89.43%), Nitrofurantoin (72.53%), Gentamicin (71.12%), Ceftazidime (70%). Also, Indian ink was used to detect the presence of the capsule around the Escherichia coli, where the results of the microscopic examination showed 81 isolates(57.04%) were surrounded by the capsule and 61 isolates, 42.95% were not surrounded. Finally, the study concluded that the Bacterial resistance of Escherichia coli continues to rise and is alarming and is threatening public health.

2. In silico and In vitro Evaluation of Some Synthesized Quinoline Derivatives into MexB Protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Abdalkader Saeed Latif, Majida G. Magtooph, Alia Essam Mahmood Alubadi
Molecular docking performed to evaluate the effect of five quinoline derivatives on the MexB protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a potential inhibitor by utilizing the 3D structure of each quinoline compounds (C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5) and the crystal structure of the protein, C4 showed the greatest potential with -31.4 kcal/mol binding energy and the lowest potential was for C1 with (-18.5 kcal/mol) compared with ciprofloxacin. Fifty samples were collected from different sites from patients who are attending to the medical city of Baghdad and private Dhelal Beirut Center, Baghdad, 36 of the samples were diagnosed as P. aeruginosa by routine culture test and confirmed by VITEK2, and those isolates were subjected to the susceptibility test against carbapenems, carbenicillin, levofloxacin, and erythromycin by disc diffusion method. The isolates that showed resistance to all of four antibiotics was based to evaluate the activity of quinoline derivatives by using the agar well diffusion method. Where compounds C4 and C5 showed the highest line of activity as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 256 μg/mL, meanwhile, C1 showed the lowest activity with MIC of 1,024 μg/mL.

3. Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Piroxicam Conventional and Hollow Suppositories
Laila Abdulhussein Alwan, Entidhar J. Al-Akkam
Objective: The objective of this study was to develop higher and rapid release of piroxicam from suppositories of different types (conventional and hollow) using different bases. Methods: Thirteen formulas (F1–F13) were prepared (five were conventional, and the rest were hollow type suppositories) by using different bases, such as, witepsol H35, polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with different ratio and glycerinated gelatin. The prepared suppositories were evaluated for physical properties, such as, hardness, melting time, softening time, and for dissolution profile. Results: All of the prepared suppositories had acceptable physical properties. The maximum percent release of piroxicam was 98, 97, 95, and 91% within 50 minutes were obtained from hollow type suppositories containing piroxicam in a solution form and utilizing witepsol H35 base (F10), glycerinated gelatin base (F13), PEGs 400:4000 (70:30) (F12), and PEGs 200:6000 (70:30) (F11), respectively. Also, they exhibited rapid release of piroxicam, however, F10 and F12 released 65 and 50% of piroxicam within 5 minutes, while, F11 released 57% within 10 minutes. Conclusion: Hollow type suppositories containing piroxicam in a solution form can be considered as the most suitable formulas (F10–F13). So, hollow-type suppository is useful as a promising approach for enhancing the release of piroxicam to be administered rectally. Also, the study revealed that in addition to the type of suppositories, the type of the base, the grade, and the ratio of PEGs bases are other important factors affecting the physical properties of suppositories and the dissolution profile of piroxicam.

4. Effect of Vegetable Oil on Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Dayak Onion (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr.) Extract Using HLB Approach: Formulation, Characterization
Rahmi Annisa, Mochammad Yuwono, Esti Hendradi
Eleutherine palmifolia is a typical plant of Kalimantan that has been empirically used by the Dayak people as a cure for various types of diseases. Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) is a drug delivery system that can be developed for onion Dayak to improve its absorption profile. Selection of oil phase, surfactant, and cosurfactant have an essential role in SNEDDS of Dayak onion. The aims of this study to determine the effect of the use of vegetable oils on SNEDDS using the HLB approach. Several 40 formulations in each oil phase with HLB ranging between 11 and 15 were screened to acquire stable SNEDDS composition without the presence of phase separation. Formulas optimal obtained F33 (HLB 14) using olive oil at a ratio formula of 1:7:2. F29 (HLB 14) using VCO at a formula ratio of 1:7:2. F14 (HLB 14) uses palm oil at a ratio formula of 2:7:1. The result showed that the optimal formula F33 (olive oil) with 58,00 nm of the particle size, 84,32 ± 0,00 of the transmittance percentage, 22,00 ± 0,18 of the emulsification time. Formula F29 (VCO) with 19,48 nm of the particle size, 91,78 ± 0,02 of the transmittance percentage, 43,00 ± 0,16 of the emulsification time. Formula F14 (palm oil) with 102,00 nm of the particle size, 90,93 ± 0,02 of the transmittance percentage, 110,00 ± 0,34 of the emulsification time. The optimal formula that has good characteristics and stability is the F29 (VCO) formula using tween 20/transcutol as the surfactant, PEG 400, as co-surfactant at a ratio formula of 1:7:2.

5. Study of the Synergistic Effect of Some Antibiotics and Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Plant against Salmonella typhi
Ghaidaa J. Mohammed
The rising issue of drug-resistant bacterial species has resulted in the failure of existing treatment systems for Salmonella typhi. Lately, a recent treatment strategy was sophisticated to control the problem by using natural products with antibiotics to promote the effectiveness of treatment. The aim of this research was to test the inhibitory efficacy of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes extract toward S. typhi without and with the following antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim, coftriaxon, norfloxacin), which were tested by the well diffusion method and disks propagation method, respectively, using Muller Hinton agar. H. sabdariffa cups (35 g) were taken and placed in 250 mL of boiling water for 30 minutes. A series of concentrations of the aqueous extract were then made by dilution method (50, 100, 150, 250, and 500 mg/mL). The results showed that the extract of hibiscus had an inhibitory effect on the studied bacteria at each concentration 150, 250, and 500 mg/mL with diameter of inhibition 25, 27, 18 mm, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility test was done, where the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ceftriaxon showed areas of inhibition of diameters 25, 31, and 32 mm, respectively. The synergistic effect was then tested by mixing the aquatic extract of H. sabdariffa with the antibiotics; the results showed an increase in the diameters of the inhibition zones compared with the diameters in the use of each of them separately. The highest inhibitory zones were observed with concentration (150 mg/mL) of the extract with ciprofloxacin, and the lowest inhibitory area was recorded at (100 mg/mL) of extract with chloramphenicol. The lowest inhibitory concentration (250 mg/mL) and the lowest killer concentration (500 mg/mL) were also identified.

6. Effects of Melatonin on Some Bone Mineralization Biomarkers for Overweight or Obese Perimenopause Women; A Possible Role in Osteoporosis Treatment
Hiba Dawood, Maysara M. Albadran, Noor Mohammed Aulraman, Renna D. Abdul-Wahhab, Falah Hassan Shari
Background: Melatonin has shown to play an important role in many physiological functions, but its effects on bone metabolism were not well defined in humans. Objective: Evaluation of the effects of oral melatonin used for two months on bone mineralization biomarkers for women in perimenopause. Methods: Interventional double-blind placebo-control study in which 60 women in perimenopause (age range 46–48) assigned in either control (n = 30) or study (n = 30) group. The last group received 3 mg tablet of melatonin once a day at night for two months. Parameters measured were serum osteocalcin, 25(OH) vitamin D, calcium, and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1). Result: Melatonin led to significant rise (p < 0.05) in osteocalcin, serum vitamin D, serum calcium, and (CTX-1) as compared with control values. Conclusion: Melatonin showed positive effects on bone health by a significant increase in some bone mineralization biomarkers.

7. Oral Vitamin D Therapy for Chronic Plaque-Psoriasis among Iraqi Patients, Efficacy, and Safety
Hussein Abbas Al-Sultany
Background: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disorder that results from a polygenic predisposition combined with environmental triggers. Any problem in the optimal function of the skin due to psoriasis may lead to a decrease in the ability of vitamin D3 cutaneous production. Up-to-date, the effective management of psoriasis built on sufficient nutritional consumption of vitamin D, while oral intake of vitamin D in psoriasis still not fulfilled clinical necessity, and its effect still controversial. Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral vitamin D in the treatment of moderate to severe classical plaque psoriasis. Patients and methods: 76 patients enrolled in the study were allocated randomly into two groups. Group A (38 psoriasis patients) were given only topical potent corticosteroid (clobetasol propionate) therapy for 3 months’ duration, while group B (38 psoriasis patients) were taken topical potent corticosteroid (clobetasol propionate) in addition to oral vitamin D (50,000 IU weekly dose for 3 months’ duration). The severity of psoriasis was assessed monthly for the 3 months’ duration of the study basing on photography and evaluation of psoriasis area severity index (PASI) score, and vitamin D serum level was also assessed. Results: There was no significant difference in mean age, BMI, and gender between the two groups in the study. No significant difference between the mean s. Vitamin D of two groups, and also no statistical difference between PASI score of two groups. Regarding vitamin D serum level evaluation among patients in group A, it was 13.2 + 6.12 ng/mL at baseline, then after 3 months, its level was 13.6 + 3.82 ng/mL with non-significant differences between the two serum levels (improvement 3.03 + 6.21%, p = 0.62). Otherwise, serum vitamin D level among patients in group B was 13.5 + 4.16 ng/mL, then this level was significantly and constantly increased to reach 42.12 + 5.63 (improvement 212 + 47.82%, p = 0.0012), and this increment of vitamin D serum level was statistically significant inverse relationship with the improvement in PASI score (r = -0.4) throughout the 3 months’ period of study. There was a significant improvement in PASI score among patients who took in addition to the topical steroid oral vitamin D (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The oral vitamin D supplementation can be safe, effective, and cheap therapeutic modality to psoriasis patients. Other drugs used for treatment of psoriasis systemically are costly and widely side effects.

8. The Effects of Salvia officinalis Gel as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planning in Patients with Periodontitis (Clinical and Immunological Study)
Ismael W. Aljuboori, Maha Sh. Mahmood
Background: Phytotherapy is the usage of herbal species with medicinal properties for the management of various diseases. Gingivitis and periodontitis are diseases that involve the role of both the bacteria and the host immune response. Over the years, various researches have shown the importance of herbal products in the management of periodontal diseases. Aims of the study: To evaluate the efficacy of locally applied Salvia officinalis gel as adjunctive in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Subjects and methods: Fourteen patients (10 males and 4 females) with chronic periodontitis were enrolled in the present study with total number of twenty-eight periodontal pockets utilizing a split mouth design, the pockets were divided into two groups, the test group which was treated with scaling and root planning procedure and the application of the S. officinalis gel and the control group that treated with scaling and root planning only. Plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were recorded for each site. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from each site by using PerioCol paper strips. The concentration of the Transforming growth factor beta-1 in the gingival crevicular fluid was quantified by a high sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The test group demonstrated a significant reduction in GI at 1-week and 1-month after the treatment comparing to baseline (1.14 vs. 1.64, p = 0.003, and 1.21 vs. 1.64, p = 0.028, respectively), while no significant reduction in the PI at recall visits comparing to baseline. The control group demonstrated no significant reduction in (PI and GI) at recall visits comparing to baseline. Both the test and control groups demonstrated no significant reduction in the transforming growth factor-beta 1 concentration in the gingival crevicular fluid at one week after the treatment comparing to baseline, while at one month after the treatment only the test group demonstrated a significant reduction comparing to baseline (3.91 vs. 9.62, p = 0.044). Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated that the S. officinalis gel has a potential anti-inflammatory role in the treatment of chronic periodontitis by monitoring both the clinical and immunological parameters.

9. A Novel Validation of Analysis Method for Determining Nicotine Levels in Human Blood Plasma (In vitro) HPLC-UV Detector
Iyan Sopyan, Ucu Siti Hasanah, Driyanti Rahayu, Taofik Rusdiana
The necessity of nicotine analysis in blood plasma is increasing along with the increased number of smokers and nicotine poisoning cases. One of the analytical methods for nicotine is using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detector because it has been commonly owned by instance in Indonesia. To guarantee accuracy, an analytical method can be used, and it must be validated. This research was the purpose of finding out the validity of the nicotine analysis method in human blood plasma (in vitro) using HPLC with UV detection. Blood plasma samples remained treated with centrifugation procedure by protein denaturation method using acetonitrile. The compounds were analyzed using methanol and buffer acetate 0.01 M (pH 5) 85:15 v/v as a mobile phase on an octadecylsilane column 250 mm, with UV detection at 254 and 260 nm, and flow rate 0.6 mL/minutes. Parameter of analytical methods that were validated includes selectivity, accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity, limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantification (LoQ), and system suitability. According to the result, the selectivity was 2.479, repeatability expressed by its variation coefficient = 0.701%, linearity at range 5–22 μg/mL expressed by coefficient correlation (r) = 0.996. Based on the chromatogram’s area under a curve, the LoD value was found 2.021 μg/mL, LoQ value was 6.737 μg/mL, the accurate percentage was 112.49–114.12%, and precision (% CV) was 2.15–3.95%. The system suitability from retention time and chromatogram’s area under curve showed % CV 0.70 and 1.64%. According to the experiment result, all parameters meet the requirement of validation criteria.

10. Cytotoxic Activity of New Thiol Derivatives
Jalal Hassan Mohammed, Saadon Abdulla Aowda
This research included synthesized ten new compounds (1–10) based on alkyl halides and estimated their anti-cancer effectiveness. All prepared products are proven by 1H NMR and IR. The anti-cancer effect of compounds 6, 9, and 10 were assessed on MCF-7 breast cancer in human cells then WRL68 cancer cells. Compound 9 revealed to be most strong with IC50 119.2 μg/mL against MCF-7, while other compounds showed moderate anti-cancer activity. The discoveries of ponder can upgrade the understood of natural exercises of these thiols compounds.

11. Leishman’s Dye as a Novel Reagent in Spectrophotometric Determination of Chloramphenicol
Jamal Sudad Raeek Othman Nabeel Sabeeh
By reviewing the literature, there is no indication concerning the use of Leishman’s dye in evaluating drug compounds by dye-color bleaching; hence, it is the first attempt to use Leishman’s dye as a novel reagent in the estimation of chloramphenicol (CAP) by an indirect spectrophotometric method in bulk and in its pharmaceutical preparations. The method includes the use of a great amount of N-bromosuccinamide (NBS) in the acidic medium as an oxidizing agent of the drug under investigation (CAP) and then using the residual of NBS for Leishman’s dye color bleaching. The absorbance has been measured at 622 nm (the maximum absorption of Leishman’s dye). A linear relationship was obtained for the Beer’s law with the concentration ranges from 10 to 250 μg/10 mL with acceptable values of molar absorptivity 0.58 x 104 and 0.055 μ of Sandell’s sensitivity index, which mean a high sensitivity. An approved estimation of CAP in its various pharmaceutical formulations was found.

12. Development of a Simple Colorimetric Determination of Dexamethasone
Khalid Waleed S. Al-Janabi, Ali Khalil Mahmood, Hasan M. Luaibi
A simple, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and sensitive colorimetric determination for the pharmaceutical drug dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been developed by the formation of a colored complex with fluoranil. The process was sensitive and linear over the range 1 to 40 μg/mL, excellent correlation coefficient 0.9989, recovery % 99.80 ± 1.3, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.23 and 0.9 μg/mL, respectively, and good RSD ~1.63%. The experimental conditions were optimized after an intensive study. The approach was validated statistically for the quantification of the analyte in its pure and/or pharmaceutical form. Despite the proposed approach is selective, it still can be applied for the analysis of other pharmaceuticals.

13. New Approach for Sulfadiazine Toxicity Management using Carboxymethyl Cellulose Grafted Acrylamide Hydrogel
Waleed K. Abdulsahib, Safaa H. Ganduh, Nadher D. Radia, Layth S. Jasim
Sulfadiazine (SZ), a small molecule sulfonamide that also named a 2-sulfanilamido-pyrimidine. SZ is an artificial bacteriostatic antibiotic through a widespread spectrum counter to numerous gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently identified in the earthly and water environment but little acknowledgment about abiotic deprivation of these antibiotics. The SZ adsorption from aqueous solution studied in the present experiment utilizing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) grafted acrylamide (AM) hydrogel as an adsorbent. Effect of time-related to equilibrium, salts, temperature, and pH value was accomplished using kinetics and thermodynamic studies. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis accomplished for CMC-g-AM hydrogel before and after SZ adsorption. The study showed higher adsorption of the SZ on these hydrogels, and the degrees of SZ adsorption on the hydrogels decreased with increasing temperature (exothermic process). Adsorbed quantity of SZ on the surface was declined as the pH augmented. KCl’s influence on adsorption is more than that of NaCl, and the CaCO3 is more than of KCl. Spontaneous and feasible adsorption takes place, and adsorption of SZ on hydrogel fits well with the Freundlich model.

14. Cytotoxicity of Mitomycin C-Porous Silicon in Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells
Sazan M. Haidary, Nihad K. Ali, Kosar A. Omer, Fadzilah A. Abdul Majid, Emma P. Córcoles, Malarvili M. B.
Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles with pore diameter 15-20 nm were fabricated by electrochemical etching of single-crystalline Si wafers (n-type) to be used as delivery systems for the anticancer drug mitomycin C (MMC). The in vitro toxicity of the mitomycin-loaded pSi carrier was investigated on human prostate carcinoma (DU145) cells. The cells showed a decrease in viability of ~80% over a 6 h period when using mitomycin. Meanwhile, a ~55% decrease in cell viability was observed when using the pSi carrier to deliver the drug. The drug-loaded carrier showed a sustained release throughout 24 hours, with an 80% decrease in cell viability after 16 hours. This observed controlled release of mitomycin from the pSi carrier suggests a superior therapeutic effect than the direct administration of mitomycin, as it potentially minimizes the drug side effects. Results showed that the strong cytotoxic effect towards the prostate cancer cells was due to the drug and not the carrier since the mitomycin-loaded pSi carrier affected cell viability, but the pSi carrier showed no toxicity. Furthermore, it was observed that with a higher amount of drug-loaded carriers, the toxicity effect was higher, thus, allowing further control of the therapeutic effect of the carrier.

15. Development and Characterization of Controlled Release Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil/ β‑Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex
Omar Saeb Salih, Zahraa M. Hamoddi, Salam S. Taher
Objective: Matrix tablet approach is one of the delivery systems intended for poorly water-soluble drugs like candesartan cilexetil (CC). CC is a class II drug used for the treatment of hypertension. Methods: Matrix tablets from (F1x to F18z) were prepared in the presence of β‑cyclodextrin. Matrix tablet formulation ensures control release of the drug and higher dissolution by β‑cyclodextrin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study compatibility. Results: The angle of repose determination showed good flow for most of the formulas besides having good compressibility. Weight variation test for all formulas showed accepted value. Drug content measurement showed accepted values. Friability and hardness of tablets were within the allowed values. Higher tablet swelling was obtained for the formulas containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K100M (F3x and F15z), in which the ratio of the polymer was 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. In vitro release showed that F1x to F13z were studied depends on the type and amount of polymer, i.e., 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3, respectively. F1x release after 8 hours was 95%, which contains 1:1 polymer ratio in comparison to F3x, which showed 85% after 8 hours, which includes 1:3 (drug: HPMC K100). Kinetic studies showed a zero-order model. Conclusion: The use of β‑cyclodextrin modifies the release profile of the drug, and some control the more sustained-release formulas. The lower the time of the release but in a range that a sustained release of the drug was observed in comparison with the formulas prepared without β‑cyclodextrin.

16. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Cytotoxic Drugs
Qutaiba Ahmad Al Khames Aga, Yazan A. Bataineh, Hala Mousa Sbaih
The majority of anticancer drugs are recognized with a narrow therapeutic index, the area under the plasma levels vs. time curve (AUC) is the common pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter, which utilizes specifically for cytotoxic drugs. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) approach in these drugs has never been completely applied due to different reasons, for example, the use of combination chemotherapies for different malignant tumors, and the behavior of intracellular compounds; it is possible to eliminate these limitations by using specific concentrations of cytotoxic drugs and measure AUC after certain conditions. In this review article, we discussed the common TDM parameters, methods of analysis, and some of drug interactions for a group of cytotoxic drugs.

17. Formulation and evaluation of lycopene nanoparticles for breast cancer
Rajesh Khathuriya, Shailesh Sharma, Upendra K Jain, Jitender Madan
Aim: Lycopene is owned to carotenoids that manifest better pharmacological possessions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer. As an outcome of very little water solubility, it has a restricted systemic absorption after oral route. Methods: Lycopene -loaded SLNs by hot homogenization method using some alteration were formulated. The size of nanoparticles was characterized using SEM. Also, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading (DL), and drug release were calculated. Results: SEM revealed spherical SLNs. High EE and DL were procured. Conclusion: We formulated a stable lycopene-SLNs with better physicochemical properties.

18. Paper-Based Biosensor for Glucose and Paracetamol Sensing using Chitosan/Graphene Oxide Modified Electrode
Roekmono, Harsono Hadi, Hilya Nur Imtihani, Ruri Agung Wahyuono
This work presents the development of chitosan/graphene oxide modified paper-based electrode for electrochemical sensing of glucose and paracetamol. Preparation of the modified paper-based electrode was described, and several characterizations using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were carried out to evaluate the physical, electronic, and microstructural properties of chitosan/graphene oxide layer. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrode was evaluated preliminary using impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the electrochemical detection of both glucose and paracetamol in simulated urine was assessed using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Impedance data reveals that the electron transfer mechanism at the electrode/analyte solution interface occurs faster with increasing concentration of the analyte. CV-based measurements exhibit a linear response for analyte concentration ranging between 2.5 and 100 μM. In addition, irrespective of the analyte, the sensitivity increases with an additional fraction of graphene oxide in the modified paper-based electrode. The highest sensitivity for glucose sensing is 4.4 mA.mM-1, while the highest sensitivity for paracetamol sensing is 16 mA.mM-1 by using electrode coated with chitosan/graphene oxide (5%, % w) composites.

19. The Effect of the Comparison of Sodium Alginate-Gelatin Levels on Microspheres Characteristics (Produced by Ionic Gelation Method Aerosolized Technique)
Tutiek Purwanti, Rico Andre Satriawan, Dewi Melani Hariyadi
The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of concentration ratio of sodium alginate-gelatin on the characteristics of microspheres. Microspheres were prepared with ionotropic gelation methods aerosolization technique with sodium alginate and gelatin as polymer matrixes and calcium chloride (1.5 M) as the cross-linker and then dried using freeze dryer. The concentration ratio of sodium alginate-gelatin that was used to make microsphere was divided into F1: (2.25:0.25)%, F2: (1.75:0.75)%, and F3: (1.25:1.25)%. Resulting microspheres were characterized in terms of characteristics (yield, particle size, and swelling index). The result showed that there was an increase in yield and particle size as sodium alginate concentration increased on formula. The statistical test showed the concentration ratio of sodium alginate-gelatine showed a significant meaning different from the yield and particle size. The swelling index shows that the swelling peak of microspheres became more quickly with increased sodium alginate concentration.

20. Genetic Sequence of Drug-Resistant Haemophilus influenza Isolated from Respiratory Tract Infections
Yousor Majid Jameel, Rana S. Nasir
This work was done during the period from 1st May 2019 to 15th January 2020. By using the concentration of the inhibitor that was carried out for the Haemophilus influenza bacteria, isolates were identified that 50 samples of bacterial colonies of these bacteria, it was found that all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime, pipracilline, cefotoxone, erythromycin, and azithromycin. The counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) test and the latex agglutination method have been employed for this purpose. These tests have aided in establishing a rapid diagnosis of H. influenzae type b infections in some cases, the positive isolates were identified for those infected with the bacteria were CCIE 7/10, 3/3, 0/5, 0/1, and 0/4. While the co-agglutination was 6/10, 3/3, 0/5, 0/1, and 0/4. The standard phenol/ chloroform extraction was used to purify DNA from the sputum’s pellet, followed by precipitation of ethanol. Each reaction set involved sterile water in place of DNA as a negative control. There is a change in the genetic sequence of drug-resistant isolates, CTT to CTA and TTT to TAT.

21. New PVC ion selective electrode for potentiometric analysis of propranolol in its pharmaceutical formulations and human fluids
Yusur Q. Ismaeel, Bashaer A. Al-Phalahy
New simple, sensitive and rapid method for the determination of propranolol in the pharmaceutical preparations and human fluids. The Buildup and electrochemical response characteristics of a poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) selective membrane electrode for the determination of (POP) are described in this research. The proposed electrodes was composed of Propranolol-Bromophenol blue as ion-exchanger and Di-butyl phthalate (DBPH) (electrode A), tris (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) (electrode B) and ortho-nitrophenyloctylether (ONPOE) (electrode C) as plasticizers. The slope was 50.94, 57.77, and 49.75 mV/decade for electrode A, B and C. the linear range was (5×10-5 – 1×10-2), (1×10-4- 1×10-2) and (5×10-5 – 1×10-2) M, a detection limit of (4.2×10-5), (8.9×10-5) and (4.8×10-5) M, lifetime of 21, 42, and 1 day, respectively. Electrode B gives the best results, so the application of pharmaceutical and human fluids was based upon this electrode, the recovery percentage was 103, 101, 102.5, and 104 for POP tablet 10mg, tablet 40mg, urine and plasma by standard addition method respectively.


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