International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. A Pattern of Bacterial Infections in Acute Leukemia Patients with Neutropenic Fever in Middle Euphrates Region of Iraq
Ahmed Mjali, Bushra N. H. Al Baroodi, Anmar Alharganee
Our research aims to evaluate causative bacterial microorganisms in acute leukemia patients with neutropenic fever in the Al-Hussein cancer center at Karbala province of Iraq. Patients and methods: Data was collected prospectively from 59 patients with acute leukemia, hospitalized for neutropenic fever from December 2016 till February 2020. Results: Out of fifty-nine patients with acute leukemia, 36 patients (61.02%) were female, and 23 patients (38.98%) were male. Twenty-two patients (37.29%) were ALL type, and 37 patients (62.71%) were AML type. Blood was the common site of infection at 27 patients (45.76%), followed by sputum at 12 patients (20.34%), skin infection with 11 patients (18.64%), urine infection with 5 patients (8.48%), and stool infection 4 patients (6.78%). The most common types of bacteria were gram-negative that infected 59.32% of total patients (E. coli was the most common type). Whereas gram-positive bacteria-infected was 40.68% of the total patients (streptococcus pneumonia was the most common type). Conclusion: Gram-negative microorganisms are the most common bacterial microorganism in our center. Thus, gram-positive infections remain a matter of serious concern.

2. Immune Molecular Characterization of NOD Like Receptors (NOD1, NOD2) in some Immune Cells of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection
Hassan Mazin, Ali H. Alwan
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered the second bacterial infection globally that causes harmful and bad effects on human health. This study was performed on 62 isolates and blood patients. Definitive diagnosis of positive UTI patients was based on the growth of urine bacteria on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Depending on the characteristic examination, morphological of the colonies phenotypic and microscopic when grown in differential and selective media, as well as biochemical tests, 31 isolates identified as E.coli (45.16%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.35%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.67%), Enterobacter spp. (9.67%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.45%), Enterococcus spp.(3.22%), Acinetobacter spp. (3.22%) and proteus spp. (3.22%). Genotypic detection was done by using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) gene by using four primers responsible for the inflammatory response in the human body. All four primers designed for the human NOD2 gene were 100% positive. Sequencing for 60 samples of NOD2 gene PCR products was done to detect variations in genes of the Iraqi population which 11 SNPs have been detected and From all the 11 SNPs detected, it showed 121 of 623 samples have heterozygous nucleotides. Serum of 30 patients and 28 healthy controls with age range (14–88) years and for both genders were included to measure the level of IL-18 and TNF-α as an immunological parameter for NOD-like receptor activation against UTIs. The findings of comparison between patients and healthy control for TNF-α level showed there is a significant correlation in group B (40–64) years and C (65–88) years, (P-value 0.003 and 0.01). For IL-18 level, it showed there are significant in the group C (65–88) years, (p-value = 0.04).

3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Theoretical Study of New Schiff bases from (S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl propanoic acid as Initial Material of 1,3-Oxazepine-1,5-dione
Ali K. A. Al-Naseeri, Hanaa K. Saleh, Ibtisam K. Jassim
The present investigation introduced four Schiff bases derived from (S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid, featured by the substituted benzaldehyde. These bases were utilized to prepare eight compounds of 1,3-oxazepine by direct condensation with phthalic anhydride and tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. The reactions were watched with thin layer chromatography (TLC) and all structures were characterized utilizing spectroscopy techniques like Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and some of them were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), and CHN analysis techniques. Theory for the electronic structures was purposed to study the effects of substituted benzaldehyde on the electronic structure of prepared Schiff base by utilizing the Gaussian program. Theoretical outcomes point out that there is the effect of substituted groups on HOMO and LUMO energies of the prepared compounds.

4. The Association of Toxoplasmosis and the Levels of IL-10 and IL-12 in Women with Breast Cancer
Alia K. Kanash, Jameel J. Yousif
The current study conducted during the period from October 2019 to April 2020 in the Department of Biology/ Faculty of Education for Girls/ University of Kufa, which aims to investigate the association of infection with the Toxoplasma gondii on the concentration of IL-10 and IL-12 in women with breast cancer in Al Najaf Governorate. The study included 49 serum samples belonging to women with breast cancer and 30 serum samples for healthy women who represented the control group. In both groups, the women ranged between (30–70) years. IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii parasite and IL-10, IL-12 levels were tested for all serum samples using ELISA technique. The results showed that the highest percentage was for IgG-positive samples, which amounted to 57.14%, while the lowest percentage was for IgM- positive samples and IgM & IgG – positive samples that reached 24.5%. The results also showed that the infection with T. gondii has a significant effect at the level P ≤ 0.05 in the rate of concentration of IL-10, IL-12, which was (359+28.3, 21+2.4) pg/mL respectively, compared to the control group that was (118+11.8, 8+1.04,) pg/mL, respectively. The conclusion from this study that most infections with T. gondii parasite were chronic due to the high percentage of IgG-positive cases and that the parasites had a significant effect in stimulating the cellular immune response by increasing the level of IL-10 and IL-12 in women with breast cancer.

5. Determination of Neomycin Sulphate (NS) based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPS) Solid-Phase used (2-Hydroxy Ethyl Methacrylate, Acrylamide) Functional Monomers
Menaa A. Al-Abbasi, Nabeel Mohammed, Yehya K. Al-Bayati
Neomycin Sulphate (NS) selective molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were based on ion-pair by prepared (four polymers MIPs using NS as the template a well as 2-Hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (2-HEMAC), Acrylamide (AAM) as a monomer, used Divinyl Benzene (DVB) as cross-linker and used benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator. NIPs were prepared by using the same composition of MIPs except for the template (NS). The MIPs were prepared using the variation ratio of monomer and cross-linker. These MIPs applicant as solid-phase extraction for determination (NS) in pharmaceutical preparation used UV-Spectrophotometer as detector.the results gave a good response, where the reconstruction percentage Rec% took values of (97.857909–100.735053) %, and RSD% took values of (0.041720–0.438022) % of (NS) drug for the Neomycin Sulphate pharmaceutical.

6. Preparation and Characterization of Surface Active Chitosan Derivative
Zainab Nadhum Aljashaami, Khalid Aiedeh
In this research, synthesizing of two derivatives of chitosan, namely lauroyl chitosan with two different concentrations (5 and 15%) of substitution, was performed. The reaction of low chitosan molecular weight was carried out with different fatty acid chlorides. Characterization of The chemical structure of the derivatives was conducted utilizing 1HNMR and FTIR. Following that, an investigation of the physical properties of the prepared compounds utilizing thermal analysis (DSC/TGA) techniques. The interfacial analysis of aqueous solutions showed that Lauroyl chitosan derivatives exhibit weak amphiphilic behavior and hard to self-aggregate and to form micelle due to the length of Lauroyl (12 carbons). Cytotoxicity examination was performed via 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to verify particle applicability as a drug carrier, and all Chitosan derivatives were found non-toxic on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

7. Synthesis and Diagnosis of Some Derivatives of 1,2,4- Triazole-3- Dicarboxylic Acid and Study their Biological Activity
Qadoori Z. Khalaf, Abdulrahman R. Mahmood, Mohamad R.
Newly prepared derivatives of Heterocyclic of dicarboxylic acid include 1, 2, 4-Triazoledicarboxylic acid. Thiocarbohydrazine (TCH) reacts with aliphatic and aromatic dicarboxylic acids, and when these resulting compounds interact with compounds containing a group of carbonyl they result in Schiff base, which are very important in the industrial and medical fields and the acids used (oxalic acid, succinic, terephthalic) to prepare the triazole, then the reaction with Para-chlorobenzendihaide, and some physical properties were measured for these products. The biological activity of the prepared compounds has been studied, and it has been shown that they have different effects on the bacteria, compounds prepared with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and hydrogen-1 Nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR) technologies. 

8. Alteration in Biochemical Levels and mRNA Expression of Specific Antioxidant Enzymes in Pb-exposed Cyprinus carpio L. Liver
Abeer G. Al-Sawafi
Considering the toxicity and possible danger to humans and aquatic environments posed by heavy metals. The study examines adverse changes in glycogen and glucose reserves from sublethal concentrations of lead (Pb), and mRNA control of antioxidant enzymes in fish liver, Cyprinus carpio L. Pb’s LC50 was measured for 96 hours as 8.98 ppm with the confidence limits of 95 %. The fish expose to (T1:0.599, T2: 0.898, and T3: 1.797) ppm for 1, 7, and 14 days. The biochemical analysis revealed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver increased significantly comparable to control (P < 0.0001). Whereas the levels of glycogen and glucose measured in the fish liver homogenates decreased gradually (P < 0.05) over the experimental duration and substantial differences (P < 0.05) occurred between the days of exposure. Finally, using Pb-exposed fish liver tissue, comparable gene expression evaluated using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The findings show that exposure to this metal resulted in significant changes in gene expression, and CYP1A enhanced in response to treatment with Pb-T3. Expression of genes for the Cu-Zn SOD, Mn-SOD, and GPx genes, inhibited with exposure to T3-Pb, may result from harmful effects and metal toxicity, which increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress rates. The results of this study offer basic evidence on the impacts of metal emissions on aquatic environments for future studies, which will be a significant step towards a systematic risk evaluation of environmental stressors on aquatic organisms.

9. Oxidative Stress Status in Sera of Type 2 Diabetic Iraqi Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases
Ahmed K. Atheeb, Saba Z. Hussein, Saif S. Al-Mudhaffar
The leading cause of morbidity among patients with diabetes is cardiovascular complications, and coronary artery disease is the most common cause of mortality. This study was carried out to look at the differences in the oxidative stress status in sera of Iraqi patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in the presence and absence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Thus, to achieve that, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI), as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Uric acid (UA), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) were measured in two patients groups and the healthy individuals. The study was included a total of 90 subjects divided into three groups: 30 CAD patients with T2DM (G1), 30 CAD patients without T2DM (G2), and 30 healthy as a control group (C). The results showed that the total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), oxLDL, and MDA levels were highly significant increase (p < 0.001) in (G1 & G2) groups as compared to the C group as well as a highly significant increase in G1 compared to G2. A highly significant decrease was observed in TAS and UA levels in G1 & G2 groups in comparison with the C group, while there was no significant difference between G1 and G2 groups in levels of TAS and UA. Therefore, the variation in the oxidative stress status in sera of Iraqi CAD patients with and without T2DM, supports the possibility that OS plays a vital role in developing CAD and the pathogenesis of T2DM.

10. Evaluation of Malondialdehyde, C-reactive Protein and DNA Damage Related with the Smoking Habit by Comet Assay in Iraq
Worood Kamil Shalash, Zahraa H. M. Kadri
The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP), an oxidative stress marker (Malondialdehyde; MDA), and DNA damage assessed by comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis, SCG) in smokers and non-smokers. The comet assay score was analyzed by image software using three parameters for measuring DNA damage which were tail length, tail DNA %, and tail moment. SCG is commonly used as an in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity test. Because of its ability to detect different forms of DNA damage and its simplicity of application, the technique is being increasingly used in human biomonitoring. The test was performed on blood samples from smokers and non-smokers to better characterize the comet assay suitability for biomonitoring. A total 123 males who were 21–30 years; they were randomly selected and distributed in three groups (40 non-smokers (consider as controls), 44 narghile-smokers, and 39 cigarette-smokers). The results showed there was a significant increase in both CRP and MDA levels in narghile and cigarette-smokers compared to non-smokers as well as the comet assay results showed augment in DNA damage in both smoker groups compared to non-smokers.

11. Selective Separation of Warfarin Sodium based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer used Different Functional Monomers
Aseel S. Mansoor, Yehya K. Al-Bayati
Liquid electrodes of warfarin-imprinted polymers synthesized based on precipitation polymerization mechanism. The synthesis of MIP is based on using Warfarin Sodium (WFS) as a template. Vinyl acetate (VA) and 1-vinylimidizol (VIZ) as a monomer, N, N-methylene bis-acrylamide (MBAA) as a cross-linker and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator in the polymerization process. The di-butyl subacute (DBS) and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) using as plasticizers in PVC matrix. The characteristics properties of the electrodes membranes (WFS-VA+DBS), (WFS-VA+DOP), (WFS-VIZ+DBS), and (WFS-VIZ+DOP) were studied, including linearity, slope, correlation coefficients, and limit of detection; the results showed that the membranes prepared gave a linear range from (5×10-4-1×10-1, 1×10-3-1×10-1, 1×10-4-1×10-1, and 1×10-4-1×10-1) M, respectively, with slops of (-18.72, -18.2,-20.67, and -21.09) as for the correlation coefficients are (0.9699, 0.9958, 0.9997, and 0.998) and the detection limit it was (6.5×10-4, 7×10-4, 7.8×10-4, and 7.5×10-4) M respectively, the selectivity coefficient was measurements using analysis of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and tri-sodium citrate (TSC), and the proposed electrodes were successfully applied to estimate warfarin in commercial drugs.

12. A Synthesis of New Liquid Electrodes for the Determination of Ibuprofen, based on a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer
Mohammed M. Al-Nisani, Yehya K. Al-Bayati, Mohammed E. Osman
Liquid electrodes of Ibuprofen (IBP) imprinted polymer were synthesis based on precipitation polymerization mechanism. The molecularly imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) polymers were synthesized using IBP as a template. By 1-Vinylimidazole (VIZ) and Styrene as monomers, Ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate (EGDMA) cross-linkers and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator. The molecularly imprinted membranes were synthesis using Di-octyl phthalate(DOPH) Nitro benzene (NB), Di-butyl phthalate (DBPH), and Di-butyl Sebacate (DBS) plasticizers in PVC matrix. The slopes and limit of detection of liquid electrodes obtained from the calibration curves ranged from (30.5, 29.9) (19.003, 20.46) mV/decade and 1.2 x 10-7–2.3 x 10-8 and 7 × 10-7, 7.1 × 10-7 M, respectively and the response time was about 60 seconds. The liquid electrodes were filled with a typical 10-1 M drug solution and demonstrated a consistent response across a pH scale of 1 to 10, as well as good selectivity across a wide range of species. State-of-the-art electrodes have been successfully used to detect Ibp in pharmaceutical samples without any time-consuming pre-treatment steps.

13. A Statistical Study to Determine the Zinc Mineral Deficiency among Iraqi Women in 2019: Baghdad City as a Model
Taymoor H. Nussrat
The percentage of zinc mineral deficiency was investigated in this research via a statistical study among women in Baghdad. This deficiency with some chronic and common diseases of the patients included in the study, was determined. In the first step of this research, data on this deficiency were collected from several private clinics and hospitals in Baghdad for a sample of women who conducted the plasma zinc blood test. The number of women surveyed was 800 during the year 2019, and the results obtained were classified according to the normal percentage of this test. In contrast, the second step dealt with detecting the relation between the deficiency of zinc mineral for the patients surveyed in the study with the two most common chronic diseases, diabetes and hypertension, and the relationship between the disease and muscle fatigue and sleep disorders alone. The statistical study results indicated that the level of zinc mineral was within the normal range (Sufficient) in 32.25% of the women in the study sample, and 51.125% had a deficiency (Insufficient) in zinc mineral. In comparison, 16.625% of women had a severe deficiency (Deficiency) in zinc mineral. On the other hand, 39.097% of women with a normal level were suffering from hypertension, while diabetes was the prevalent disease in women who suffer from insufficient and deficiency of zinc mineral, which indicates a relationship between this disease and a deficiency of zinc mineral in women. While sleep disorders and muscle fatigue, they were distributed in approximate levels in all women surveyed. The months of summer season, which are May, June, July, and August, recorded the highest rates of zinc mineral deficiency among women in the city of Baghdad during 2019, while the months of winter season were the lowest, whereas the spring and autumn months were of closely levels.

14. The Investigation of Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Apoptotic Effects of Satureja Cilicica P.H. Davis Methanolic Extracts
Ulkir A. Abbas, Tuna Uysal, Ela N. Sezer
Species belonging to the genus Satureja have been used traditionally in the treatment of many diseases. Satureja cilicica, an endemic plant, is known as thyme or henna in Turkey, and it grows in Konya, Niğde, Adana, and Hatay. Also, the plant has antimicrobial and antifungal effects. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of methanolic extracts obtained from S.cilicica and the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on colon cancer cell line were investigated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test was used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test for antimicrobial effect and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test to determine cytotoxic effects. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) evaluated expression levels of two pro-apoptotic gene regions. As a result, it was found that methanolic extract had antioxidant and antimicrobial potential, showed a cytotoxic effect on colorectal cancer cell line and increased expression levels of pro-apoptotic gene regions studied.

15. Formulation and Characterization of Anti-fungal (Posaconazole) O/W Nanoemulsion
Sanarya th. Nasser, Alaa A. Abdulrassol
This research aims to prepare and evaluate posaconazole nanoemulsion to improve its solubility and release. Nanoemulsion was prepared by titration method and subjected to ultra-sonication to reach nano-size. Based on the solubility study, capmul mcm was selected as an oil phase, tween -80, and Cremophor EL as a surfactant, while methanol and transcutol –p represent the co-surfactant s-mixture. Stability study, light transmittance, particle size, polydispersibility, zeta potential, drug content were investigated. The optimum nanoemulsion formula (F11) consisting capmul mcm, cremophor EL, transcutol–p, and deionized water (DW), had 17.4 nm, 0.235, 45.73mv particle size, polydispersibility, and zeta potential, respectively. This formula shows 92.27% of drug release during 8hr which is considered a significant improvement compared to posaconazole suspension that gave only 18.19%.

16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulation via Schiff base Reaction using Prepared Organic Reagents
Shahla J. Shakkor, Nabeel J. Aead, Mohsin H. Baker
This study dealt with the preparation of new organic reagents and used them in the spectrophotometric determination of trimethoprim (TMP), where a simple, sensitive, and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of trimethoprim in aqueous solutions. The method is based on Schiff’s base formation, which is achieved by coupling of the drug with a prepared organic reagent in an acidic medium to yield a color product exhibiting maximum absorbance at 573 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range 2–24 μg/mL, with a molar absorptivity 1.437 x 104 and Sandell’s index of 0.0202 μ The average recovery is 100.82, and the relative standard deviation is less than 5%, with a detection limit of 0.0497 μg/mL. This method has been applied successfully to the determination of trimethoprim in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets), and included the use of trimethoprim as the basic nucleus to prepare a number of new derivatives (Schiff’s base) by reaction with these organic reagents. Also contain characterization of the prepared compounds by multiple spectral methods, including the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the 1H-NMR nuclear spectrum, and the carbon magnetic resonance spectrum (13C-NMR).

17. Oral Cavity Microbiome as Infectious Agents: Iraqi Kocuria Rosea
Samar M. Mohammed
Oral microbiota has a significant effect on human health, representing an indicator of oral and systematic health problems. Kocuria spp. are gram-positive bacteria isolated from healthy people as oral flora; the main species of this study were to enlighten variation in bacterial attitude in Iraqi people from nonpathogenic in healthy samples to pathogenic in patients samples mostly with chronic disease. Oral swabs were collected from the oral cavity 25% of third-grade students, cultivated under aerobic conditions, isolates have been identified, and susceptibility to different antibiotics was determined using Vitek 2 system GP version 08.01. Data of the experiment samples were collected and analyzed. Kocuria rosea (K. rosea) VITEK results declared Antibiotic susceptibility as resistance to Polymixin B, Bacitracin, Novobiocin, Optochin, and O/129 (comp.vibrio.) also proved it’s D-mannose negative, which attributes to bacterial adherence ability. In addition to previously known biofilm formation ability and “Kocuran” production, all these facts indicate the capability of Kocuria to initiate infection (particularly in immunocompromised, immunosuppressed, and immunocomplete patients) and medical complications of irreversible damage which required argent protocols, these varied virulence factors within species encouraging studies on a genetic level, pathogenicity, and treatments. Iraqi records highly frequent site of infection was kidney compering to international records, were bloodstream, kidney 37% and 24% respectively (χ2) = 11.262**, While developed disease varies, CRB and CAPD-related peritonitis were the highest frequent 25% (χ2) = 8.910**, Comorbidity disease was Kidney diseases 28%, Diabetes mellitus 14%, (χ2) = 8.263 **, an effective treatment used was Vancomycin 24% and Amikacine 10%. (χ2) = 11.947 **.

18. Hepatic Metabolomic Profile of Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate in Hyperlipidemic Rats
Samer H. Ahmed, Inam S. Arif, Muthanna I. Al-Ezzi
Background: Metabolomics is an international technique used in clinical practice to predict or evaluate diseases by studying the endogenous level of small molecule metabolites. The lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin (ATO), fenofibrate (FEN), and ATO+FEN in hyperlipidemia induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were studied by metabolomics technology using Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as an analytical tool. Objective: The aim of this research is to study the metabolomic profile of ATO, FEN, and ATO + FEN in hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Male adult Wistar rats (30) allocated into five groups (6 animals each): were fed with HCD for 8 weeks to produce a model of hyperlipidemia, then animals treated with 1-normal control (saline); 2- Model control (saline); 3-ATO group (10 mg/kg/day); 4-FEN (150 mg/kg/day); 5- ATO+ FEN (10,150 mg/kg/day respectively) for an extra two weeks orally. Fasting blood samples were gathered at the end of the experiment (week 10) from each rat via retro-orbital center used in the metabolomic analysis. Results: Principal component analysis (PCA) score plot analysis resulted in distinguished metabolic profiles in relation to both the HCD and the treatments given. In the hyperlipidemia rats, the major metabolites altered were: cholesterol, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, ornithine, phenylalanine, galactose, D-glucose and pyruvic acid. The plasma phenylalanine level dropped after consumption of HCD and recovered by FEN, while in ATO and ATO + FEN groups were not recovered. The plasma linoleic acid level dropped after consumption of HCD and recovered by ATO, FEN, and ATO+FEN, but by ATO reversed to the highest concentration. Conclusion: The present study identified new series of potential biomarkers (metabolites) to describe the metabolic consequences of hyperlipidemia during the progression of the disease and the course of treatment such as: acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, ornithine, phenylalanine, galactose, D-glucose and pyruvic acid; which will help in discussing the predicted effects and side effects.

19. Spectrophotometric Methods for Estimation of Metformine HCl and Sitagliptin Phosphate Drugs in Bulk and Some Pharmaceutical Preparations
Abdulbari Mahdi, Dalil M. Hameed, Aula M. Al Hindawi, Nahawad H. Najm
The present study aimed to develop a method for detecting metformin hydrochloric (m.t.f) and sitagliptin (s.t.g) concentration. The method depended on estimation the absorbance of m.t.f and s.f.g wavelength 238 nm and 260 nm respectively concentration range was 1 to 24 ppm for (m.t. f) and (s.t.g). It was ranged from 12.5 to 600 ppm; the obtained results were analyzed statistically by using f-and t-test. The current methods were successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. It is proven that the method is sensitive and precisely for determinations of (mt.f) and (s.t.g) a various pharmaceutical formulation. Keywords: Metformin Hydrochloric, Pharmaceutical Preparations, Sitagliptin Phosphate.

20.Determination of Ofloxacin in Pure and Pharmaceutical Formulation using Reagent 2-amino-6-Nitrobenzothiazole by Visible Spectrophotometric Method
Amal H. Mhemeed
A Simple, accurate, and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed to rapidly determine ofloxacin (OFX) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The visible spectrophotometric method was based on forming an Orange Yellow-colored complex between the OFX and 2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole (ANB) at pH 5.2 and 80 ± 5ºC in 5 minutes, and λmax at 442 nm. The effects of analytical parameters on the reported system were investigated. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1.80-86.72 μg/ mL, with a percentage relative standard deviation not exceed ± 2.54, and the molar absorptivity coefficients were 3.952×103 (L/ Interferences of the other ingredients and excipients were not observed; the results showed that the developed method with the accuracy and sensitivity highs.

21. Theoretical Study and Biological Activity of [Clotrimazole,7-[2-(Benzimidazolyl) AZO] 8- hydroxyl Quinoline] by Using (DFT) and (PM3) Method
Amar T. Musa, Khalida Abaid, Faryal Majeed
Imidazole medications have broadened the spectrum of clinical narcotics to address different provisions. In the field of medicinal chemistry, numerous methods for the synthesis of imidazole and even their separate structure reactions give enormous scope. Medicinal chemistry is the science in which the effect of the chemical structure on Biological activity is determined, and the practice of medicinal chemistry evolved from An observational one involving organic synthesis of new compounds is primarily focused on structural alteration and then defines their biological activity.1,2 Functional and biological chemical activities of certain derivatives of benzimidazole [Clotrimazole (CTZ), 7-[2-(Benzimidazolyl) AZO] 8- hydroxyl quinoline (BIAHQ)] can be diagnosed using density functional theory DFT using Gaussian program 09, In addition, QSAR data has been used to develop relationships between biological activities and thermophysical properties of chemicals, through the HyperChem 8.0 program by using the semi-empirical (SE) method at the (PM3) level. In computational chemistry, new drugs and chemicals can be designed through numerous combinations of hypotheses for the start of every business, the theoretical the analysis is a valuable preliminary stage. Since it offers a theoretical explanation of the properties of substances (chemical, physical, and biological properties) without doing studies to find out about this and the lowest expense.

22. Chlorambucil and Quantum Dots Co-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier for In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Imaging Evaluation
Ameer S. Sahib, M. Akrami, Shaima’a N. A. Alhammid, Hussein A. Muhammed, I. Haririan
Chlorambucil (CBL) is an efficient anticancer drug. It is a lipophilic agent with serious adverse effects. The objective of this study was to formulate a CBL-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) and targeted the solid tumors using the emulsification-ultrasonication method. Folic acid was used as a targeting moiety for MCF-7 cells. Moreover, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QD) were utilized to be loaded inside the nanoparticles as an imaging probe. The nanocarrier’s DLS results were 121.2 ± 3.2nm PS, 0.27 ± 0.05 PDI, and -41 ± 4 mV ZP with an excellent CBL entrapment efficiency (93.08 ± 1.83%). The in vitro cytotoxicity assay significantly affected the targeted formula relative to the control and non-targeted one. The cellular uptake study explained the excellent cellular internalization after 1-hour incubation and a significant result for the targeted formula compared to the non-targeted one. This formulation was effective for intracellular CBL delivery and enhancing its activity as an antitumor therapy.

23. Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of 4‐amino Antipyrine Antibiotics in Pure Forms and their Pharmaceutical Formulations
Safaa H. Ganduh, Rafid Q. Kmal, Makarim A. Mahdi, Aseel M Aljeboree, Layth S. Jasim
Quantitative measurements of 4‐amino antipyrine (4AAP) were made, using the Colorimetric oxidative coupling technique and can be assayed via coupling it through reagents N, N-dimethylaniline, in the presence of NaIO4, Utilizing Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 0.1N as the basic medium, a sufficiently 4‐amino antipyrine (4AAP) stable color is obtained. This way is suitable for analyzing 4AAP in common tablet formulations without prior separation gives color stability for over 6 hours. Wholly of the ways are simple, accurate, and precise. The advanced method was helpful in the control spectrophotometric of drug 4AAP in pharmaceutical formulations.

24. The Synthesis of Some New Heterocyclic compounds from Vanillin Derivatives
Saleem H. Shanan, Khudheyer J. Kadem
This paper attempted to synthesize six heterocyclic compounds from vanillin derivatives (S1A, S1B, S1C, S2A, S2B, S2C) by reacting vanillin with succinic anhydride to obtain an ester (S). This ester was reacted with a primary amine as 2,4- Di-nitro-phenyl hydrazine and 4-chloroaniline to produce new Schiff bases. We performed an addition reaction with a C = N bond such as succinic anhydride and phthalic anhydride to produce heterocyclic compounds on these bases. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) monitored these reactions, and then some physical properties such as melting point were measured and then diagnosed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectrum.

25. Stroke Characteristics among Patients admitted to Al-Sadiq Teaching Hospital, Babylon Province, Iraq
Ali A. H. Almusawi, Wahab R. Ebdan, Hasan A. Baiee, Ali S. Fadhil, Muna J. K. Alnasrawy, Qasim M. A. Al-Tharwanee, Mokhalad M. M. Al-Duhaimi
Background: Stroke is a common medical problem that causes permanent disabilities and mortality.Aim: To investigate the characteristics of stroke and the associated risk factors. Methods: In a hospital-based cross-sectional study, information was collected from patients’ records and by direct interview of patients or their companions with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age of patients was (64), the male to female ratio was 1.37:1. The majority of patients had low educational levels, and two-thirds of them were urban dwellers. Comorbidities indicated that 71.9% patients had hypertension, 38.6% had diabetes, 37.7% had stroke history, and 16.7% had ischemic heart disease. Regarding social habits, 41.2% were current smokers or ex-smokers, 64.9% were overweight or obese. Regarding stroke awareness, 74.6% do not know the meaning of stroke. The majority 88.6% of cases were diagnosed in hospitals. Conclusion: Ischemic stroke is the most familiar type of stroke where males are mainly affected. Hypertension, diabetes, and stroke were the most common diseases in the medical and family history, respectively.

26. Anti-oxidant Activity of Naproxen and Its Diorganotin Complexes
Angham G. Hadi, Rawaa H. Zaooli, Dina S. Ahmed, Emad Yousif
In this research, we study the anti-oxidant properties of naproxen and its synthesized complexes. The complexes 1-3 give the highest anti-oxidant activity with DPPH than the starting material (naproxen). The diorganotin (IV) complexes were synthesized by the condensation reaction of naproxen with organotin (IV) chlorides (R2SnCl2; R= Bu, Ph and Me). The chemical structures and characterizations of Sn (IV) complexes have been checked by the elemental analyses and various spectroscopic data (1H-, 13C-, and FTIR spectroscopy). The tin complexes with different substituents were applied to study the anti-oxidant properties of naproxen and its complexes. The synthesized complexes gave higher values than naproxen; also, methyl substituent 1 was the highest one than others.

27. Functional Outcome of Varus versus Valgus knee in primary Total Knee Arthroplasty
Ashraf Alhusseini, Ali B. Al-Hilli, Ali D. A. Alkadhim
Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the surgical treatment of choice for advanced OA change after the failure of other modes of conservative management in appropriately selected patients. There are two designs of implants used for TKA: Unconstrained, including cruciate-retaining, cruciate substituting, and mobile-bearing knees and Constrained, including hinged and non-hinged. However, the unconstrained type is the most common type, used for uncomplicated knee problems, synthetic constituents introduced inside the knee not connected for each other, constancy constructed inside the scheme, and trusts in the patient’s ligaments and muscles. Method: Retrospective study, conducted (from January 2014 to January 2018) as a comparative study between primary Varus PS and valgus PS total knee replacement. Forty patients were collected, twenty-four of them were females, and sixteen were males. These patients were divided into two groups according to deformity (Varus or valgus). A detailed history was taken from all patients, including pre-operative and post-operative history. In addition, data were collected from patient’s files. Results: After the final follow-up, we found significant improvement in the knee and functional scores post-operatively for each group. We found no significant statistical difference between the two groups post-operatively when comparing their results using the knee and functional scores.Conclusion: There were no significant statistical and clinical differences in the functional outcome after a four-year follow-up period between Varus and valgus groups.

28. The Role of Genetic Variation for icaA Gene Staphylococcus aureus in Producing Biofilm
Shatha T. Ahmed, Noor M. Abdallah, Sana MH AL-Shimmary, Asmaa M. S. Almohaidi
The current study aimed to evaluate the in vitro biofilm production and the presence of the icaA gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burn samples. 45 burn swabs specimens were collected from the patients at the Burns Unit of Al –Kindy Hospital; S. aureus isolates identified by biochemical tests and confirmed the tests by VITEK-2 System. The isolates of S. aureus were tested for biofilm production in Congo red agar and for presence of icaA gene presence by PCR. Products of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were sequenced and aligned with the previous recorded sequences online. Out of 45 specimens, 16 (35.5%) were identified as S. aureus. A weak correlation between the presence icaA gene that detected by PCR and the formation of biofilm on Congo red agar plates. Out of 16 isolates as screened by CRA method, 11 isolates (68.7%) were biofilm producing, and 5 isolates (31.3%) were non-producing biofilm while the results of PCR showed that 13 isolates (81.3%) possesses icaA gene, 2/13 isolates were not produce biofilm on CRA plates, but positive for icaA gene. The obtained data form this study suggests that the presence of icaA gene requires for ability of isolate to form biofilm on Congo red plates but it is affected by genotyping variation of icaA gene.

29. A Comparative Study Between Some Cases of Dental Caries Diagnosed with X-rays, and Histological Method
Athraa A. Abass, Wijdan A. Kadhim, Zina A. Daily
Our current research includes a comparative diagnostic study in some cases of different dental caries and knowledge of their causes and the extent to which tooth tissue is affected by caries. This was done based on realistic experiences based on applied scientific and preventive bases, through which patients can treat various cases of tooth decay, after examining the cases of injury and the type of tooth injury using X-rays for this purpose. The cases highlighted are: (Bitewing, interproximal caries, Inflammatory resorption of the root apex induced by periapical periodontitis, Hypercementosis due to apical inflammation, and Sclerosing osteitis, a focal zone of sclerosis associated with periapical inflammation from a non-vital lower first molar.). Some cases have been treated with medical treatment methods, getting rid of the disease, and repairing the tooth either by using the filling or other methods and cases that cannot be treated or repaired, so the dentist is forced to extract the tooth in cases after reaching the appropriate solution in the treatment, in addition to photographing the clips. The histopathology of the affected tooth after its extraction gives a clear picture of the nature of the injury and how the tooth tissue has eroded.

30. Synthesis, Characterization, Thermal and Biological Study of New Organic Compound with Some Metal Complexes
Nawras A. Ouj, Enass J. Waheed
A new set of metal complexes by the general formula [M(P)2(H2O)2]Cl2 has been prepared through the interaction of the new Ligand [N1, N4-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)succinamide] (P) derived from succinyl chloride with p-anisidine with the transition metal ions [Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II)]. Compounds diagnosed by TGA, 1H, 13CNMR and Mass spectra (for (P)), Fourier-transform infrared and Electronic spectrum, Magnetic measurement, molar conduct, (%M, %C, %H, %N). These measurements indicate that (P) is associated with the metal ion in a bi-dentate fashion by nitrogen atoms (the amide group), and the octahedral composition of these complexes is suggested. Staphylococcus Aureus (+) and Escherichia Coli (–) were studied for the antibacterial action of the compounds towards two types of bacteria. Using SKOV3-type ovarian cancer cell lines and comparing them to the normal cell line, the cell viability and cytotoxicity assay were performed on the Cu (II) complex by anticancer activity.

31. Formulation and Evaluation of Pressed Coated Tablet Containing Combination of Fast Dissolving Lidocaine and Long Lasting Acyclovir Lozenge
Dalya B. Khudhair, Wedad K. Ali
In this study, a press-coated tablet containing a combination of acyclovir (ACV) lozenge as an inner core and a fast-dissolving lidocaine layer as a coat was prepared in an attempt to provide an initial local anesthetic effect of lidocaine during the treatment of viral infection by ACV lozenges. The press-coated tablet was prepared by directly compressing the best ACV lozenges formulation followed by placing powder of fast dissolving lidocaine under and above the surface of the prepared ACV lozenge in the die of the tableting machine. Then all are compressed lightly. The pressed coated tablets were prepared, and their hardness, thickness, disintegration, and in vitro release of ACV and lidocaine were evaluated. The high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was used for determining the contents of the two drugs in the pressed coated tablets. FTIR spectrophotometry analysis showed that there were no drug-drug and/or drug-excipient interactions indicating compatibility of the two drugs and excipients used in the formulation of the press-coated tablets. It was concluded that the press coated tablet is a promising dosage form to give fast release lidocaine and sustained release of ACV without any incompatibility problems.

32. Synthesis, Characterization and Anticorrosion Studies of New Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) Schiff Base Complexes
Awf A. R. Ahmed, Enass J. Waheed, Ahmed T. Numan
The research included preparation of new Schiff base (L) by two steps: preparation of precursor [bis(2-formyl-6-methoxyphenyl) succinate] (P) by reacting (3-methoxy salicyl aldehyde) with (succinoyl dichloride) as first step then react the prepared precursor (P) with (ethanethioamide) to have the new Schiff base [bis(2-((ethane thioyl imino) methyl)-6-methoxy phenyl) succinate] (L) as second step. Characterized compounds based on Mass spectra, 1H, 13CNMR (for ligand (L)), FT-IR and UV spectrum, melting point, molar conduct, %C, %H, and %N, the percentage of the metal in complexes %M, magnetic susceptibility, while study corrosion inhibition (mild steel) in acid solution by weight loss. These measurements proved that by (Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur) atoms in the ligand, the metal ions are coordinated in a tetradentate form, and the tetrahedral structure of these complexes is suggested. Based on the measurement of micro elemental analysis (CHNS), the molar ratio appeared (2:1) (M:L). The complexes of [M2(L)Cl2]Cl2 type, where M= Cobalt(ii), Nickel(ii), Copper(ii) and Zinc(ii). These products were determined aligned with two classes of bacterial; bacteria (G+) and (G-). The antibacterial effect of the metal complexes is greater than that of the ligand (free), according to the results of the bacterial activity test for the compounds. Results of corrosion inhibition of (L) and their complexes were determined by method (weight loss) in (0.2M) hydrochloric acid solution for mild steel.

33. Synthesis of Benzimidazole and Mannich Bases Derivatives from 4-Methyl ortho phenylenediamine and Evaluation of their Biological Activity
Hatem K. Mohammed, Malath K. Rasheed
Benzimidazole derivatives (A1, A2, A3) were synthesized through the reaction of compound 4-methylorthophenylenediamine with both oxalic acid in the presence of ammonium chloride as a catalyst for the compound (A1)., as well as with (CS2) and KOH for the compound (A2) as well as with chloroacetic acid in the presence of acetic anhydride to compound (A3). The Manich bases of the compounds (A4, A5, A6, A7) were synthesized by mixing compounds (A1, A2) with formaldehyde and primary amines. While the Manich bases of (A8, A9) compounds were synthesized by mixing compound (A3) with formaldehyde and primary amines. These reactions were carried out using the microwave irradiation method. The synthesized compounds were identified using infrared (IR) and TLC confirmed proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), completing the reaction and purity of the compounds. Most of the tested compounds show significant anti-fungal and antibacterial activity.

34. Study the Ability of the Newly Isolated Thermophilic Bacterium (Geobacillus thermoleovorans) Strain Ir1 (JQ912239) in Decolonization and Degradation of Azo Dyes (Methylene Blue and Acid Orange G)
Hiba K. Ibrahim, Mayaada S. Mahdi*, Rasha S. Ameen
The synthetic dyes whose molecules contain two adjacent nitrogen atoms between carbon atoms are remarkable in the industrial area, called azo dyes, capable of resisting degradation and accumulating in different environmental habitats at high concentrations. Biodegradation of these dyes by bacterial groups is an eco-friendly method to eliminate these dyes from industrial effluents. Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain Ir1 (JQ912239) was used to test its ability to degrade methylene blue and acid orange G. Primarily, and the bacterium was grown on an LB medium containing 250 mg/L of the dyes. The optimum dye concentration, temperature, and pH were determined. Results showed that this bacterium was capable of decolorizing the dyes entirely within 5 days. Optimum conditions for degradation were 400 mg/L of dye concentration at 55°C and pH7 for methylene blue and 200 mg/L of dye concentration at 55°C and pH7 for acid orange G. This strain is capable of decolonization of these dyes within few days under optimum conditions. Keywords: Azo dyes, Degradation, Geobacillus thermoleovorans, Synthetic dyes

35. Formulation, Characterization, and Optimization of Zaltoprofen Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLCs)
Mays A. Al-Sarraf, Ahmed A. Hussein, Khalid K. Al-Kinani
This study aimed to prepare nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) of zaltoprofen to treat rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. NLCs were prepared by melt-emulsification and ultra-sonication technique in different solid to liquid lipid ratios, different surfactant concentrations, and different total lipid amounts and use different solid and liquid lipid types to study all these effects factors on NLC dispersions. Characterization of the prepared NLC dispersions was done by determining the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, percentages of entrapment efficiency, and drug loading. The optimal formulation was further investigated by X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, visualization by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), and also an in-vitro release profile study. The results showed that all of the NLCs were within the nanometer size and they were monodispersed system, they showed high percentages of entrapment efficiency ranged from (86.1 ± 2.61 to 96.6 ± 0.37) %, and the drug loading ranged from (4.85 ± 0.74 to 7.57 ± 0.41) %. The results showed that the optimal formulation (F1) was composed of a 70:30 ratio of solid lipid (stearic acid) to liquid lipid (peppermint oil) in concentrations of surfactant (tween 80) and co-surfactant (PEG400) of 5% and 2.5 % v/v, respectively. Its mean diameter was 78.5 nm, PI was 0.229, and zeta potential equal to -55.52 mV. FT-IR spectroscopy showed no drug-excipient interaction and successful dispersion of the drug within the lipid matrix. XRD demonstrated that the zaltoprofen molecule lost its crystalline nature and produced an amorphous complex within the NLC matrix. TEM analysis showed spherical nanoparticles. The in-vitro experiment proved that zaltoprofen was released gradually over 8 hours from the optimal formulation.

36. The Correlation Between Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), fox and DNA Methyltransferase 3 Beta (DNMT3B)
Hind A. Abdulghafoor, Aysar M. Mohammed, Asmaa H. Ali
Expression of Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), fox and DNA Methyltransferase 3 Beta (DNMT3B) in the case of oral squamous cell carcinoma The immunoexpression of DNMT3B marker (DNA Methyltransferase 3 Beta) and ICAM-1 is a Protein marker gene Coding, Intercellular adhesion molecules and cell adhesion molecule-1 vascular. The three markers expressed in the cell of oral squamous cell carcinoma and the expression calculated as Negative, Minimal, Moderate and Strong measured by technique IHC regarding the intensity of the expression positively. Positive expressions of ICAM-1 were observed in 31 out of 33 samples (97.1%), and of fox and DNMT3B, in 25 out of 33 positively expressed samples (77.9%). The three expressed markers ICAM-1, fox, and DNMT3B, show a high difference (Probability value P < 0.01) in the immunohistochemical expression between the three applied marker cases compared with control cases. Our result displays correlations between the ICAM-1, fox, and DNMT3B markers in 33 cases analysis. According to the Pearson correlation, there was a highly significant correlation between ICAM-1, fox, and DNMT3B (p < 0.05), and also showed a significant correlation between the three subjected marker and oral squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0.05), Which defined as two variables divided the covariance by the product of their standard deviations.

37. The Relation of Anti Mullerian Hormone Serum Level with Blood Group Type of Reproductive-age Women in Babylon City in Iraq: A Cross-sectional Study
Hanan A. J. Al-Taee, Ban J. Edan
Background: Blood group scheme (ABO) connected to ovarian storage as mirrored by the anti-Müllerian hormone; it is essential to reflect and evaluate the ovarian storage of ova. The objective of the study is assessment any association between blood group and serum level of anti-Mullerian hormone. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated and assessed 144 women attending private fertility care clinics in Babylon province between January 2019 and January 2020. These women were with a mean age of 30 (20–35) years and mean body mass index 25 kg/m2 (18–30 kg/m2); for whom Antimullerian hormone and blood group type assessed. Results: No significant association between blood group and AMH for A group; OR = 1.6, CI = 0.6–4.1. For group B; OR = 1.3, CI = 0.9–1.2. For group O; OR = 0.9, CI= 0.4–2.5. While AB vs. non-AB: OR= 3.36, 95% CI: 1.01–11.26 shows a significant relationship with AMH serum level.Conclusion: No association between blood group scheme and ovarian storage that evaluate by AMH. However, AB blood type may be protective against low AMH serum levels. Large sample sizes study all over the country is required for further evaluation.

38. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Study on Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Dental Filling
Sanaa A. Alsahib, Khalida A. Thejeel
Polymeric dental filling (light-cured dental filling) has many problems like polymerization shrinkage and weakness in mechanical properties. Recently, scientists found that nanoparticles have good solutions to many problems in dentistry. Nanoparticles were prepared from ZnO, by sol-gel, laser ablation, chemical, and sol-gel methods according to papers published earlier. These nanoparticles were then added to the light-cured dental filling as filler. The polymeric dental filling containing the nanoparticles prepared were then examined by X-ray diffraction, depth of cure, compression strength, hardness (lower and upper surfaces), degree of cure, the relation between the depth of cure and degree of cure, the diameter of samples, and polymerization shrinkage. The examinations and results showed that polymeric dental filling containing silver nanoparticles has maximum compression strength and hardness and no polymerization shrinkage. The most important result was that ZnO nanoparticles filler canceled polymerization 

39. New Membranes for Determination of Norfloxacin in Pharmaceutical Formulations Ad Human Fluids based on Norfloxacin-methyl Orange as Ion Pair
Suad J. Abd, Bashaer A. Al-Phalahy
A simple, fast, and easy potentiometric method for the determination of norfloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations and human fluids was constructed. Three PVC membranes for norfloxacin (NFN) were prepared based on the use of ion-pair compound norfloxacin-methyl orange (NFN-MO) as the ion-association substance with different plasticizers: Tris (2-Ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP), Di-butyl phthalate (DBPH), and Di-butyl sebeact (DBS). These electrodes gave a Nernstain response equal to 58.09, 55.34, and 55.38 mV/decade with linear ranges 5×10-5–1×10-2 M for membranes that depend on TEHP, DBPH and DBS as plasticizers. Detection limits were equal to 4.9 × 10-5, 4.5 × 10-5, and 4.0 × 10-5 M, respectively. pH range was also studied at different concentrations of norfloxacin solutions, equally were studied lifetime and selectivity. Potentiometric methods such as direct, standard addition, and multiple standard addition methods were used. The proposed electrode based on TEHP was successfully applied in the determination of norfloxacin in some pharmaceutical formulations and human fluids.

40.Demographic Characteristics of Iraqi Patients with Wilson Disease and Clinical Hepatic Variations among Different Treatment Protocols
Fadwa G. Hameed, Mohamed Mahmood, Inam Sameh,3 Hala Sameh
The Wilson disease (WD) is inherited but possibly curable disorder of copper metabolism designated by the pathological aggregation of copper. The cause of WD is mutations in ATP7B, which encodes a transmembrane copper- transporting ATPase, taking it to impaired copper homeostasis and copper overload in various organs. The severity and type of symptoms may vary the clinical approach of WD, but progressive liver disease is standard. Clinical presentation of WD can vary widely; therefore, diagnosis is not always straightforward. Wilson disease is not just a disease of children and young adults but may be available at any age. The main features of WD are liver disease and cirrhosis, neuropsychiatric disturbances, Kayser–Fleischer rings, and acute episodes of hemolysis, often in association with acute renal failure. Diagnosis is challenging in children and adults presenting with active liver disease. Innovative screening techniques may increase ascertainment. Regularly, the researchers are developing new diagnosis methodologies and treatment of WD.

41. Evaluation of the Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dates, and Oily and Alcoholic Extract of Phoenix Dactylifera Leaves for Treating Diarrheal in Rats
Saadia S. M. Al-Zeiny, Shatha M. M. Al-Safi, Nadia K. J. Al-Dawah, Duraid A. Abbas
Diarrhea results from an imbalance between the absorptive and secretory mechanisms in the intestinal tract, accompanied by hypermotility, bringing about excess loss of body fluids and electrolytes in feces. Many plant materials of nutritional qualities are being used in folklore medicine owing to their availability and safety; one of these plant materials is Phoenix dactylifera fruit. Method: The date methanolic extract at a dose (1000 and 500 mg/kg) leaves methanolic extract at a dose (2000 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and leaves oily extract at a dose (1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) were given orally to six groups of rats (five animals per group) to evaluate the activity of the extract against diarrhea induced by castor oil in the rat. While date methanolic extract at a dose (1500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and leaves oily and methanol extracts at a dose (2000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the frequency of several wet feces (inhibition defecation percentage). Two other groups received normal saline and loperamide (5 mg/kg) as a positive control. The result obtained shows that the methanol date and leaves extract and leaves oily extract at different doses of date and leaves extract. Pharmacologic contain for Phoenix dactylifera was active substances with antidiarrhoeal properties.

42. Impact of some Environmental Factors on the Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles fabricated by Bacillus subtilis
Safaa A. Ali, Hussein H. Al-Turnachy, Mahdi H. Al-Ammar
Nanobiosynthesis has the upper hand over the nonbiological (physical and biological) methods, it is economic, and ecofriendly and sustainable. This study aimed to biosynthesize Zinc oxide nanoparticles by using Bacillus spp and evaluate their activity exposure to some environmental factors. The Zinc oxide nanoparticles was evidenced by trans-coloration of the reaction medium from yellowish into turbid yellow. Biogenic nanoparticles have been characterized using Atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It is found that Zinc-oxide nanoparticles was homogenous nanorods, with size distribution (20–80nm). The average size of biogenic nanoparticles was 26 nm.

43. Effects of Myoinositol on Ovulation in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Women
Reyadh H. Al-Mosawi
Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), which is almost 5–10% among reproductive-age women, is the most commonly diagnosed female endocrine disease. PCOS has been defined as a disorder with irregular and/or prolonged menstrual cycle, extensive androgen level, and the hyperandrogenic symptoms of hirsutism, acne and/or alopecia, and multicystic ovaries. The study aims to explore the relation between myoinositol intake and mid-cycle ovulation in PCOS patients. Methods: 110 Patients were recruited from a private clinic in Karbala city, Al-Hindiya district. Criteria for selecting patients: aged 20–35 years, history of infertility, PCOS. Patients comprised two groups (55 patients each), the first group treated with metformin 850mg, b.i.d, and placebo. The second group was treated with metformin 850mg twice-daily dosing (BID) and myoinositol oral supplementation 1000 mg/day for 4 months. Ultrasonography was performed monthly on day 13 to assess the follicular size. Data were based on one-way ANOVA and the Dunnett multi-comparison test. Results: No significant difference was noticed [p > 0.05] when comparing the mid-cycle follicular size [mm] before and after metformin and placebo intake in a given dose. Mid-cycle follicular size significantly [p < 0.05] increased by 6 folds after metformin and myoinositol administration compared to a control group in a given dose and time. The addition of myoinositol to metformin was significantly [p < 0.05] increased mid-cycle follicular size by 3 folds compared to placebo and metformin in a given dose and time. Conclusion: The important finding was that myoinositol supplementation might affect follicular maturation positively in PCOS patients.

44. Increased Antibacterial Activity of Ciprofloxacin by Combination with Staphylococcus aureus Siderophores
Intesar N. Khelkal, Farhan A. Risan, Fatimah N. Abdol Razzaq, Khaled A. Hashim
This study is interested in using siderophore molecules produced from Staphylococcus aureus in combination with ciprofloxacin (CIP) against different multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates. Three types of siderophore have been obtained from S. aureus; hydroxamate, catecholate, and carboxylates(staphyloferrin). Results have been shown an increase in CIP activity when combined with siderophores. Inhibition results were compared for each siderophore only, siderophore + (CIP), and CIP only. CIP + hydroxamate and catecholate were recorded high inhibition zone (26 mm), while CIP + carboxylates from the same isolate were recorded larger zone (29 mm), whereas CIP + staphyloferrin has the maximum inhibition zone (36 mm). Markedly, the three siderophore types were isolated from CIP-resistant S. aureus.

45. Evaluation of Left Ventricular Mathematical Model for Estimation the Cardiac Mechanics in Heart Failure Patients
Mais O. Al−Saffar, Ziad Al-Dahhan, Rafid B. Al-taweel
Objectives: The specific aim was to develop the tools and methods to construct patient-specific mathematical models incorporating clinical, anatomical, biomechanical, and hemodynamic data. The models’ ability to make accurate quantitative predictions to clinical data was validated. Methods: In the developed world, many cardiac imaging modalities are now commonly available and are utilized as a part of routine steps prescribed by appropriate medical societies. These imaging modalities would typically be collected to create personalized models as models expand into clinical application. A successful collaboration with computer modeling includes recognizing the strengths and drawbacks of the various methods. This study investigates the feasibility of using echocardiography as a basis for the development of patient-specific cardiac models and its implementation on the analysis of the mechanics of heart in a ventricular dysfunction patient. Imaging has become an important aspect of the assessment of heart health and disease. For six patients with heart disease who are supposed to undergo a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implant, research has been performed at the Ibn Al-Bitar center for cardiac surgery. Extreme HF (heart failure) with (NYHA class III or IV) left ventricular ejection fraction >35% and QRS interval >120 ms were selected for CRT. Latest MI (myocardial infarction) or DHF (decompensated heart failure) patients (less than 3 months) were omitted. The clinical valuation was measured before CRT implantation, and 2-D echocardiography was performed to measure left ventricular volume and ejection fraction. Combining both M-mode echocardiography and TDI color-coded tissue, left ventricular desynchrony has been tested. Clinical condition and increased left ventricular ejection fraction and volume were re-assessed after 3 months of follow-up. Results: Simulation results of the left ventricle mathematical model for pre-and post-CRT implantation were agreed with clinical and echocardiographic data as obtained for the heart failure patients included in this study. Conclusion: The left ventricle mathematical model allows realistic cardiac mechanism estimation in heart failure patients.

46. Development of a Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis for Hydrochlorothiazide in Pure and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
H. K. Noor, S. M. Abass
An accurate, simple, sensitive, and low-cost approach was developed to determine hydrochlorothiazide (HCTH) in pure and pharmaceutical preparations. This method is based on hydrochlorothiazide’s acidic hydrolysis, then treated with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) to form diazonium salt that couples with resorcinol reagent in the basic medium at pH=13 to form a stable dye with a light orange color that soluble in water. The colored compound has the greatest absorption at 426 nm wavelength. The variables that affect the completion of the reaction were optimized. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range (0.25-13 μg/mL) with a molar absorption factor of (14140.75 L/ The detection limit (0.1174 μg.mL-1), limit of quantitative (0.3557μg/mL), and Sandell’s sensitivity (0.0210 μ have been calculated. The suggested methodology has been applied with success to the determination of hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations.

47. Synthesis, Antioxidant Activity and Molecular Docking Study of 1,2,4-Triazole and Their Corresponding Fused Rings Containing 2-Methylphenol
Raied M. Shakir, Shaimaa A. Saoud, Husam S. Jasim, Dhuha F. Hussain
Newly 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione ring 2 was formed at position six of 2-methylphenol from the reaction of 6-(5-thio-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2-methylphenol 1 with hydrazine hydrochloride in the presence of anhydrase sodium acetate. Seven newly fused heterocyclic compounds were synthesized from compound 2. First fused heterocyclic was 6-(6-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-[1,2,4] triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazol-3-yl)-2-methylphenol 3 synthesized from reaction compound 2 with 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid in POCl3. Reaction compound 2 with bromophencylbromide afford 6-(6-(4-bromophenyl)-5H-[1,2,4] triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)-2-methylphenol 4. 6-(6-thio-1,7a-dihydro-[1,2,4] triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazol-3-yl)-2-methylphenol 5 was synthesized from reaction compound 2 with CS2 in alkaline ethanolic solution. 6-(6-amino-1,7a-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazol-3-yl)-2-methylphenol 6 was synthesized from cyclization of 2 with cyanogen bromide at room temperature. Compounds 7a-c were synthesized from reaction compound 2 with arylisothiocyanate in dimethyl formamide. The antioxidant ability of these compounds was screened by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay (DPPH) and Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) assays. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited highest DPPH inhibition and FRAP value compared to rest synthesized compounds. The molecular docking studies of the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their A tubulin binding affinity with the aid of docking studies via MOE 2015. Compounds 4, 7a, 7b and 7c exhibited interaction compared with colchicine reference as potent tubulin inhibitor.

48. Flunarizine Vs Propranolol in the Prevention of Migrainous Headache Attacks
Haider S. Hussein, Nawrass J. Alsalihi, Gheyath Al Gawwam
Migraine is a long-lasting disorder characterized by disabling, recurrent attacks of headache that is shifted from one side of the head to another side, may be located in the front of the head or felt in the entire head associated with many autonomic and neurological symptoms. Beta and calcium channel blocking medications were used in this clinical trial to observe their efficacy in reducing the frequency and severity of migraine attacks. This study was carried out for 3 months period on 124 patients suffering from classical migraine who were divided into two groups, group A, receiving beta-blockers (Inderal) 20mg twice daily, and group B receiving 5 mg Flunarizine single dose at night. The severity and frequency of headaches was recorded before adminstering the drugs and then every month for three consecutive months. The severity and frequency of headache attacks were reduced in both study groups but significantly reduced in those receiving Flunarizine drugs. We conclude that Flunarizine drug is a very effective drug as prophylactic to reduce the severity and frequency of headaches in patients suffering from migraine.

49. Comparison among the Synthesis of Some Azomethine Derivatives by Classical and Non-classical Methods
Ismaeel Y. Majeed, Ahmed Ahmed, Riyadh M. Ahmed, Lekaa K. Abdul Karem
In this time, most researchers toward about preparation of compounds according to green chemistry. This research describes the preparation of 2-fluoro-5-(substituted benzylideneamino) benzonitrile under reflux and microwave methods. Six azomethine compounds (B1-6) were synthesized by two methods under reflux and assisted microwave with the comparison between the two methods. Reflux method was prepared of azomethine (B1-6) by reaction of 5-amino-2-fluorobenzonitrile with some aldehyde derivatives with (50–100) mL of absolute ethanol and some quantity of GAA and time is limited between (2–5) hours with a yield between (60–70) percent with recrystallization for appropriate solvents. But the microwave-assisted method was synthesized of compounds B (1-6) under domestic microwave with a small number of solvents (2-3) mL without catalyst and time is (2–3) minutes with yield (85–93) percent. TLC verified all prepared compounds, FTIR, Elemental analysis, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

50. Nanofibers: Pharmaceutical, Biomedical Application, and Current Status
Vinanti R. Supare, Neha R.Binjhade, Kamlesh J. Wadher, Milind J. Umekar
Nanofibers are nanosized solid polymer fibers that show improved properties compared to materials of larger dimensions. They have unique characteristics like small size and stability, making them suitable carriers for drug delivery at specific sites in the body. There are various techniques available for nanofibers preparation, but the most frequently used are self-assembly, phase separation, and electrospinning, and each one has its advantages and disadvantages. Nanofibers have wide pharmaceutical and biomedical applications and other applications such as energy generation and storage, water treatment and environmental remediation, and healthcare, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering due to their unique structural design and physicochemical properties. But there are certain limitations such as high cost, thickness, etc., to overcome such limitations, and there is a need to address formulation issues like controlled porosity, uniform drug loading, cost-effective product, and controlled fiber thickness. In the present review, we have outlined various emerging applications of nanofibers in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields along with the current status and future perspectives.

51. Effect of Topical Dipyridamole Gel in Comparison with Clobetasol on induced Psoriasis in Mice
Nihad H. Ahmed, Adeeb A. Kadhim Al-Zubaidy, Ban J. Qasim
Psoriasis is an immune disease that causes chronic inflammation. It is defined as a clinical entity, affects the skin, nails, mucous membranes, and joints. Psoriasis is primarily caused by the combined effect of several genetic sensitivities, an immune system disorder with prevalent environmental risk factors. Dipyridamole is an anti-platelet drug that acts as a phosphodiesterase-inhibitors that increases intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible therapeutic effect of topical dipyridamole gel on imiquimod-induced psoriasiform skin inflammation in mice. Forty male BALB/c albino experimental mice with an average age between 8 to 11 weeks and weight ranged 25–40 g were divided equally into four groups (ten mice/group) after their skin hair of the dorsal back and right ear being shaved for topical application: Group (I) healthy mice without treatment. Group (II) in which mice received only a daily topical dose of 62.5 mg of imiquimod cream (5%) for seven days. In the following groups (III and IV), after being received imiquimod cream (5%) as mentioned in group II, mice were treated for a further two weeks with either clobetasol ointment (0.05%) topically once daily and dipyridamole gel (1%) topically once daily. Skin samples were prepared for histopathological examination and biomarker assay, that is, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for mouse tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-23 (IL-23), and transforming growth factor (TGF-), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

52. Formulation and Evaluation of Montelukast Sodium Nanoparticles for Transdermal Delivery
Nawar M. Toma, Alaa A. Abdulrasool
Montelukast sodium is a potent leukotriene receptor antagonist of important role in the pathogenesis of asthma routinely used as prophylaxis to reduce asthmatic attack, being highly labile molecules strongly influenced by the environmental factor, which confined its formulation as liquid dosage form which makes their administration to infants and elderly with swallowing difficulties are challenging, driven by these facts, the transdermal route has been suggested as a suitable alternative to the oral route. Montelukast sodium nanoparticles were formulated by facile nanoprecipitation method using Eudragit L100 as polymer and PVA, PVPK30, and tween 80 as a stabilizer. The effect of polymer concentration, stabilizer concentration, and stabilizer type on the nanoparticles’ physical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and in-vitro release have been investigated. Furthermore morphological, and compatibility study was conducted; additionally, photostability and ex vivo permeation study through abdominal rat skin was performed, and the effect of using solid polymeric microneedles as permeation enhancer on drug flux was assessed. Results revealed the suitability of the nanoprecipitation method to prepare polymeric nanoparticles. The measured particle size ranged between 178.6 ± 3.3 and 1273 ± 7.54 with relatively high entrapment efficiency and spherical, regular shape. Among the prepared formulations, F2 achieved complete and sustained release extended for 5 hours; based on its small particle size and release pattern, it was selected for further evaluation. The compatibility study excludes any interaction between montelukast and other components. Furthermore, the reduced amount of the montelukast cis isomer is proof of photostability enhancement which can be attributed to the drug embedment in the polymer matrix; the permeation study showed a significant increase in the amount of drug permeated through rat skin upon its treatment by solid microneedles compared with limited permeation of nanoparticles through bare skin. Transdermal delivery of montelukast sodium was made feasible with better physicochemical properties and enhanced permeation by exploiting the merits of polymeric nanoparticles and microneedles simultaneously.

53. Pulsed Type Ultrasound Verses Diclofenac Phonophoresis in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Muna G. Muften, Hussain S. Hasan, Abd A. M. Shaia
Background: Definitive evidence suggesting the successful treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a widespread nerve entrapment. Ultrasound therapy (UST) and phonophoresis technique improve symptoms in CTS. Aims: To compare the effectiveness of the treatment of CTS in the pulsed type ultrasound, and diclofenac phonophoresis to keep the patient’s situation stable without getting worse, and treating patients with conservative approaches away from invasive procedures and local injection. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trials RCT study including a total of 50 patients with CTS (6 males and 44 females) who were attending the Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department in Al – Imammein Al- Kadhimaein Medical City for four months’ period (from October 2019 to January of 2020). Patients were subjected to clinical and electrophysiological study. Other data were collected by Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) and socio-demographic questionnaire. Result: When compared with baseline, the two groups revealed significant development in the BCTQ scores, with significant distinctions between the two groups. The enhancement of the phonophoresis group was greater than the ultrasound group. The results of enhancement in nerve conduction studies (NCS) findings at left and side hands between two groups were not a significant statistical association between the groups, with good improvement, while enhancement in the electrodiagnostic study between two groups shows that shorter latency (ms) of median motor distal latency and median sensory distal latency in both right and left side hands for two groups with no significant differences. Increase in median motor conduction velocity (m/s), and median sensory conduction velocity (m/s) in both hands for phonophoresis group, with significant differences between two groups in median motor conduction velocity (m/s) for right side hand and borderline differences in median motor conduction velocity (m/s) for left side hand. Conclusion: While both phonophoresis and ultrasound therapy has been active in reducing symptoms of patients with mild and moderate CTS and in improving function and electrophysiological findings with significant differences in many parameters. Phonophoresis may be better than ultrasound therapy in the CTS treatment, although statistically, there’s no significant difference observed between the two groups. An important point that even in severe cases, both techniques had been successful.

54. Phytochemical Investigation of some Chemical Compounds Present in Vicia villosa L. Widely Grown in Iraq
Mohammad J. Hassan, Enas J. Kadhim
Vicia villosa is one of the wild plants in Iraq that is wildly distributed in northern areas of the country; it belongs to the Fabaceae family, and it’s preferred common name is hiary vetch. The plant contains many active constituents that have pharmacological activities. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are the most important chemical constituents of V. villosa; thus, they have antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The whole plant (V. villosa ) was collected from Khalow Bazian near Kirkuk city, north of Iraq, in April 2019. After that, the whole plant dried at room temperature in the shade, then pulverized by mechanical mills and weighed. Then the Pulverized whole plant was defatted by maceration with n-hexane for 24 hours, then allowed to dry at room temperature. The defatted plant materials were extracted Soxhlet apparatus using absolute methanol 99.8% as solvent extraction. The crude methanol extract was suspended in 300 mL water and partitioned successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol (3×300 mL) for each fraction. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) examination was done for n-butanol fraction revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Five compounds were isolated from n-butanol fraction, symbolized as MH1, MH2, MH3, MH4, and MH5. Two of these compounds (MH1 and MH2) were isolated by preparative layer chromatography using one mobile phase, while other compounds (MH3, MH4, and MH5) were isolated by Preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography. All of the five isolated compounds were identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), UV-diode array spectra, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The results show that the isolated compounds MH1, MH2, MH3, MH4, and MH5 could be identified as gallic acid, caffeic acid, genistein, apigenin, and silybin, respectively, two phenolic acids (gallic acid and caffeic acid), and three flavonoids (genistein, apigenin, and silybin).

55. Effect of Zingiber officinale Ethanol Extract on Staphylococcus aureus in Culture Media
Mohammed A. R. Yassen
Plant-derived products have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Staphylococcus aureus, which prepared in many concentrations of ethanol ginger extract (100, 200, 300 & 400mg/mL) and study the activity of the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (5μg), Ampicillin (30μg) & Amoxicillin (25μg) by Measurement of the inhibition zone around the colony on Muller-Hinton. The antibacterial screening of the different extracts of Z. officinale and antibiotics showed different inhibition values on the agar-based on the type of used plant, extract concentration, and type of bacteria. The highest antibacterial potential was observed for the ethanolic (Z. officinale) extract, whereas other (Z. officinale) extracts show closed results in general. Also, our study has found the diameter of inhibition zones increased when increasing the extract concentration significantly (p < 0.05). Minimum inhibition of ethanolic extracts of ginger was (0.312–0.642) mg/mL against used bacteria, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 1.248 mg/mL.

56. Synthesis and Characterization of Sodium Alginate-g-polyacrylic Acid Hydrogel and its Application for Crystal Violet Dye Adsorption
S H H Wared, Radia, N.D
The sodium alginate-g-polyacrylic acid (SA-g- pAAc) hydrogel synthesis from sodium alginate and acrylic acid by free radical polymerization using N is used in this work N’-Methylene-bis-acrylamide MBA as a cross-linked agent, and the hydrogel was prepared as a super absorption active ingredient for organic pollutants. (SA-g-pAAc) the hydrogel was used to remove crystal violet (CV) dye from its aqueous solutions. Characterization of hydrogel was studied by (FTIR – XRD – FE-SEM – AFM – BET and BJH). The isotherm freundlich model can describe the adsorption process and influence of different conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic salt effect; the prepared hydrogel has demonstrated high adsorption and efficiency in removing the CV dye.

57. Pattern Study of Clinical Presentations of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Babylon Governorate, Iraq
Hassan S. Aljumaily, Ali J. M. Al-sultani
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complicated disease; 10% of the people worldwide are affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD. Progression of CKD is associated with many serious complications, like increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and metabolic bone disease. Aim of study: To describe the pattern of clinical presentation of adults with CKD. Patients and methods: This study is across a sectional study on 100 patients with CKD who visited the Marjan teaching hospital’s emergency department. Results: males with CKD were more than females (56% and 44% respectively), patients with primary educational level–or lower- represent the majority of the sample (78%) in comparison to the secondary (16%) and tertiary (6%) levels of education. 84% of the sample are on dialysis, and 16% are not. In addition, we found that 50% of the patients with CKD have high blood pressure at the time of presentation, while 24% are elevated blood pressure, 21% are normotensive, and 5% are with low blood pressure. In addition, 2% were hypoglycaemic, 36% were hyperglycaemic, and 62% were significant glycaemic association between multiple complaints and serum blood sugar and potassium, past medical history, and blood pressure. Conclusion: Most common emergency presentation is shortness of breath. Hypertension is the strongest association with CKD. Uraemia is a usual consequence of CKD. Patients with more than one emergency complaint have the highest blood sugar reading and the highest potassium level, and those kinds of patients should be considered.

58. Estimation of Triprolidine Hydrochloride Drug by Manufacturing of a New Plastic Ion Selective Membrane Electrodes
Imad T. Hanoon, Thamer J. Mohammed
This study includes the estimation of Triprolidine Hydrochloride (TR) using the electrodes of Manufactured selective liquid membranes, where the selective electrodes of the drug from the active substance with sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) and using (Di-n-butyl phthalate, DBPH) Organic plasticizers with polyvinyl chloride, PVC as an electrodes substrate. The results indicated that the tilt of the TRP-STPB electrode is 29.4 mV/decade, and at a range of pH (3.5–5.0), the electrode response was good for the concentrations of the drug, and the concentration was 10-1–10-4 molar, correlation coefficient 0.9942, and the detection limit (2.5×10-8 g.mL-1μ) The electrode life was 14 days. The electrode selectivity was measured with single- and dual-charged compounds and ions. The electrode proved successful in estimating the drug and with a Retrospective of at least 98%.

59. Expression of Inflammatory MicroRNA-146a in Iraqi Women with Breast Cancer
Manhal F. Ahmed, Shahlaa M. Salih, Yasir W. Issa
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the second foremost cause of cancer-related death in Iraqi women. MiR-146a had been latterly considered a remarkable modulator of differentiation and function of innate cells and adaptive immunity. This study aimed to elucidate a possible role of miR-146a in breast cancer progression. Methods Sixty BC Iraqi women blood samples were collected from Oncology Teaching Hospital, Baghdad/Iraq. In addition to 25 healthy volunteers’ women. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 was assessed using VIDAS. The total RNA was extracted and converted to cDNA using the stem loop technique and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) with specific primers to estimate fold change expression. Results: The assayed serum CA 15-3 levels significantly increased in early and advanced stages compared to controls. Investigation of the miR-146a folding expression after normalization with U6 snRNA revealed lower folding expression (2-ΔΔCt) of mir-146a in BC patients than controls. Conclusion; Downregulation of mir-146a in peripheral blood of BC patients and the dramatically increased serum CA 15-3 suggests its dual role in cancer and possibly as therapeutic targets.

60. Incidence of Amiodarone Adverse Effects on Thyroid Function among Patients in Thi-Qar city, South of Iraq
Methaq A. M. Hussein, Layth Jabbar
Background: Amiodarone is the antiarrhythmic drug that was used for its effectiveness in controlling heart rhythm, and it was used in cases of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in addition to atrial fibrillation. Amiodarone was associated with a wide range of adverse effects on different organs, including the thyroid gland, lungs, liver, eyes, and skin. The aim of this current study is to check the incidence of the adverse effects on thyroid functions associated with the use of amiodarone among patients who use it in Thi-Qar city, South of Iraq. Method: Prospective study of 238 patients (156 females and 82 males) on amiodarone for 2 years was done, and the adverse effects on thyroid function were reviewed. All the patients were with normal thyroid function as the baseline before using amiodarone. The patients visited either private clinics or Al-Hussain teaching hospital in Thi-Qar from 2018–2020. Results: After serial follow up with patients, the findings were 153 (69.5%) cases were normal, 38 cases (17.3%) with Subclinical hypothyroidism (only thyroid-stimulating hormone increase), 14 cases (6.4%) were pure hypothyroidism, 9 cases (4.1%) with abnormal thyroid function test, 4 cases (1.8%) with amiodarone induce thyroiditis (II), 2 cases (0.9%) with amiodarone induce thyroiditis (I), and 18 cases did not continue with the study. Conclusion: we find out, amiodarone, when used for 2 years in patients with normal thyroid function, was have about (70%) no impact on thyroid function, while the rate of the adverse effect that was associated with the use of amiodarone distributed between thyroiditis and hypothyroidism about 30%.

61. Solid Lipid Nanoparticle; A Potential Lipid-Based Drug Delivery System
Hassanien S. Taghi, Furqan M. Abdulelah, Haider J. Al-Karagully
The opportunity of delivery of orally administered drugs could be delivered efficiently and smoothly by adopting nanomedicine technology. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are featured as a member of a nanomedicine platform and another age of lipid nanoparticles comprising of full lipid matrix as solidify. Oral administration of SLNs exhibits many benefits that exceed ordinary formulations, including well solubility, well-being stability, enhanced membrane permeability, sufficient blood availability, extended half-life, and, finally, lesser side effects.

62. The Role of Some Biomarkers as Signs Predictive of Cardiac Injury with Age Progress Iraqi persons Apparently Healthy
Abdullah M. Abdulkarim, Mustafa S. Ibrahim
The present study was designed in order to know the early diagnosis of heart disease using some vital indicators for the elderly. The study included 60 samples of natural people, whose ages were distributed in the age groups 45–54, 55–64, and 65–74; some variables were conducted, such as N-terminal-Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide and High sensitive-C reactive protein (CRP) and some electrolytes like magnesium ion and potassium ion. The results showed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.01) in the concentration of the N- terminal-Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide level in the blood for the age group 65–74 compared to the categories 45–54 and 55–64. The results also showed a significant increase at (p ≤ 0.01) in the concentration of the High sensitive-C reactive protein level for the age groups 55–64 and 65–74 compared to the age group 45–54. The study found a significant decrease in the level of magnesium ion at (p ≤ 0.01) for the 55–64 and 65–74 age groups compared to the 45–54 age group. As for potassium ion, the current study did not show any significant differences between age groups. Our study observed that the N-terminal-Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide level increased significantly with the age of normal people, indicating a future heart injury. Also, an elevated High sensitive-C reactive protein in the elderly is considered a dangerous indicator of future heart diseases.

63. Age-related Outcome of Primary Total Hip Replacement in Baghdad Medical City Complex, Baghdad, Iraq
Ahmed N. M. Altaei, Mustafa W. Yahya, Hussein A. Hakeem
Background: Although total hip arthroplasty is an effective procedure, not all patients gain the same degree of improvement; many factors play a role in the outcome; one of the suggested factor was age. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 78 cases underwent primary total hip arthroplasty where age is the main factor for differentiation. Those patients were divided into three equal groups (young, middle, and old). The patients were evaluated for functional outcome depending on harris hip score (HHS) and complications rate through short–term follow-up (6–12 months) compared to these data with other groups. Results: Male was 54% of total patient, the patients underwent surgery for a different reason but mainly due to trauma, or it is complications, the comparison shows that less time of hospitalization in the young age group with statistically significant lower change in HHS in the same age group, but the complications rate was statistically insignificant among three group. Conclusion: Younger patients have lower HHS changes than older age, where older patients had prolonged hospital admission.

64. The Role of Ponseti Method in the Management of Patients with Congenital Clubfoot
Abdulateef A. Zaidi, Alaa A. H. Al-Algawy
Objectives: To evaluate the rate of success of the Ponseti method in the management of patients with congenital clubfoot. Methods: This prospective study was conducted to evaluate 34 patients presented with 55 congenital clubfeet, managed between January 2014 and October 2017 with the Ponseti method. Achilles tenotomy was performed for patients with whom we could not correct the equinus deformity following manipulation. In addition, for those patients who had persistent residual adduction, a transfer of the anterior tibial tendon was done. Pirani’s classification was used to assess the results in patients before and after treatment. Results: Club foot was found to be more common in male patients than female. The right side was involved more than the left, whereas 61.7% of the cases had involvement of both feet. The plaster of Paris was changed by a mean number of 5.7 times, and in 41 feet, Achilles tenotomy (AT) was needed. The deformity was significantly got better in 47 of the 55 managed feet (85.45%); after the treatment, the mean score of Pirani was enhanced from 5.6 to 3.5. Conclusion: After evaluating the patients both functionally and clinically, the Ponseti technique was found to be effective with a major statistical significance (p = 0.0001), there was an 85.45% success rate, and the Pirani’s index has been enhanced by a mean of 65.5% (a reduction from 5.6 to 3.5).

65. Molecular Genotyping of Rotavirus Associated with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Iraqi Children
Noor A. Oohayeed1, Hassan M. Naif
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic autoimmune disorders that is typically manifested in early childhood and adolescence, in which pancreatic cells are selectively destroyed by the cells of the immune system. The presence or persistence of some viral infections, like Rotaviruses (RV) in the pancreas, is a major component of the pathogenesis of T1DM. This study was designed to determine the possible role of Rotavirus (RV) in the development of TIDM in Iraqi children and identify its most common prevalent genotypes by genome sequencing. Ninety high-risk children positive for T1DM children and 90 healthy and negative for T1DM were recruited to assess the presence of RV by IgG, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing of the 5’ UTR to detect all genotypes of RV. Anti-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (anti-GAD) was measured by an ELISA kit. The serum IgG levels showed a significant increase (3.766 ± 0.7222 ng/mL vs 0.2144 ± 0.03175ng/mL), in patients as compared to controls (p < 0.0001). The increasing levels of anti-GAD correlated with the RV infection in most patients but not with healthy controls (p < 0.01). RV was detected in children with TIDM but not in the control group, suggesting its contribution as a risk factor for T1DM at 3.5%. Sequencing data revealed that RV G3P8 was the most dominant genotype in this population. This study supports the hypothesis that infection with RV may proportionally play a role in causing TIDM in Iraqi children.

66. Mixed Ligand Complexes of Trimethoprim: A Review
Jehan F. Yousif, Suhad S. Mohammed, Ismaeel Y. Majeed, Riyadh M. Ahmed, Lekaa K. A. Karem
In this research, we highlight the most important research related to the mixed ligand complexes of the drug trimethoprim (TMP), and for the past 7 years where this drug has been used as a chelating ligand and gives stability to the complexes with ions of metal elements where these complexes, prepared and diagnosed, and for some research the bacterial activity was studied against different types of bacteria.

67. The Growing Role of Hydrogel Microneedles in Transdermal Drug Delivery
Al-Badry A. Sabeeh, Al-Mayahy M. Hussain
Microneedles represent a new promising approach that can be applied to enhance drug delivery. Various types of microneedles are available, including solid, coated, hollow, dissolving, and more recently, hydrogel microneedles. This review focuses on the benefits offered by hydrogel microneedles and their applications in transdermal drug delivery. Hydrogel microneedle arrays possessing several advantages over other types of microneedles, including a higher safety profile. Since they are removed intact from the skin following insertion; therefore, no polymer residue remained within the skin. Furthermore, because they swell shortly after insertion, they cannot be inserted again and thus prevent the reuse of microneedles. In addition, hydrogel microneedles can deliver drugs with different molecular weights at higher concentrations due to the presence of a reservoir attached to the microneedle array that can be loaded with larger amounts of drugs. Another important property of hydrogel microneedles is their ability to deliver drugs in a sustained release manner. This depends on the crosslinking density of the polymers forming the hydrogel matrix and on the degree of swelling achieved. The swelling decreased as the crosslinking between the polymers increased, resulting in a sustained drug release. Therefore, controlling the degree of crosslinking of the polymers forming hydrogel microneedles can be utilized to obtain a sustained transdermal drug delivery.

68. Alzheimer’s As a Metabolic Disease: A Review
Safa M. Najim, Mayada M. Moustafa, Luma E. Hammodi
Alzheimer’s disease is a brain degenerative disease that can cause dementia, memory loss, and a decline in physical and intellectual abilities. It is most commonly diagnosed in the elderly and to the middle age but to less extent. It is caused by genetic mutations. The unique opportunities to study the cascade of pathological events and how they relate to clinical manifestations are provided by familial alzheimer disease (AD). Multiple causes cause AD Biomarkers validation and identification is important for AD diagnosis. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) measures β-amyloid (1-42), also cerebral tau and phospho-tau-181 is the most specific and sensitive method for diagnosis. Ad is incurable and the medications are used only to help slow down the progression and improve symptom management.

69. Glutathione S and M Transferase Gene Detection in Gasoline Station Workers
Shaimaa A. Al-Oubaidy, Asmaa M. Mekkey
The present investigation aims to detection antioxidant enzyme genes state in worker exposure to gasoline during occupation; a case-control study included 30 workers exposure to gasoline and 25 healthy individuals, DNA extracted then Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and GSTM were detected using multiplex PCR, the results show significant differences for all genes states between workers and control groups, There was a high percentage of deletion observed in GSTT and GSTM 83.33% in workers while deletion both genes were observed in 86.66% in comparison with control groups which have a deletion in GSTM 52% and 12% for GSTT and both genes, the present study concluded that the work in occupation should be under health laws, Workers should undergo periodic medical examinations in addition to a good diet, taking into account the working hours and exposure to gasoline.

70. Interaction Between Sleep Problems, Stimulation Drink, and Academic Performance among Students in Baghdad, Iraq
Samer S. Mohammed1, Wael W. Mustafa
According to psychiatric opinion, sleep disorders (SDs) can now be acknowledged as a public health concern. Our study aimed to evaluate sleep disorders in dental colleges in the University of Bagdad and assess the relationship between sleep disorders and academic performance and stimulation drink. A cross-section study with observational was conducted in Dental college in Baghdad University, Iraq, during 2018–2019. Self-administrated questionnaires were handled to 270 students after the consent letter singed. A questionnaire gathered Demographer information about age, gender, class, marital status if students have a chronic disease, working status, stage of the study. The questionnaire also included last year grades and the average of hour sleep during normal or exam days, when sleep disorders presents, medication taken for sleeping, having stimulated drink, at which sort of drink( tea, coffee, cola, energy drink) students attend to take and how this drink effect on students’ performance and how effects on sleeping hours. Results showed that the average student age was 24 years old. More males and females attend these colleges. 30% of study samples were students in 3rd grade, and no participants agreed to take parts from the first grades. Comparing last year’s performance or grades with sleep hours, we noticed that sleeping among students with acceptable grade was less compared with higher grades groups. 5.672 ± 0.94. Fewer hours sleep with low grades, and they drink more stimulated beverages.

71. Antimitotic Study of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) on Male Rats (Rattua rattus)
Zaynab A. Shabab, Adel M. Al-Zobidy, Assad H. Al-Eidany, Wasfi A.AL- Masoudi
The effect of oral administration of 200 mg/kg BW of aspirin on a mitotic study in albino male rats were investigated, the aspirin and colchicine drugs were administrated for two hours and the samples were collected for studies. The results showed that treatment of rats for two hours with 200 mg/kg BW of aspirin orally caused reduction in cell division at metaphase compared with treated rats with 0.5 mg/kg BW from colchicine intraperitoneal (IP), (control group).

72. A Review Study on Synthesis Methods of AgNanoparticles, Considering Antibacterial Property and Cytotoxicity
Mustafa Mudhafar, Ismail Zainol, C. N. Aiza Jaafar, H.A. Alsailawi1, Shakinaz Desa
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been used in many medical and biological applications due to their unique features and characteristics. One of the most important issues researchers address in nanoscience is finding suitable methods to produce nanoparticles with environmentally friendly and non-toxic properties. The unique chemical, physical and biological properties that AgNP possesses give that impetus to developing their production methods. In recent years, there have been many studies documented for the production of AgNP during the development of green synthesis methods (GSM). The present study describes methods for the GSM of AgNP, their biological properties, and other applications, giving the most appropriate methods to synthesize AgNP.AgNP is one of the essential metallic particles, as they can be manufactured and designed in easy ways, and they are also adjustable because they were used in many fields such as catalysts, ideal biometrics, and photo-controlled delivery Systems. AgNp is beholden as a prospectively for tissue regeneration in bioengineering due to its ability in the delivery system as an ideal gene.


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