International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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1. Preparation and In-vitro Evaluation of Fe3O4 Encapsulated by Chitosan Loaded Capecitabine Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Breast Cancer
Shanmuganathan S, Nigma Chandra S, Anbarasan B, Harika B
Nanoparticulate Carriers which is biodegradable, biocompatible and bio adhesive have significant feasible applications for administration of therapeutic molecules. The present study was aimed to formulate and optimise Capecitabine loaded Chitosan-Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and to study the in-vitro evaluation by sigma dialysis method. Capecitabine loaded chitosan – Fe3O4 nanoparticles batches with different ratios of drug: polymer (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6) were prepared by ionic gelation method. Increase in polymer concentration increases the nanoparticle drug content. Entrapment efficiency was 60.12% with drug to polymer ratio F3 (1:3). In-vitro release was found to be 65.20% for 12 hrs. Capecitabine from chitosan- Fe3O4 nanoparticles SEM image reveals discrete spherical structure and particles with size range of 100-500nm. FTIR studies represent the functional groups present with no characteristics change in formulations. Samples stored at refrigerator conditions showed better stability compared with samples kept at other conditions during 8 weeks of storage.

2. Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of Resealed Erythrocytes as A New Trend in Treatment of Asthma
Mohammed F Ibrahim, Alaa Zaky, Mohsen I Afouna, Ahmed M Samy
Carrier erythrocytes are emerging as one of the most promising biological drug delivery systems investigated in recent decades. Beside its biocompatibility, biodegradability and ability to circulate throughout the body, it has the ability to perform extended release system of the drug for a long period. The ultimate goal of this study is to introduce a new carrier system for Salbutamol, maintaining suitable blood levels for a long time, as atrial to resolve the problems of nocturnal asthma medication Therefore in this work we study the effect of time, temperature as well as concentration on the loading of salbutamol in human erythrocytes to be used as systemic sustained release delivery system for this drug. After the loading process is performed the carrier erythrocytes were physically and cellulary characterized. Also, the in vitro release of salbutamol from carrier erythrocytes was studied over time interval. From the results it was found that, human erythrocytes have been successfully loaded with salbutamol using endocytosis method either at 25 Co or at 37 Co. The highest loaded amount was 3.5 mg/ml and 6.5 mg/ml respectively. Moreover, the percent of cells recovery is 90.7± 1.64%. Hematological parameters and osmotic fragility behavior of salbutamol loaded erythrocytes were similar that of native erythrocytes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the salbutamol loaded cells has moderate change in the morphology. Salbutamol releasing from carrier cell was 43% after 36 hours in phosphate buffer saline. The releasing pattern of the drug from loaded erythrocytes showed initial burst release in the first hour followed by a very slow release, obeying zero order kinetics. It concluded that salbutamol is successfully entrapped into erythrocytes with acceptable loading parameters and moderate morphological changes, this suggesting that erythrocytes can be used as prolonged release carrier for salbutamol.

3. Development and Validation A Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Quantitative Estimation of Ramipril Drug Content from Formulated Dosage Form
Raju Chandra, Manisha Pant, Harchan Singh, Deepak Kumar, Ashwani Sanghi
A reliable and reproducible reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the quantitative determination of Remipril drug content from marketed bulk tablets. The active ingredient of Remipril separation achieved with C18 column using the methanol water mobile phase in the ratio of 40:60 (v/v). The active ingredient of the drug content quantify with UV detector at 215 nm. The retention time of Remipril is 5.63 min. A good linearity relation (R2=0.999) was obtained between drug concentration and average peak areas. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the instrument were calculated 0.03 and 0.09 µg/mL, respectively. The accuracy of the method validation was determined 102.72% by recoveries method.

4. Formulation of Chloramphenicol In Situ Ophthalmic Gels Using Different Matrix Combinations
Chaerunisaa A Y, Warya S, Putri L N, Haque R N
In situ ophthalmic gel is solution which form a gel when it is placed onto the eyes. It is intended to have a longer contact time in order to improve the response of therapy. In this experiment, In situ ophthalmic gels were formulated by using Chloramphenicol 0.5% and matrix combination of either 0.4% Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose (HPC) or 0.2% Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) with Sodium Alginate 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6%.  All formulas were sterilized by autoclave at 1150C for 30 minutes. Physical evaluation including organoleptic, pH, viscosity, and drug content showed that all formulas fulfilled the ophthalmic gel requirements according to USP and Indonesian Pharmacopoiea. From rheological study, it can be concluded that the gels had pseudoplastic flow. Either matrix combination of HPC or HPMC with sodium alginate were in solution form during storage and formed a gel once contacted with Simulated Tear Fluids (STF) at 37oC, which reflected eyes condition. Chloramphenicol release from all in situ gels formulations showed sustained release profiles, and 80% release of drugs were retarded to four hours. Antibiotic potency tests of ophthalmic in situ gels showed that formulation with HPC and sodium alginate matrix (F1, F2 and F3) had potency of 99.22, 98.45, and 96.97% against Staphylococcus aureus as well as 96.46, 96.68, and 96.49% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while that with HPMC and sodium alginate matrix (F4, F5 and F6) had potency of 99.87, 98.45 and 95.58 against Staphylococcus aureus as well as 97.66, 95.05 and 94.42% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It can be concluded that in situ gel system with either HPC or HPMC in combination with sodium alginate provide sustained release of chloramphenicol. Formulation process, including sterilization did not affect antibiotic potency since it remained in the range of potency value requirements.

5. Formualtion and Evaluation of Punica Topical Gel for its Content of Gallic Acid and Anti-Microbial Study
Tejaswi Chalke, Krishna Sharma, S K Nagare, S S Jirge
Dried, powdered peel of Punica granatum was extracted with aqueous as solvent using soxhlet. Topical formulation gels were formulated with different combination of polymers and aqueous extract of punica. These formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters, viscosity, spreadability, gallic acid content (by HPLC) and antimicrobial activity. Gel was successfully formulated and evaluated for the pharmaceutical parameters of the formulation and also for the content of gallic acid (3.5%). The gel gave very well anti bacterial and anti fungal activity. The in-house punica gel showed most effective antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, K. Pneumonia,  A. niger.

6. Optimization of Composition and Process for Preparing Metaxalone Nanosuspension using Factorial Design
Lakshmi Prasanna Gubbala, Srinivas Arutla, Vobalaboina Venkateshwarlu
In the current study, the composition and process for preparing the nanosuspension of metaxalone (MX) has been optimized by using design of experiments (DOE). MX is skeletal muscle relaxant and belongs to BCS class II1, the class wherein in-vivo drug dissolution is a rate-limiting step for drug absorption2. High pressure homogenization (HPH) method was used to prepare the nanosuspension and Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as surface stabilizers.  For optimization studies three square (32) factorial design was used. For the composition optimization, concentration of the stabilizers and for process optimization homogenization time and pressure are used as independent variables. The dependent variables were particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP). The relationship between the dependent and independent variables was studied by response surface plots and contour plots. From the data it has been observed that 2.5 % HPMC, 0.5 % SLS were optimum concentrations and 1000 bar pressure, 120 minutes of homogenization were optimum process conditions producing least PS, PDI and high zeta potential. The optimized nano composition prepared by using optimum process conditions was observed to release more than 80 % within 30 minutes and found to be stable after 3 months of storage at room temperature.  The solid state characterization (XRD, DSC) data of spray dried nanoparticles of the optimized composition has shown retention of drug crystallinity. IR has shown drug is compatible with the excipients used. SEM photograph has shown spherical drug nanoparticles. The optimization studies by applying the DOE resulted in considerable decrease in the experimentation work to achieve the stable nanosuspension with desired parameters such as PS, PDI and ZP.

7. A Systemic Review on Ophthalmic Hydrogel in Contact Lenses
Kurniawansyah S. Insan, Mita R. Soraya
There has been a recent advances in the field of microbiology where hydrogels contact lenses can be extend as the new ophthalmic drug delivery. Rather than the conventional eye drops, these hydrogels can minimize the side effect also prolonged the residence time of drug. Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, and polymeric networks capable of absorbing great volume of water and biological fluid. Hydrogel becomes the leading material for contact lenses because its biocompatibility and transparent characteristic. The purpose of this article is to review on few types of ophthalmic hydrogel in contact lenses and its application.

8. Formulation and Evaluation Gel from Extract of Plumbago Indica for Acne
Darshpreet Kaur, Shyam Baboo Prasad, Surajpal Verma
In current study, an attempt has been taken for formulation and evaluation acetone extract of  Plumbago indica for antiacne activity. The gel containing acetone extract of Plumbago indica was prepared by adding gel-forming material in sterile distilled water while the mixture was stirred and allowed to stand to hydrate. Extract was added in PEG 400 and polyethylene glycol mixture. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben were added as the preservative and triethanolamine was added as the neutralizer. The anti-acne activity was investigated against two causative bacteria, i.e., Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and yeast (Malassezia furfur) by the well diffusion method. The result showed that gel passes all test of evaluation and was found to be active against acne causing microorganisms. Plumbago indica extract based gel has potential activity against acne-causing microorganism.

9. Biocompatibility of Silver Nanobioconjugates From Vitis vinifera Seeds and its Major Component Resveratrol
R. Preethi, P.R. Padma
The study focused on the green synthesis of silver nanobioconjugates (AgNPs) from phenolic-rich fruit source, Vitis vinifera seed extract and its major component phenolic, resveratrol respectively. Sunlight exposure for 20 minutes was the method of choice for the synthesis of AgNPs  of the extract as well as the phenolic, resveratrol.  The synthesized nanobioconjugates were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX),   X-ray diffraction (XRD), Polydispersity index, Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The reduction of silver ions was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy with peaks at 440nm for both nanobioconjugates synthesized from seed extract and compound. The nanobioconjugates showed the spherical in shape with 14-35nm in size and crystalline in nature. The conjugates are well dispersed with 0.301 and 0.287 polydispersity index and the zeta potential range at -13.6 and -14.3mV for stability. The FTRI data proved that the components in grape seeds act as good reductants and stabilizers for the silver nanobioconjugate synthesis. All the synthesized nanobioconjugates exhibited steady and sustained release of the medicinal components conjugated, proving their druggability, and were biocompatible with human cells, demonstrating their safety. The findings of the study validate the anticancer properties of silver nanobioconjugates of Vitis vinifera and its active component resveratrol.

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