International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

Disclimer: Scopus and Crossref are registered trademark of respective companies.

This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. Formulation and Optimization of Valganciclovir-loaded Nanosponges
Alka Singh, Chetan S Chauhan
The objective of our study was to form a novel method of delivering drugs that would improve the effectiveness of valganciclovir, an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in individuals with weakened immune systems. The drug’s induction dosage has limited penetration and requires very high doses. The nanosponges were synthesized using the emulsion solvent diffusion method, employing a 32 full factorial design to determine the combined impact of 2 independent variables: Quantity of ethyl cellulose and stirring speed. The dependent variables assessed were zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), and entrapment efficiency. Improved formulation exhibited an entrapment efficiency of 83.61%, a zeta potential. of -17.6 mV, and a PDI of 0.51. The improved formulation exhibited a continuous and controlled release of the medication. The produced nanosponges were characterized using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

2. Stability Indicating Technique and Validation for Dolutegravir, Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate by UPLC
Gampa Nagamalleswari, MS Uma Shankar
Objective: To simultaneously estimate lamivudine, tenofovir, and dolutegravir in substance and tablet dosage form,” a technologically sophisticated approach was developed for ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) stability indicating that is modest, accurate, and specific. Methods: We were able to isolate each of the three active components using a state-of-the-art stability-indicating approach. Waters X-Bridge C8 column, 100 x 3.0 mm, 3.5 μm, 0.5 mL/min flow rate, and monitoring at 260 nm were used for the chromatographic behavior, which was shown by a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in an 80:20 ratio. Results: A mean retention time of 0.879 minutes was recorded for lamivudine, 1.571 minutes for tenofovir, and 0.607 minutes for dolutegravir. “The degrees of linearity for lamivudine, tenofovir, and dolutegravir were determined to be 20 to120 μg/mL, 20 to 120 μg/mL, and 3.4 to 20.4 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Combination tablet dosage forms of lamivudine, tenofovir, and dolutegravir were accurately and reliably estimated using the suggested technique, which underwent validation in terms of linearity, range, accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness. Stability tests were also conducted.

3. Crocin Exerts Neuroprotective Effect in Valproate Exposed Rat Model of Autistic Spectrum Disorder by Ameliorating Behavioural and Biochemical Reversions
Sagarika Majhi, Sokindra Kumar
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with oxidative stress and neuron damage triggered by valproic acid (VPA) in a post-natal rat model of ASD. It was hypothesized that crocin (CRO), may have beneficial effects in ASD due to its antioxidant activities. The study investigated the neuro-behavioural and biochemical modifications of crocin in VPA-induced ASD. Wistar albino rat pups aged 13 days were divided into five groups (06 each). 400 mg/kg VPA subcutaneously on PND 14 successfully induced autism. From PND 14 to 40, crocin was dispensed daily. Different neuro-behavioral markers were examined while the groups were receiving therapy. Animals were sacrificed at the completion of the research for biochemical calculations. Crocin treatment significantly improved behavioral activity and oxidative changes compared to animals treated with the VPA-exposed group. The effects were more pronounced at higher dose of crocin, providing evidence of reversing the valproic acid-induced autistic deficits. Crocin could be a viable option for ASD treatment due to its potential neuronal cytoprotective effects, likely attributed to its antioxidant properties.

4. Effect of Commonly Prescribed Medications on Osseointegration and Implant Stability
Vikas Attargekar, Abha Kumari, Soumadip Dey, Dilip Magdum
Background: Osseointegration, the process by which implants integrate with surrounding bone, is crucial for the success of dental implants. However, the impact of commonly prescribed medications on osseointegration and implant stability remains a topic of interest and concern within the field of implant dentistry. Materials and Methods: In this study, we conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who received dental implants between 2018 and 2020. Patients were categorized based on their medication usage at the time of implant placement. Medications included in the analysis were divided into groups such as bisphosphonates, corticosteroids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Implant stability was assessed using resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and osseointegration was evaluated through radiographic examination. Results: A total of 150 patients were included in the study, with 50 patients in each medication group. The mean RFA values for patients on bisphosphonates, corticosteroids, SSRIs, NSAIDs, and control group were 67, 72, 69, 71, and 75 ISQ, respectively. Radiographic evaluation revealed osseointegration rates of 80, 85, 75, 82, and 90% for the respective medication groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that commonly prescribed medications may have varying effects on osseointegration and implant stability. While corticosteroids and NSAIDs seem to have minimal impact, bisphosphonates and SSRIs may potentially hinder osseointegration and decrease implant stability. Clinicians should consider patients’ medication history when planning dental implant procedures and closely monitor implant integration in patients taking these medications.

5. Amplification of Aqueous Solubility of Progesterone Using Melt-Granulation Technique
Bhosale DS, Kalshetti MS
The objective of the present research was to enhance the rate of dissolution of progesterone by boosting the hormone’s solubility in water. This research determines whether or not employing melt granulation techniques with various polymers may improve the degree to which progesterone is soluble. When looking into the interactions between drug carriers and other substances, researchers turned to techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). PEG 6000 (1:1.5) demonstrated the highest solubility, followed by PEG 6000 (1:1) > Gelucire 50/13 (1:1.5) > Gelucire 50/13 (1:1). Increasing the solubility of the weakly soluble progesterone was demonstrated by these findings. Melt granulation on polymers boosted progesterone’s dissolution rate, which in turn can raise oral bioavailability.

6. Development and Evaluation of Riluzole Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Improved Permeability across BBB
Jayavasavi G, Sathesh K Sukumaran
Blood-brain barrier is a physiological barrier that prevents drugs from reaching the brain or being bioavailable for treating brain disorders. Degenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) seriously impact our daily lives. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved this drug to treat ALS as a chemical derivative of 2- amino-6 [tri-fluoro-methoxy] benzo-thiazole. In order to improve the drug’s therapeutic efficacy, poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA) were loaded with riluzole and deposited using emulsifying solvent deposition. A design expert software program was used to optimize formulation parameters, including polymer concentration, surfactant concentration, and stirring speed, based on the particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency responses. Three formulations were taken forward for further study based on the results of 20 trials. Compared to differential scanning calorimetry and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies performed beforehand, there were no significant interactions between RZL and the excipients. Nanoparticles prepared with scanning electron microscopy had a smooth surface and a spherical shape. The particle size distribution ranged from 184 ± 74 nm to a maximum of 204.5 ± 71. As a consequence, the particle size distribution is relatively narrow, with lower polymer concentrations, and is ideal for drug delivery. A range of -17.3 to -18.2mV was found for the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 42.61 ± 3.61 to 60.02 ± 1.94%, forming 1:1 to 1:4 drug: Polymer ratios, respectively. Over a period of 22 to 26 hours, the RLZ was continuously released from the nanoparticles. A loading dose may be built by 24% of the drug being released within 3 hours of administration.

7. Taguchi Design for Development of Lipid-Polymer Effervescent Floating Tablets for Metformin Prolonged Release
García-Guzmán P, Schifter-Aceves L, Ortega-Almanza L, Romero-Canto P
Floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) formulated with hydrophilic polymers and effervescent agents are a promising gastro retentive tool for prolonged drug release, especially with drug with low bioavailability and low solubility. Lately, it has been reported that the combination of lipids with hydrophilic polymers in the development of blends or composite hybrid materials may bring together the properties of individual components. This study proposed four formulations of effervescent lipid-polymer FDDS through a Taguchi experimental design for metformin’s prolonged release. Tablets were obtained by wet granulation, and the effect of HPMC, Compritol®, and sodium bicarbonate was studied. All formulations were evaluated with pharmacotechnical and biopharmaceutical properties such as in-vitro drug delivery, flotation, swelling, erosion and release kinetics. Effervescent lipid-polymer FDDS were obtained with prologued release until 24 hours. Formulation F1 meets the acceptance criteria of USP extended delivery. Compritol®, combined with HPMC and sodium bicarbonate, impacted release behavior and buoyancy properties. Formulations with high amounts of HPMC and Compritol® were found to have the lowest release rates and followed the Peppas-Sahlin kinetic model. Successful preparation of effervescent lipid-polymer was achieved and evaluated through a Taguchi experimental design, expected to result in prologued release and better therapeutic behavior.

8. Investigation Few Biomarkers for Pantoea Infection with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients
Burhan T Burhan, Layla SA Hassan
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease known as systemic lupus erythematosus. SLE is an autoimmune condition in which the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues, leading to extensive tissue damage and inflammation in other organs. One of the most frequent causes of death and morbidity in SLE patients is infection. Patients with SLE may contract a genus of gram-negative bacteria called Pantoea. This study aims to find biomarkers for Pantoea infection in SLE patients in Iraq’s Najaf Governorate. Methods: About 60 individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus from Al-Sader Medical City in Al-Najaf Province had blood samples taken at a specialized rheumatology and nephrology center between September 2022 and February 2023. Some bio-markers has been evaluated. Results: The results of microbiological analyses indicate that 26/60 samples contain bacteria. Pantoea was discovered in 3 (11.6%) of the 26 specimens. Despite SLE, increased autoantibody levels in patients. The results of this analysis indicate a significant decrease in Hb, WBC, and platelet levels. In contrast to the control group, the serum levels of CD69, IL-21, and IL-35 increased significantly. Conclusion: Pantoea produces elevated diagnostic and immunological parameters in SLE patients. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct assays to identify bacterial infections in patients, with a significant increase in CD69, IL-21, and IL-35 in the event that SLE patients are infected with bacteria.

9. Assessment of Inter-Individual Pharmacokinetic Variability of Voriconazole Based on Bile Salt Disparities using POP-PK Modeling
Priya Sharma, Tanveer Naved, Arti R Thakkar
Background and Objectives: Voriconazole is a powerful biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II antifungal agent with vast inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. Bile salts have recently emerged as potential contributors to such variations. Based on population PK modeling and in-vitro biorelevant dissolution investigations, the current study intends to evaluate the inter-individual variability of voriconazole in pediatrics. Methods: All models were developed using PK-Sim software. A simulated population consisting of 100 pediatric individuals was established following the baseline model development. Further, experimentally obtained in-vitro dissolution data of voriconazole based on the bile salt differences representing different pediatric age groups were incorporated into a qualified pediatric model. Simulated plasma concentration-time profiles were then evaluated by comparing model-predicted parameters with that of the baseline model to draw inferences. Result: Each model was created and validated successfully. The pediatric subjects were shown to have larger inter-individual variability than adult subjects. Additionally, simulations based on individual parameter estimations from the final model showed that after administering a 4 mg/kg peroral dose of voriconazole, the anticipated Cmax values of the adult model were within a two-fold range compared to that of the pediatric model. However, upon comparison, the model-predicted population pk profiles of children, infants, and neonates showed minimal variations in the Cmax values. Conclusion: In pediatrics, voriconazole inter-individual variability was significantly influenced by the concentration of gut bile salts. Furthermore, the present research can be carried forward along with population PK modeling and sufficient clinical data for dose recommendations in special populations as well as in diseased conditions.

10. Validated Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Quantification of Process Related Impurities of Solifenacin and Mirabegron in Pharmaceutical Formulations
DJ Patil, R K Godge, SN Jahagirdar, SB Mandhare
To assess solifenacin (SOL) and mirabegron (MER) simultaneously, a verified reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed to indicate stability. The method was thoroughly evaluated and found to meet satisfactory criteria for precision, linearity, accuracy, limits on detection, and robustness, limits on quantitation. The quantitation wavelength of 231 nm was determined. Linearity was successfully demonstrated across concentration ranges of 5 to 25 μg/mL of solifenacin and 50 to 250 μg/mL of mirabegron. RPHPLC separations was conducted employing a Phenomenex L. C18 column measuring 250 x 4.6 mm and containing particles as small as 5 μm. The methanol and phosphate buffer (pH 7) were combined in a volumetric ratio of 25:75 to create the mobile phase. The separation is accomplished at a 0.7 mL per minute flow rate. Time spent in retention for mirabegron and solifenacin had been established at 5.521 and9.161 minutes, respectively. Forced degradation studies validated the stability-indicating character of the approach, which included hydrolysis under acidic and basic conditions, exposure to H2O2, thermal degradation, and photodegradation. Mirabegron and solifenacin exhibited 10 to 20% degradation under the specified conditions. Importantly, the process evaluated the two prescription drugs in detail with all degradation products generated during the forced degradation experiments. This developed method is characterized as straightforward, specific, and cost-effective, making them suitable of the simultaneous estimate of mirabegron with solifenacin in tabs dose forms.

11. Optimizing Verapamil Hydrochloride In-situ Delivery: A Strategic Formulation Approach using Box-Behnken Design for Enhanced Performance and Comprehensive Evaluation of Formulation Parameters
Ram K Choudhary, Sulochana Beeraka, Biresh K Sarkar, G Dharmamoorthy, Lalchand Devhare
This study focuses on formulating and assessing an in-situ gastro-retentive gel for precise delivery of verapamil hydrochloride to the stomach, aiming to extend its residence time and improve targeted delivery. Gels were synthesized in-situ using a cation-controlled gelation method, incorporating varied blends of pectin and HPMCK4M. Design Expert’s box behnken design was employed to assess responses such as buoyancy lag time, water uptake, and cumulative drug discharge. Results revealed that the developed gels exhibited a total float time exceeding 10 hours, with formulation T-2 showing the least floating lag time and a cumulative drug release of 99.40 ± 3.24% over 10 hours. This suggests effective prolongation of the gastric residence time, enabling controlled verapamil hydrochloride release. Additional evaluations, including appearance, pH, viscosity, in-vitro gel formation, drug content, density, and gel force, supported the robustness of the developed gels. Subsequent in-vitro dissolution and stability studies affirmed consistent active ingredient content, highlighting formulation stability over time. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the in-situ gels effectively extend gastric residence time, facilitating controlled verapamil hydrochloride release, marking significant advancements in drug delivery systems and targeted drug delivery within the gastrointestinal tract.

12. Design Development and Characterization of Nicardipine Solid Lipid Nano-Particulars
Kotha Kranthi Kumar, Vema Kiran, Ram Kumar Choudhary, Lalchand D Devhare, Sachinkumar Dnyaneshwar Gunjal
The present work was designed and characterized nicardipine solid lipid nano-particulars and formulated into capsule. The formulation was evaluated and stability also as per the specified limits. The nanoparticles were prepared by solid hydrophilic adsorbents. The obtained ratio of 1:1:1:2 of drugs, soy PC, DMPC, and labrasol shows the highest dissolved in water. The liquid form was converted into a solid product using an adsorbent like anhydrous lactose and aerosil 200. The above results indicated aerosil 200 containing which helped in enhanced dissolve state in water. The results indicated the formulation trial-6 %drug content -100.2, entrapment efficiency 84.13 ± 1.64, zeta potential measurement 0.789 ± 0.32, Drug release rate at 3rd hour 81.6% and relative bioavailability of optimized nanoparticle formulation (CNF-6) was significantly increased. As a result, the produced lipid-based formulation shown potential as a method for improving the transfer of lipophilic chemicals that are weakly water-soluble to the aqueous phase, hence improving oral bioavailability.

13. Formulation and Evaluation of Microspheres Drug Delivery for Multiple Sclerosis Disease Condition
Kiran K Jadhav, Gangadharappa HV
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is chronic inflammatory disease that affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which leads to the degeneration of oligodendrocytes, neurons, and myelin over time. Being the foremost reason of neurological disability multiple sclerosis has affected about 2.5 million humans around the world. MS is mainly seen in early adulthood and adults in their middle age. Disease modifying agents are being used in treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Medications that reduce the severity of the disease are frequently utilized as standard therapies. The immune system is the primary focus of modern MS treatments. However, researchers are putting more effort into designing novel CNS-focused treatments. Therefore, under the current scenario, an alternative route for drug delivery is required, one that provides a speedy onset of action and then maintains the drug release over an extended period. The desired prolong-acting intramuscular injecting stable fingolimod HCl microspheres to treat MS were formulated using solvent evaporation technique. Further, based on the number of factors to be optimized, formulation was prepared using solvent evaporation. Additionally, the formulated fingolimod microspheres were characterized for the size distribution of particle, particle surface morphology, and lyophilization of formulated microspheres. Post lyophilization, the formulated microspheres evaluation was done for efficiency of entrapment, drug release in-vitro, and stability parameters. Furthermore, invivo studies were performed on suitable animal models for the optimized formulation.

14. Formulation, In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Chronology-based Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System of an Antihypertensive Drug
Bhagyesh U Janugade, Neelam Singla
Current research aimed to prepare and estimate chronology-based mucoadhesive PDDS of antihypertensive drug losartan potassium through formulation of fast-dissolving core tablet and incorporation of core tablet to polymer coating to formulate bioadhesive PDDS through direct compression system. The coating was done by using polymers ethyl cellulose and carbopol 934. Pre-compression and post-compression parameters, drug release, lag time and mucoadhesive examination was assessed for the formulation. The expected lag time for hypertension is 8 hours; hence, this lag time was achieved by using a bioadhesive pulsatile system. The optimized formulation showed 8 hours lag time with appropriate mucoadhesion for an equivalent period. Moreover, in-vitro as well as in-vivo mucoadhesion investigations reflected the positive outcomes. Consequently, the BPDDS was the finest preventative substitute for drugs with the highest absorption in the stomach and for drugs used to treat diseases related to circadian rhythm.

15. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Montelukast Sodium Paper Tablets for Enhanced Drug Release
Patil Pavan, Mane Preeti, Wakure Balaji
In this study, the technique of paper-based tablets was evaluated for solubility enhancement of montelukast sodium (MS), an anti-asthmatic, Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II medication. Initially, the potential for compressing regular paper into tablets was rigorously examined. Results demonstrated that paper may be utilised to make tablets, regardless of type of the paper utilized. The medicinal quality was satisfactory; and entire tablets of the batch met the Indian Pharmacopeia’s criteria. Compressing drug-loaded paper resulted in the formation of drug-loaded tablets. The MS loaded tablets prepared using kitchen roll paper delivered the best results. The tablet was disintegrated in 27 seconds, and drug release of MS was enhanced by 1.88 folds. The tablets were sufficiently hard, and they did not get broken during friability studies. Also, the tablets passed the other evaluation parameters. These paper tablets were also stable under accelerated storage conditions.

16. Solubility Enhancement of Poorly Water-Soluble Aceclofenac by Amalgamation Micronization and Solid Dispersion Techniques
Vishal Gupta, Sokindra Kumar, Rajesh Agrawal
Aceclofenac is a poorly aqueous soluble Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug that has bioavailability problems after oral administration due to low aqueous solubility. There are numerous solubility modification approaches and they also have process limitations. Hence, the present research work aims to use two different solubility enhancement techniques (Micronization with Solid dispersion) simultaneously to counter individual limitations of techniques. The micronization technique increases the solubility of pure aceclofenac through increasing particle surface area, but it produces charged micronized material, leading to segregation and clumping of micronized material. Hence, micronized material handling during dosage form manufacturing is quite difficult. In the present research work, aceclofenac material is micronized by air jet mill to produce materials of below 25 μm size ranges. This micronized aceclofenac material is further encapsulated in a solid dispersion technique to produce amorphous aceclofenac materials. Solid dispersion of micronized aceclofenac was prepared by various techniques like physical kneading, solvent evaporation, melting and a combination thereof using different polymers (Polyox 301, HPMC, cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl behenate). The prepared solid dispersion formulation (SD-31, SD-22, SD-23 and SD-30) exhibited an increase in the dissolution of aceclofenac as compared to pure aceclofenac. Various characterization techniques (Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)) also reveal that aceclofenac crystallinity is significantly minimized in Solid dispersion formulation of SD-31, SD-22, SD-23 and SD-30. This selected solid dispersion (SD-31 and SD-22) also exhibited good stability (Photostability and stability at 40°C/75% RH after 3 months).

17. In-vitro Analysis of Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Antidiabetic and Antimicrobial Studies of Kaempferol Ethosomes
Raghav S Shraddha, Bhavna Kumar, Sethiya K Neeraj, Singhal Manmohan, Arya Swati

Flavonoids have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial properties, and they generally report to have poor bioavailability and dissolution. This work emphasized on developing and characterizing kaempferol-loaded ethosomes and evaluating them for in-vitro assessments. The cold method was used for preparing kaempferol (KMP) ethosomes by means of soya lecithin, ethanol, and propylene glycol. The ethosomes were evaluated for vesicle size (253 ± 2.6), entrapment efficiency (91.05 ± 0.11%), zeta potential (-31.7 ± 1.12 mV), and drug release (89.91 ± 3.3%), compared with the release of pure drug (kaempferol), which was 48.96 ± 3.6% and showed an approximate double increment in the release rate. KMP ethosomes follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The kaempferol ethosomes were further examined for their various in-vitro pharmacological activities as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antioxidant in comparison with pure kaempferol. The results reported kaempferol loaded-ethosomes showed a strong anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties and thus, can be exploited as a viable drug delivery for various therapeutic applications.

18. Fast Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate: Optimization by Box Behnken Design
Rama D Korni, Kamala KPV, V Sahiti
The current work was planned to optimize promethazine theoclate fast-dissolving tablets using Box Behnken design. The effect of three independent factors, the concentration of camphor (sublimating agent), sodium starch glycolate (superdisintegrant) and β-cyclodextrin (solubility enhancer) on two responses, disintegration time and percent drug release was studied. A total of 27 formulations were prepared and tested for various precompression and postcompression parameters. The correlation between factors and responses was established by plotting contour plots. The independent variables, the concentration of camphor and sodium starch glycolate, have a significant influence on response disintegration time, whereas the factor, concentration of β-cyclodextrin, has an effect on the response and percent drug release.

19. Targeting Breast Cancer: Encapsulation and In-vitro Studies of α-Amyrin from Capparis zeylanica L.
Shailaja A Dombe, Pramodkumar J Shirote
Historically, Capparis zeylanica L. has garnered attention for its potential effectiveness in treating cancer. This has inspired the researchers to delve into the plant’s properties in search of new and innovative compounds with anticancer properties. Therefore, the current study aimed to encapsulate and characterize α-amyrin phytochemical from leaf extract of C. zeylanica L. and study it for the in-vitro cancer cell line. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method development of C. zeylanica L. extracts furnished α-amyrin, whose characterization was established by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Molecular docking was performed using Auto Dock Vina software to validate the mechanism of action. The α-amyrin nanosponges was synthesized through the emulsion solvent diffusion method, employing various drug-polymer ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:5, with pullulan as the chosen polymer. Compatibility was revealed no interaction using FTIR. The cytotoxic properties were assessed on MCF-7 cell lines using MTT assay. The production yield and entrapment efficiency of F1-F5 batches in the range of 43 to 68.36% and 70 to 82.5%, respectively. Batch F5 showed the highest production yield, and entrapment efficiency. The average particle size ranges from 241.3 to 603.2 nm. The F5 formulation had shown the highest drug release (90.40 ± 0.88%). The IC50 value for optimized formulation was 34.54 μg/mL as observed in MCF-7 breast cancer, which was considerable as compared with 5-fluorouracil. In-silico studies revealed that α-amyrin showed good binding affinity to breast cancer PDBIDs and form a stable complex. In our study, α-amyrin has been successfully extracted and further validation through pharmaceutical formulation was done and warranted to solidify its potential as an effective anticancer agent.

20. Morin Hydrate Mediated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial Activity
Nanthakumar Ramalingam, Prabakaran Venkatachalam, V Vinodhkumar, C Vichitra
Morin hydrate is a flavonoid that is chosen as an active ingredient for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In order to characterize the morin hydrate assisted silver nanoparticles (MHNP), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), dynamic light scattering analyzer (DLS) was used, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) studies were used to determine the total amount of silver contained in the liquid state of the MHNP. Then, the formed nanoparticles were evaluated for antimicrobial effect. In the UV-visible spectroscopy, maximum absorption was observed at 444.5 nm, which is characteristic of silver nanoparticles. According to FE-SEM data, the generated nanoparticles were spherical, and DLS analysis determined that the average particle size was 83.4 nm. EDAX images additionally proved that silver was present in the sample. The antibacterial studies revealed that the nanoparticles were effective only against certain gram-positive bacterial strains; therefore, they can be used in biomedical applications, especially for treating infections caused by gram-positive bacteria.

21. Formulation, Optimization and Evaluation of Solid SMEDDS of Pioglitazone
Manisha R Patil, Sanjay K Kshirsagar
This investigation assessed 32 formulations of liquid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (L-SMEDDS) for pioglitazone (PGZ). The optimal PLS12 formulation comprises 40% capmul MC8 (oil), 40% cremophore RH40 (surfactant), and 20% PEG (co-surfactant). PLS12 exhibited approximately 75 nm droplet size, below 200 nm, and a PDI of 0.47, indicating nanosized droplets with uniform distribution. The formulation demonstrated stability, and achieved supreme drug loading capacity. The enhanced L-SMEDDS was solidified into solidified SMEDDS utilizing Sylloid 244 FP, subsequently in a free-flowing powder without drug interactions. Tablets were successfully formulated by incorporating S-SMEDDS with diverse tableting excipients. The selected tablet batch passed quality control and stability tests. The tablet exhibited a rapid and pH-independent release profile. The combined impact of SMEDDS and tablets collectively enhanced the solubility and dissolution of PGZ hydrochloride.

22. Hydrocortisone-loaded Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles for Macrophage Targeted Delivery in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Gaurav Tiwari, Saumya Singh, Shakkeela YE Ahammed, Rajapandi Raju, Ashish A Jaiswal
The multifaceted illness known as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a decline in post-bronchodilator pulmonary function in all individuals and is linked to local and systemic inflammation, attracting alveolar macrophages (AM). The objective of this study was to use carubinose-linked hydrocortisone-hybrid nanoparticles (HC-HNPs) to increase the glycotargeting effectiveness to AM. The emulsification solvent evaporation method was used to generate the HC-HCNPs, and various analytical techniques were used to characterize them, including %entrapment efficiency, analytical characterization and histopathology examinations. Results revealed that HC is entrapped inside the hybrid preparations, which contain specific signatures of molecules that interact with ligands and are expressed all through the cell surface, as well as the amorphous nature of HC-HNPs. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the surface structure and the particle size diameter which is enough to reach the AM through the nasal route. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed no interference from excipients in determining HC, indicating that the method is specific. The in-vivo findings showed that HC-HNPs demonstrated proof that very small and cost-effective nanoparticles can be developed to effectively target AM by effectively delivering HC-HNPs to the lungs.

23. Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Gel for Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy
Mahaveer Singh, Desu Brahma Srinivasa Rao, Varinder Soni, PS Minhas, S Amudha
Diabetic neuropathy is a prevalent and painful issue of diabetes mellitus, impacting a large number of people with both type 1 and 2 diabetes. Herbal formulations are found to be effective and have fewer side effects. The study aimed to create a topical polyherbal gel using ethanolic extracts and to evaluate polyherbal gel. Ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizomes and Gingko biloba leaves were obtained and used to prepare different formulations of polyherbal gels using Carbopol 940 and other excipients. The developed compositions were assessed using a range of gel evaluation standards, including physical examination pH, viscosity measurement, spreadability. The in-vitro permeation study is derived from the Franz diffusion. The evaluation shows ideal results for polyherbal gel. The pH of the polyherbal gel was observed to be between 6.22 and 6.51, which is considered suitable for topical application. The polyherbal gel formulations showed ideal viscosity range and spreadability. Among the four formulations, the PG3 formulation was found to be stable.

24. Design and Assessment of Boswellia Nanofibers for Diabetes Wound Healing
Sangeetha Mani, Anantharaj Veeraputhiran
Diabetic wounds present a major healthcare challenge because they frequently result in serious side effects and chronic, non-healing ulcers. The application of nanotechnology in the creation of sophisticated wound dressings has demonstrated encouraging outcomes in accelerating the healing of wounds. Particularly, nanofiber-based dressings have drawn interest because of their large surface area, porosity, and capacity to replicate the extracellular matrix, which creates the perfect surroundings for attachment of cells, growth, and differentiation. This review emphasizes the various materials and methods utilized in the preparation of nanofiber dressings, with a particular focus on their application in the treatment of diabetic wounds. Herbs and plant extracts are among the synthetic and natural polymers that have been added to nanofibers to improve their medicinal qualities. These materials provide mechanical support and possess bioactive components that promote wound healing, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Boswellia resin from Boswellia serrata, PVP, and PCL was obtained, and nanofibers were electrospinning to form them. The formulated nanofibers were further evaluated for entrapment efficiency, swelling index and moisture content. The in-vitro study showed formulation NF3 has the highest drug release. scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed a uniform surface of nanofiber mat.

25. Cold Emulsified Nanoemulsion: Enhancing Delivery and Stability of Thermolabile Acyclovir
P Bhatt, P Bigoniya
Acyclovir is an acyclic purine nucleoside widely used as an antiviral agent with good topical efficacy. Acyclovir is a thermolabile drug, making it challenging to formulate a stable and effective emulsion via a conventional emulsification process. This study aims to develop, optimize, and characterize the nanoemulsion of thermolabile drug acyclovir, manufactured by adopting a cold emulsification process and compare the physicochemical properties and diffusion pattern with a leading marketed formulation. Diffusion studies were conducted using Franz diffusion cells. The optimized formulation was subjected to quantitative estimation of acyclovir, impurity profiling, viscosity, pH, vesicle size, shape, and polydispersibility index (PDI). In the current study, the particle size of the nanoemulsion varies from 66.25 to 244.40 nm, and the zeta potential revealed a high negative surface charge on the particles. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed spherical-shaped, non-aggregated, and discrete globules. The in-vitro diffusion study of acyclovir nanoemulsion showed enhanced penetration efficacy than the conventional emulsion. All these observations signified that the cold emulsification process for manufacturing nanoemulsion is appropriate for thermolabile and pH-sensitive drugs. The study demonstrates enhanced stability and efficacy of optimized acyclovir nanoemulsion through cold emulsification.

26. Preparation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Periodontal Gel for Treatment of Periodontitis
NG Raghavendra Rao, Desu Brahma Srinivasa Rao, Parag A Kulkarni, Dhruv Dev, G Santhana Kumar
Periodontal disease is one of the most important concerns for dentists and patients. The study aimed to create a topical polyherbal gel using ethanolic extract and to evaluate polyherbal gel. Ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizomes, chamomile powder from Matricaria chamomilla, and clove oil were obtained and used to prepare different formulations of polyherbal gels using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and other excipients. The prepared gel formulations were studied for pH, viscosity and spreadability evaluation. The pH was observed to be in between 6 to 7 and had ideal viscosity and spreadability range. The drug content and in-vitro drug release profile were evaluated and plotted to identify optimized gel formulations among all prepared formulations. The optimized polyherbal formulation, F2, was applied to field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The antimicrobial evaluation showed that the prepared formulations are effective in inhibiting microbial growth and effective in periodontal care.

27. Development of Multi-particulate Formulation of Glabridin with L-Phenylalanine and Its Pre-clinical Evaluation for Anti-obesity Activity
Vyas UB, Khobragade KS, Vyas PU
Obesity is a chronic condition that is defined by pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to an increase in adipose tissue mass as a result of positive energy balance. Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder involving different mechanisms of action like humoral and neurogenic actions. Hypertrophied and hyperplastic adipocytes are indicative of pathological obesity. In the current treatment regimen, the drugs used mainly focus on a single mechanism of action. Herbal medicines are reported to have anti-obesity activity but due to the presence of multiple phytoconstituents its very difficult for one to finalize the dose and issue of palatability. So the best solution is to focus on usage of active phytoconstituent as an anti-obesity medicine. A high protein diet proved to have anti-obesity activity, the main constituent responsible for this activity is L-phenylalanine which is an essential amino acid that produces its activity by stimulating the satiety centre and thus decreases food intake.
In this study, we are combining glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra and L-phenylalanine as both show anti-obesity activity through different action mechanisms, which may result in synergism. The study aims to prepare multi-particulate system (granules) of glabridin with L-phenylalanine and evaluate their anti-obesity and hypo-lipidemic action in HFD-treated rats.

28. Formulation and Evaluation of Natural Excipient-based Mucoadhesive Salbutamol Sulphate Tablets
Rathi PC, Biyani KR
When creating a mucoadhesive sustained-release formulation for oral consumption, aquaphilic matrices are a captivating option to consider. These aquaphilic matrices are used to release water-soluble and water-insoluble drugs. Gums and mucilages used in the current study are linseed mucilage (LM) and tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP). The present work aims to focus on the possibilities of using these polysaccharides to prepare a new medication delivery system. The aim of the research was to make a salbutamol sulfate mucoadhesive tablet for the treatment of asthma. The wet granulation method was adopted for the formulation of the salbutamol sulfate mucosal adhesive tablet. Mucosal adhesive tablets were assessed for multiple parameters. The drug release is low as the amount of gums and mucilages is high. A mucoadhesive tablet containing linseed mucilage and chitosan exhibits good mucoadhesive performance and in-vitro drug release. Optimized formulation FM1 fits the Higuchi plot of release kinetics.

29. Comparative Assessment of the Antioxidant Potential of DifferentParts of Delonix regia
Singh S, Sardana S, Verma I
The flamboyant tree, or Delonix regia, has attracted a lot of interest due to the widespread belief that it can be used as a powerful antioxidant. The search for natural antioxidants has taken on paramount relevance as the world faces increasing health problems attributed to oxidative stress. D. regia, a native of Madagascar, can be found all across the tropics and subtropics and is highly regarded for its medicinal value and beautiful red flowers. The complex phytochemical composition of D. regia includes a number of bioactive compounds that might prevent oxidative damage to biomolecules. Flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, carotenes, and tocopherols are all examples of these substances. The antioxidant action of different parts of D. regia is comprehensively examined and clarified in this work, from its broad scope in direct radical scavenging to its fine-tuning of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant capabilities of D. regia have been studied for their potential to address a broad spectrum of illnesses and health conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and a number of skin issues. The importance of utilizing nature’s bounty in the hunt for novel remedies to oxidative stress-related illnesses is underscored by this study’s addition to the growing body of knowledge concerning the antioxidant effects of D. regia. Further research is recommended to explore the pharmacological properties of D. regia to fully harness its medicinal potential for the advancement of human health and well-being.

30. Pharmacological Approaches in Rheumatoid Arthritis- An In-depth Analysis of Prescribed Medications
James E, Suseem SR
Inflammation, pain, swelling, and stability of the joints are some of the symptoms associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A variety of treatment options are available to manage symptoms and slow the progression of RA, despite the fact that there is no cure. This cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala, India, aimed to evaluate medication prescribing practices and therapeutic strategies in RA patients. The study included 280 RA patients and data on demographics, medications prescribed, dosage, and mode of administration were collected. The findings revealed that disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were the cornerstone of RA treatment, with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), methotrexate (MTX), and sulfasalazine (SAAZ) being the most frequently prescribed DMARDs. Combination DMARD therapy, particularly the triple combination of HCQ + Folitrax + SAAZ, was prevalent among patients. Furthermore, the study highlighted the use of biologic DMARDs, such as rituximab and tofacitinib, albeit at a relatively lower rate due to the outpatient population’s milder disease severity. Supplement therapy, including vitamin D3 and folic acid, was commonly prescribed to address deficiencies and mitigate the side effects of medications like MTX. The prescription patterns also encompassed analgesics, anti-anxiety, and antidepressant medications to manage pain and psychological symptoms associated with RA. Steroids were administered initially to control inflammation, with a focus on minimizing long-term usage. The study underscores the complexity of RA management and the importance of individualized treatment approaches. It highlights the evolving landscape of RA therapeutics, emphasizing the need for clinicians to stay updated on emerging evidence and guidelines. Future research should focus on evaluating the long-term efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of different treatment regimens to optimize patient outcomes in RA management.

31. AQbD Assisted Method Optimization for Simultaneous Quantification of Potential Phytosterols in Novel Polyherbal Formulation by LC-PDA Method
Sireesha Rayadurgam, Manikandan Krishnan, Mohan Kumar R
Background: Herbal medications are preferred by individuals with cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) worldwide for their distinct benefits in preventing and treating illnesses and lesser side effects. A novel polyherbal formulation compiled of ten plants (Allium sativum, Rubia cordifolia, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia catechu, Helianthus annus, Vitis vinifera, Commiphora mukul, Linum usitatissimum, and Piper nigrum) was developed for treating cardiovascular diseases. As a part of standardization, marker analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be highly encouraged. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we selected lupeol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol and went for simultaneous quantification using design of experiments (DoE) software (AQbD-Analytical quality by design) to optimize the experimental parameters. The phenomenex RP C18 column, with 250 mm length, 4.6 mm internal diameter, 5 μm particle size, was preferred for the study. Mobile phase with methanol and 0.01% formic acid solution in water surged with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. using a maximum detection wavelength of 208 nm. Results and Discussion: Under the specified circumstances, we determined the retention times of lupeol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol to be 14.056, 15.544, and 17.431 minutes, respectively, with the desirability of 0.975. The concentrations of lupeol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol in the extract were determined to be 30.72, 370.6, and 212.64 μg/10 mg, respectively. The linear range of 31.25 to 500 μg/mL was found to have an R2 value of 0.9972, 0.9976 and 0.9968, respectively. 0.2534, 0.754,0.421 μg/mL and 0.7681, 2.29, 1.28 μg/mL were the limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantitation (LoQ) values, respectively. The RSD for precision was determined to be 0.92, 0.98, and 0.96%, respectively. Recovery experiments were conducted, and the accuracy of the suggested approach was between 99 and 102%. Conclusion: Using the modernized software tool- AQbD (analytical quality by design), the study was first scientifically validated for the quantification of three phytomarkers in the novel polyherbal formulation.

32. An Ecologically Sound RP-HPLC Method for Estimating Citicoline using AQbD with Degradation Studies
R Vineetha, Manikandan Krishnan
Background: Citicoline is widely used for neurological complications. This research work was carried out using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) employing green analytical chemistry principles. Materials and Methods: The method was completely developed with ethanol:water (20:80 v/v) as the mobile phase, 0.1% orthophosphoric acid was used to adjust the pH to 3.5, and an Inertsil ODS 3 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column as the stationary phase, the flow rate was set at 1-mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 35ºC, and an injection volume of 10 μL was used for detection at a wavelength of 250 nm. Results and Discussion: The peak was eluted with isocratic elution with a retention time of 3.996 minutes. The linear concentration range for this method was 10 to 50 μg/mL, and the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.999. The forced degradation studies have shown that 3.5% w/w degraded in acid, 1.35% w/w in alkali, and 0.2% w/w in oxidation. The products formed during degradation were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Conclusion: The International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines were followed in the development and validation of the method optimized by the use of central composite design, and the method’s greenness was assessed through the use of AGREE, AES, GAPI, and AMGS, among other green assessment tools.

33. Phytochemical Screening of Asparagus racemosus Willd
Barnali Maiti Sinha, Harshal Tare
Asparagus racemosus, popularly referred to as Shatavari in both Hindi and Sanskrit, is considered one of the greatest important therapeutic plants around. The use of A. racemosus as a galactotgogue and for preventing and treating stomach ulcers and dyspepsia is suggested in Ayurvedic writings. Additionally, it helps with inflammation, neurological disorders, liver problems, and even some viral infections. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts in this research indicated the presence of a variety of chemicals in extracts. According to the findings of a research that investigated the phytochemical properties of A. racemosus, this plant has the potential to be used in the development of novel medicines.

34. Development and Optimization of Eperisone Hydrochloride Microcapsule
Vijay Sharma, Charanjeet Singh, Anil K Gupta, Yashwant
The main objective of the work is to develop the microcapsule of eperisone hydrochloride. In the investigation, a 23-factorial design were was employed for the optimization process and to investigate the effect of Eudragit® RS100 concentration in the coating solution (X1), the speed of rotation (X2) and the concentration of plasticizer (PEG 400) (X3) on the release rate of the drug from the microcapsules. The extent of coating (Y1), and the percentage of drug released at 1 (Y2), 6 (Y3) and 12 hours (Y4) were selected as dependent variables. Optimized microcapsules of eperisone hydrochloride follow the zero-order kinetics that a promising controlled release of the highly water soluble drug and was successfully designed for further formulation.

35. Design and Characterization of Hallow Porous Floating Microspheres of Favipiravir
Naga C Pallam, Vidyavathi Maruvajala, Tiriveedhi SS Mounika
The present investigation deals with the design and characterization of favipiravir floating microspheres for gastro retentive drug delivery system by employing 3² factorial design and also to investigate the main effects of different independent variables on microspheres that float. The emulsion solvent diffusion method was used to manufacture floating microspheres with Eudragit S 100 as the polymer. These microspheres will extend the release of the medicine, reducing the frequency of administration and the harmful effects caused by fluctuations in plasma concentration with conventional dosage forms. The main effect of independent variables like polymer Eudragit S 100 concentrations (50, 100, 150 mg) and stirring time (1, 2 and 3 hours) on the performance of microspheres. Formulated microspheres were characterized for responses including drug release, particle size, and entrapment efficiency and floating time. Based on the results of the responses, the optimized composition was arrived using the response surface method graphical and numerical optimization method using design of experiments (DoE) software. Then, the optimized formulation (OFES) was prepared and evaluated for the four responses compared with predicted values to find the validity of the selected model. The optimized formulation was further analyzed for drug-excipient compatibility by fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and also analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Further zeta potential and micrometric properties were also observed. The results for the formulation FES 1 to 9 found were, that particles size ranged from 0.192 to 0.277 μm, entrapment efficiency ranged from 68.65 ± 1.9 to 76.25 ± 3.2%, percentage drug release range was from 89.25 ± 0.24 to 93.68 ± 0 .25%, and floating time range was from 12 to 23 hours. As per the design, OFES an optimized formulation fitted with the concentration of Eudragit S 100 of 139.1 mg and stirring time of 1-hour. Regarding the kinetic release, the responses were best fitted with Higuchi model of R² value of 0.9795 with kinetic mechanism of non-fickian diffusion with R² value of 0.9499, indicating good linearity. The combination of different variables and their effects on responses were investigated well using factorial design, and an optimized formulation was developed for favipiravir.

36. Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation, GC-MS Characterization, In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Melastomataceae Species Memecylon malabaricum (C.B. Clarke) Cogn.
RR Manjula, Thirumal M
The leaf extracts of Memecylon malabaricum were subjected to a detailed phytochemical investigation as part of this study. Based on the findings of this investigation, it was discovered that the leaf extracts included a wide range of bioactive components. These components included carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, phenols, and saponins. Throughout the whole of the experiment, the only extract that displayed phytosterols was the ethanolic extract. The findings of the DPPH, ABTS, total antioxidant assay-FRAP, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, and total antioxidant assay-CUPAC assays demonstrated that all of the samples, but sample A in particular, had antioxidant qualities that were encouraging. This was the conclusion that was reached. A GC-MS analysis was used to thoroughly examine the chemical configuration of the leaves of M. malabaricum. According to the findings of this inquiry, 60 distinct components were examined. The legitimacy of the therapeutic potential of M. malabaricum is gained as a result of these results, which also pave the way for more study into the plant’s possible applications in the fields of pharmacology and medicine.

37. Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Candesartan Cilexetil by Complexation with Cyclodextrin
Ghaith M Aziz, Eman B H Al-Khedairy
At present, numerous novel chemical compounds face challenges related to their limited solubility in aqueous environments. These compounds are classified under the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) as either class II or class IV substances. Different carriers were used to increase their solubility. Candesartan cilexetil (CC) is one of the most widely used antihypertensive drugs, which belongs to class II drugs.
The aim of this research was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of CC through a complexation approach involving β-cyclodextrin and its derivatives, specifically hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), methyl beta cyclodextrin (M-β-CD), and sulfonyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD), serving as complexing agents. This complexation process was investigated both with and without the inclusion of poloxamer 407 (PX407) as a hydrophilic polymer. The complex was prepared through a combination of grinding, kneading, and co-evaporation techniques. The resulting complex underwent characterization, including assessments of its percentage yield, drug content, solubility, and dissolution properties, as well as analyses using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results revealed that, the complex prepared using 1:1 molar ratio of M -β-CD:CC in the presence of 5% w/w PX407 by co-evaporation method had the highest percentage yield (97%) with drug content of 98.5%, the highest solubility (0.052 mg/mL)and fastest release of drug within 45 minutes compared to the other methods. The FTIR, DSC, and XRD confirmed the development of a partial inclusion complex of an amorphous nature.

38. In-vitro, In-vivo Study of Jatropha curcas Leaves Extract, and Preparation of a Nanoemulsion by a Low-energy/Solvent-free Method, In-silico Study of β-Sitosterol in Ulcerative Colitis
Gayathiri K, Chitra V
Introduction: ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurring colon inflammation, leading to severe symptoms and decreased quality of life. Jatropha curcas, a traditional remedy for UC, particularly its active component β-sitosterol, is investigated here for its potential therapeutic benefits. Methods: The study evaluated J. curcas leaf extract’s effects on RAW 264.7 cell lines in-vitro, demonstrating a significant reduction in IL-6 production and promising anti-UC properties. In-vivo experiments on BALB/C mice with DSS-induced colitis confirmed dose-dependent reductions in disease severity, colon tissue damage, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Additionally, a solvent-free nanoemulsion of J. curcas leaf extract was developed, exhibiting enhanced stability, encapsulation efficiency, and sustained release of active components, offering a promising drug delivery strategy for UC therapy. This interdisciplinary research contributes valuable insights into the therapeutic potential of J. curcas leaf extract and its nanoemulsion for UC treatment. Molecular docking simulations suggest strong binding affinities between β-sitosterol and inflammatory mediators, shedding light on its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiling further support the development of J. curcas-based UC therapeutics, laying a solid foundation for future studies and clinical applications.

39. Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking Technology-based Strategy to Explore the Potential Mechanism of Diabecon Formulation Botanicals
Vijay Sable, Ganesh Ahire
This study presents network pharmacology and a molecular docking-centered approach to elucidate the possible mechanism of action underlying the therapeutic effects of diabecon, a formulation containing Gymnema sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Asphaltum punjabinum botanicals. Through comprehensive bioinformatics analysis, a collection of bioactive compounds present in these botanicals was identified, and their potential targets were forecasted using Swiss Target Prediction and STITCH. Disease-related genes were retrieved from Genecards and OMIM, and common genes between potential targets and disease-related genes were determined. Pathway analysis using the DAVID database revealed significant enrichment in pathways related to metabolic processes, xenobiotic metabolism, and signaling pathways, such as the insulin signaling pathway and pathways in cancer. Network construction using cytoscape highlighted interactions among identified genes, providing insights into the molecular pathways modulated by diabecon. Molecular docking analysis further elucidated the possible connections amongst biologically active compounds and target proteins, with (2S)-7-hydroxyflavanone exhibiting strong binding affinity with DPP-IV enzyme. Overall, this integrated approach offers valuable insights into the potential mechanisms of action of diabecon, contributing to our understanding of its therapeutic effects in the management of diabetes mellitus.

40. Pharmacokinetic Profiling and Optimization of Local Anesthetic Delivery Techniques in Dental Procedures a Prospective Cohort Study
Hina Ahmed, Rutuja P Sindgi, Bharti Gupta, Deven M Rawlani
The optimization and pharmacokinetic profile of dental local anesthetics are the subjects of this prospective cohort study. Using Chi-square testing, the study analyzes and evaluates cohort data. Various study participants must undergo dental procedures under the influence of a local anesthetic. Local anesthetics may be administered intravenously, orally, or topically. The pharmacokinetic profile assesses a local anesthetic’s transit time, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The Chi-square test evaluates the efficacy, duration, patient satisfaction, and adverse effects of various ways of administering analgesics. This statistical analysis looks at the impact of distribution technique and other categorical variables on the final product. This study aims to identify the best local anesthetic delivery technique for dental procedures in terms of efficacy, safety, and convenience. The results will enhance dental offices and the way patients feel about their visits. Find out how the variables are related by using the Chi-square test. The optimal delivery strategy may be determined by identifying statistically significant variations between delivery modalities. For the purpose of improving patient care, this prospective cohort study used the Chi-square test to learn more about the distribution of local anesthetics during dental procedures.

41. In-silico Drug Repurposing of Abiraterone-based Compounds as 17α-Hydroxylase Inhibitors for Breast Cancer Treatment Using Drug-Drug Transcriptomic Similarity Analysis and Molecular Docking
Siddartha Bethi, Vinod Wagh, Shital Bidkar, Mahesh Thorat, Nitinchandra Patil
This research explores abiraterone-based compounds’ in-silico drug repurposing potential as inhibitors of 17α-hydroxylase for breast cancer treatment, employing a multifaceted approach integrating molecular docking and drug-drug transcriptomic similarity analysis. Drug-drug transcriptomic similarity analysis revealed abiraterone to be the most transcriptomically similar compound, suggesting shared biological effects and repurposing opportunities. Molecular docking results identified abiraterone as a lead compound with a robust binding affinity and interacting amino acids within the active site of 17α-hydroxylase. Other compounds, including marbofloxacin, ataluren, zafirlukast, and montelukast, exhibited promising binding scores and diverse interactions, reinforcing their potential as potent inhibitors. Cell line-specific responses and connectivity patterns provided nuanced insights, guiding the selection of compounds. Overall, our findings underscore abiraterone-based compounds, especially abiraterone itself, as promising candidates for experimental validation, offering a significant stride in the pursuit of targeted and repurposed therapeutics for breast cancer treatment.

42. Development and Evaluation of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Tablets for Oral Drug Delivery Technology
Vijay Sable, Sanjay Wagh
Oral pills are the predominant, simple, and straightforward approach for administering drugs. The project’s primary goal is to create a pharmaceutical product that is equal in terms of its medicinal properties. A controlled-release version of the antidepressant venlafaxine hydrochloride was created and compared to the formulation currently available on the market. The launch of the branded product was assessed through an innovator and prototype evaluation. In order to develop stable and bioavailable dosage forms, it is necessary to gather pertinent data through preformulation testing. In order to create stable and bioavailable dosage forms, preformulation testing must be performed to gather relevant information among the several mixes, high-performance polymer copolymer K100M, ethyl cellulose, and cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone 0.45%. The precise release mechanism could be determined by conducting in-vitro solubility tests on the created formulations and analyzing the results with a number of exponential equations. We used fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies to check if the polymers were compatible with the medicine.

43. Extraction, Isolation and Neuropharmacological Potential ofPhyllanthus acidus L.
Nripen Khare, Harshal Tare, Sachin K Jain
Because of their broad availability, low cost, low danger, and few side effects, medicinal herbs are vital in traditional medication all over the world. Traditional therapeutic herb Phyllanthus acidus L. is well-known for its calming possessions on the nervous system. Its roots are known for their activity against bacteria, inflammation, immunity stimulation, and erogenous properties, which contribute to potential health benefits. This study investigates the neuropharmacological effects of P. acidus L. in enhancing memory, targeting cognitive disorders and learning deficits. Analysis of the ethanolic extract’s phytochemistry of P. acidus L. revealed a rich composition of phytoconstituents. UV analysis and thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassay demonstrated significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by the extract. TLC and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analyses of the extract indicated distinct and well-separated spots, suggesting the presence of active compounds. Additionally, the extract was assessed for its total phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content, revealing antioxidant properties through ex-vivo lipid peroxidation assays. The study concludes that the ethanolic extract of P. acidus L. exhibits memory-enhancing, antidepressant, and neuroprotective effects attributed to its AChE inhibition, modulation of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, and antioxidant activity. This suggests its potential utility in Alzheimer’s dementia treatment, though further research is necessary to elucidate pharmacology with mechanisms of action and applications.

44. A Validated IVRT Method to Evaluate Semisolid Dosage Form Containing Ximenynic Acid Using a Novel Approach
Rakesh Shivatare, Shailesh Kewatkar, Neetin Bhutale, Vibhavari Chatur, Harshal Tare
Purpose: Ximenynic acid (XMA) holds significant potential in the market, especially due to its widespread application in the cosmetics sector. As its various biological activities continue to be discovered, there is a sharp rise in demand for ximenynic acid. A novel analytical approach has been devised for an in-house product, comparable to the reference listed drug (Softalia, containing 30% ximenynic acid), utilized in gel formulations. This method is designed to conduct in-vitro release studies employing Franz vertical diffusion cell apparatus and analytical quantification via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: The methodology has been assessed concerning specificity, linearity, the limit of quantitation (LoQ), limit of detection (LoD), inter-day precision, intermediate precision, accuracy, and solution stability. Following method development, the reference product containing 30% ximenynic acid underwent testing against the in-house XMA semisolid dosage form to accurately demonstrate “equivalence”, with results aligning with the applicable acceptance criteria falling within the range of 75 to 133.33%, as outlined in the FDA’s SUPAC-SS guidance. The in-vitro release assay has proven valuable for quality assurance, batch comparison, and monitoring the impacts of different formulations, scales, scaling up/down, methods, locations, and other variables. Results: This research fabricates specific IVRT techniques for performing assessments of semisolid dosage forms, which are required for many regulatory purposes.

45. Novel HPLC Method Validation for Quantification of Dapagliflozin in Bulk Drug and Formulation
Avinash Birajdar, Bhagwat Chavan, Sandip Badadhe, Hanumant Bhusnar, Jayadeep Yadav
A new, steady, easy-to-use, and straightforward high-performance liquid chromatography (HPCL) technique was also tested to determine dapagliflozin concentration in medicinal and API forms. For the chromatographic extraction study, a Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18 Column was used. This column was filled with a mobile phase that was 70:30 v/v methanol to sodium 1-octanesulphonate. This experiment used a 20-liter syringe amount and a flow rate of 1-mL per minute. A bunch of factors were used to make sure the new method worked. The drug dapagliflozin was released at a wavelength of 203 nm after 6.5 ± 0.5 minutes. A correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9994 between 15 to 55 μg/mL shows that the planned process is linear. The theoretical plates and peak tailing were found to be 4129 and 1.03, respectively. In terms of healing, the percent accuracy that was reached was within the acceptable range of 98 to 100. New suggestions say that the regular testing of dapagliflozin in large amounts must be done using a proven method that is unique and easy to repeat. Forced breakdown tests with drugs were used to show that the proposed method is stable. The product was tested according to the steps laid out in the ICH Q2R1 Guidelines. The test looked at many chemical processes, such as oxidation, photolysis, heat stress, and acids and alkaline hydrolysis.

46. Investigation of Neuroprotective Activity of Extracts of Asparagus racemosus Willd. in Acrylamide Induced Neurotoxicity in Adult Zebrafish
Barnali Maiti Sinha, Harshal Tare
The efficacy of an extract from Asparagus racemosus seeds in protecting zebrafish neurons from acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity was the focus of this investigation. ACR treatment induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish by reducing glutathione reductase levels by a factor of 3, increasing lipid peroxidation activity by a factor of 3.4, elevating nitrite levels by a factor of 1.7, raising acetylcholinesterase levels by a factor of 3.9, and decreasing total protein levels by a factor of 1.4, when compared to wild-type zebrafish. Vinpocetine demonstrated neuroprotective properties in ACR-induced zebrafish. These results indicate a 2.7-fold increase in glutathione reductase, a 3.4-fold reduction in lipid peroxidation activity, a 1.5-fold decrease in nitrite levels, a 3.2-fold decrease in acetylcholinesterase levels, and a 1.4-fold increase in total protein levels. Zebrafish with inherent genetic traits had similar outcomes. Treatment with solvent seed extracts from A. racemosus effectively reduced the damage caused by ACR. Following this intervention, levels of glutathione reductase, lipid peroxides, nitrite, protein, and acetylcholinesterase activity reverted back to levels seen in control group. The ethanolic extract exhibited superior neuroprotective effects compared to the solvent extract in zebrafish treated with ACR. After administering an ethanolic seed extract therapy at a concentration of 440 mg/l, the levels of glutathione reductase rose by a factor of 2.7. Simultaneously, there was a decrease in lipid peroxidation activity by 3.1, nitrite by 1.4, and acetylcholinesterase by 2.7. The protein content of zebrafish exposed to ACR rose by a factor of 1.3. Wild zebrafish had comparable results.

47. Extraction, Isolation and Neuropharmacological Potential of Peristrophe bicalyculata (R.) Nees
Nripen Khare, Harshal Tare
Because of their widespread availability, low cost, low risk, and lack of side effects, medicinal herbs play a crucial role in traditional medicine all throughout the world. For medicinal purposes, Peristrophe bicalyculata (R.) is being used today. Nees as a nerve system tonic. Plant roots have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, and aphrodisiac properties. This plant root may provide health advantages, making it suitable for nutraceutical and functional food compositions. This research examined P. bicalyculata (R.) neuropharmacological effects on memory enhancement to treat cognition-related illnesses and learning and memory disorders. In phytochemical investigation, P. bicalyculata (R.) Nees ethanolic extract has higher phytoconstituents. Spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate bioassay detection showed that P. bicalyculata (R.) Nees ethanolic extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity. TLC and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were performed on P. bicalyculata (R.) Nees ethanolic extract. TLC and HPTLC spots are well resolved, indicating active ingredients in the extract. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic content of P. bicalyculata (R.) Nees ethanolic extract was measured. Ex-vivo tests like lipid peroxidation testing reveal the extract is antioxidant. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of P. bicalyculata (R.) Nees has memory-enhancing, antidepressant, and neuroprotective properties due to its anticholinesterase potential, effect on neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, and antioxidant profile. More research is needed on its safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action for therapeutic use.

48. Green Analytical HPLC Method Development of Acyclovir Loaded Floating Raft Formulation in Spiked Rabbit Plasma
Rajalakshmi Munusamy, Kola Hepzhibah, Sangeetha Shanmugasundharam
Objective: The need of this investigation is to design eco-friendly, sensitive, and precise bioanalytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques that leverage green analytical tools such as green analytical procedure index (GAPI), analytical eco scale (AES), and analytical greenness metric (AGREE) to analyze ACV-spiked rabbit plasma and ACV-loaded floating raft formulation (FRF) because The literature survey revealed insufficient data for the HPLC approach to FRF. Method: Methods involving plasma spikes mirroring the in-vivo models provide insights into potential real-life scenarios and the functionality of floating raft formulations loaded with ACV. The Design Expert tool optimized critical process parameters and identified significant factors influencing the chromatographic technique. Results: The CCD was used to optimize the flow rate (0.6 mL/min) and buffer solvent ratio (99:1) for separation. The C18 column (250 X 4.6 mm) was utilized to achieve the elution of ACV. The developed method was thoroughly validated through ICH guidelines. The ACV, lower limit of detection (LLoD), and lower limit of quantitation (LLoQ) retention times were established at 2.3 minutes, 15, and 20 ng/mL, respectively. Discussion: In summary, the study demonstrated the exceptional performance sensitivity, specificity, and robustness of the bioanalytical method. The method proved highly effective in quantifying ACV in plasma samples in terms of revalidatability, transferability, reproducibility, and the product development cycle. The developed method proves that using both design of experiments (DoE) and green analytical chemistry together creates a valid, eco-friendly, and reliable way to analyze the making of an ACV-loaded floating raft formulation.

49. Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Ethosomal Cream of Passiflora foetida Linn. for the Treatment of Psoriasis
Umesh Jadhao, Harshal Tare
Psoriasis is an autoimmune condition with the most significant and far-reaching consequences for humans. In order to cure psoriasis, an herbal ethosomal cream was developed, and one of the plants that went into its production was the Passiflora foetida Linn. plant. A large number of distinct phytochemical identification tests were carried out with the use of a broad range of reagents. The ability of an antioxidant to reduce free radicals, as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), is one way that its effectiveness may be shown. Coconut oil, olive oil, and vitamin E oil are the three essential oils combined to make the final product. All of these oils bring its own unique set of medicinal benefits to the table. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis carried out on the herbal extract revealed the presence of phytoconstituents inside the sample. The overall quality of the cream that was produced was evaluated. The LC-MS approach was used to dissect the anti-inflammatory and psoriasis-fighting components included in herbal remedies. An attempt to treat psoriasis using herbal medicine was made using the ethosomes of the P. foetida Linn. plant.

50. Desitometric Development and Validation for Simultaneous Determination of Antiretroviral Drugs Lamivudine, Zidovudine and Nevirapine in Fixed-Dose Combination Tablets
Ashwini Shelke, Tushar Lokhande
A cutting-edge high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) approach designed for simultaneous measurement of tablets containing drugs like lamivudine, nevirapine, and zidovudine. Chromatograms were performed employing chloroform and methanol (8:2 v/v) on pre-coated silica gel aluminum thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The data was quantified using the optical density absorbance mode at 271 nm. The Rf values for lamivudine, zidovudine, and nevirapine were 0.140, 0.523, and 0.678, respectively. Linearity was found for lamivudine, zidovudine and nevirapine at concentrations of 150 to 900 ng band-1, 300 to 1800 and 200 to 1200 ng band-1, respectively. Lamivudine had a lower limit of detection (LLoD) of 27.36 ng band-1 and a lower limit of quantitation (LLoQ) of 82.91 ng band-1, whereas zidovudine had LoQs of 64.13 ng band-1 and 194.34 ng band-1. For nevirapine, the values were 35.52 and 107.64 ng band-1, respectively. Lamivudine had a lower LoD of 27.36 ng band-1 and a lower LoQ of 82.91 ng band-1, whereas zidovudine had LoQs of 64.13 and 194.34 ng band-1. For nevirapine, the values were 35.52 and 107.64 ng band-1, respectively. The recovery, specificity, and accuracy of this device have been demonstrated. This new formulation evaluated market tablet formulations of the above drugs (Duovir, Cipla Ltd.). The developed method demonstrated the ability to simultaneously identify these drugs from quantitative data without interference.

51. Evaluating the Efficacy of Tetracycline Local Drug Delivery in Managing Oral Lesions Caused by Pathogens: A Comparative Study
Hina Ahmed, Shekhar Gupta, Bharti Gupta, Dipooja Patil
Background: Oral lesions caused by pathogens represent a significant clinical challenge, necessitating effective management strategies. Due to its antimicrobial properties, tetracycline local drug delivery has shown promise in combating such lesions. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of tetracycline local drug delivery compared to conventional treatments in managing oral lesions caused by pathogens. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was conducted involving 100 patients diagnosed with oral lesions attributable to pathogenic infections. Patients were randomly assigned to either the tetracycline local drug delivery group or the conventional treatment group. The tetracycline group received locally administered tetracycline, while the conventional group received standard treatments such as antiseptic mouthwashes or topical corticosteroids. Lesion size, pain scores, and microbial load were assessed at baseline and after four weeks of treatment. Results: In the tetracycline local drug delivery group, the mean reduction in lesion size was 50%, compared to 30% in the conventional treatment group (p < 0.05). Pain scores decreased significantly in both groups, with a greater reduction observed in the tetracycline group (p < 0.01). Microbial load showed a significant decrease in the tetracycline group compared to the conventional group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Tetracycline local drug delivery demonstrates superior efficacy in managing oral lesions caused by pathogens compared to conventional treatments. It significantly reduces lesion size, pain scores, and microbial load. Incorporating tetracycline local drug delivery into clinical practice could offer a more effective approach to treating such oral lesions.

52. UFLC Method Development and Validation for Anti-retroviral Drugs, Investigation of Greenness Assessment using Complex GAPI, AGREE and AMGS SPREADSHEET
Bommaiah P Kumar*, Toppada Y Pasha
Introduction: The study’s proposal was to establish a method of development and validation by green chromatography technique for antiviral drugs, as well as to assess the proposed method’s greenness using various tools, which is one of the emerging developments in the analytical field. The chromatographic separation is achieved by using Eclipse plus C18 (250 x 4.6, 5 μm) column by applying isocratic elution using the mobile phase containing methanol and isopropyl acetate in the ratio of (60:40% v/v) with 1-mL/min flow rate. The separation of drugs is achieved by using a greener mobile phase. Results: The retention time of ritonavir and ombitasvir was found to be 1.854 and 8.09 minutes, respectively. The regression coefficient (R2) is 0.997 for both drugs. Accuracy and precision is evaluated for the method and found be within the limit and the results were reproducible. Assessment of the method was carried out using the three different tools. The developed method is anticipated to be eco-friendly, an alternative to the developed method HPLC method in regard to safe solvent, less toxic and less run time. The developed method was found suitable for the simultaneous estimation in their combined dosage form.

53. A New Stability Indicating HPLC Method for Related Substances in Dapagliflozin
53. Bhagwat Chavan, Avinash Birajdar, Hanumant Bhusnar, Jayadeep Yadav, Sandip Badadhe
The requirements established by the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) for the measurement of dapagliflozin from tablets were satisfied by the development and successful implementation of an reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) technique that is characterized by its speed, precision, and accuracy. In order to separate the samples, an isocratic mode was used on a Princeton C18 column that was operating at a flow rate of 1-mL per minute. The phase was composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% triethylamine in a volume-to-volume ratio of 50:50, with a pH of 5.0 and a detection wavelength of 224 nm. 5.163 minutes was the retention time that was determined to be best under the circumstances of the chromatographic analysis. Based on the correlation value of 0.999, it can be concluded that the procedure adhered to Beer-Lambert’s law within the measurement range of 10 to 70 μg/mL. The findings not only verified the claim that was made on the label, but they also validated the mean percent drug concentration that was specified for the commercial tablet formulation, which was 100.57%. Following the completion of an investigation, it was discovered that the approaches that were proposed have sufficient proportions of precision measurements, robustness, accuracy, range, and linearity. As part of the technique for stress testing, a number of criteria were evaluated and evaluated overall. The elements that were considered to be among these were light, humidity, temperature, oxidation, and pH (acid/base).

54. Adverse Drug Reactions at Primary Health Centres in Malaysia
Heethal Jaiprakash, Gauri Krishnaswamy, Sharmila V Sornam, Ameeta Patil, Chitra Govindaraja
Background: Adverse drug reactions can lead to a substantial economic burden on patients and the country. This study aims to analyze the pattern of adverse drug reactions and assess the causality of the adverse events and severity of adverse drug reactions in primary health centers in Malaysia. Methodology: This retrospective study used case series analysis and data from six Malaysian primary health centers. The patients were analyzed for gender, age, class of drugs involved, organ system involved in the adverse reaction, severity using Hartwig’s severity assessment scale and causality using the Naranjo ADR probability scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: In 113 adverse drug reactions were reported. Cardiovascular drugs commonly caused adverse drug reaction (38%), followed by anti-infective agents (20%), skin and subcutaneous disorders were the common adverse drug reactions encountered (23%). The severity of the adverse reaction was level 2 in most patients (69. 9%). Adverse drug reaction was mostly found to be probable (48.7%), and 64% of the patients recovered from the adverse drug reaction. Conclusion: Cardiovascular drugs commonly cause adverse drug reactions. Level 2 and mild reactions were widely observed. The causality assessment was probable in most of the patients.

55. Comparative Studies on Simultaneous Estimation of Metformin, Empagliflozin, Remogliflozin, Glimepride and Gliclazide by using RP-HPLC and Diol Technique
Chaitanya Gulhane, Madhuri Game
Retaining extremely polar metformin and its combination with other non-polar antidiabetic drugs can be difficult and challenging by using the most common reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The retention time of metformin is comparatively short when separated, utilizing C18-based RPC. Peak fronting and tailing effects are commonly observed with metformin (MET), its combination with highly polar antidiabetic medicines, and early elution with void volume. However, normal phase chromatography may occasionally be rendered ineffective due to the low solubility of polar analytes in organic solvents. Therefore, a different and complementary strategy is required for the separation of such a highly polar drug. A more advantageous platform is mixed-mode chromatography. The use of this newer technique of separations has been increased because of its advantages over C18-based RPC for its efficiency, selectivity, sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility towards simultaneous quantification of selected drugs. In this study, we compared two established chromatographic methods for simultaneous quantification of metformin and other moderately polar antidiabetic medications, including empagliflozin, remogliflozin, glimepride, and gliclazide, both in their pure form and in combination tablet dosage. An isocratic elution based on solvent a 15 mM ammonium acetate-Methanol: acetonitrile (10:90 v/v) was used as the mobile phase in first method, which is reversed-phase HPLC with a Zodiac C18 column and chromatographic separation on a 150 × 4.6 mm acclaimed mix mode HILIC-1 column with a particle size of 5 μm. In accordance with ICH standards, both approaches underwent exhaustive validation for linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, and resilience. Metformin, empagliflozin, ramogliflozin, glimepride, and gliclazide have not yet been reported to be separated using any method.

56. Development and Validation of Stability Indicating UV Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Resveratrol in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form
Parag Pathade, Anjali Sumrao, Bhushan Sonawane, Dhanshree Shirode, Sagar Shewale, Vaishnavi Shinde, Vinod Bairagi
A simple, sensitive, accurate, trustworthy, and stable UV spectrophotometric approach has been devised to quantify resveratrol in pharmaceutical formulations and bulk materials. After scanning the UV spectrum from 200 to 400 nm, the highest wavelength for absorption was determined to be 306 nm. For the medication, Beer’s rule has been adhered to within a concentration range of 1 to 5 μg/mL. While the developed method was able to recover a good amount of drug (%Recovery), the precision study’s percentage RSD values were ≥2%. The method demonstrated effective functionality for a pharmaceutical dosage form containing resveratrol, free from interference from the excipients. Correspondingly, the limit of detection (LoD) for resveratrol were 0.13 and 0.40 μg/mL. The results of this investigation have been confirmed in accordance with ICH standards. Research on artificial degradation has been greenlit, which investigates the impacts of several environmental factors over a broad pH spectrum, including heat, oxidation, photolysis, and hydrolysis vulnerability.

57. Development, Standardization and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Syrup
Vishal Lad, Sufiyan Ahmad
Ayurveda states that it takes more than just herbs to accomplish a medicinal impact. Optimizing its composition as a combination of herbs in a certain ratio improves its medicinal impact while reducing toxicity. The purpose of this research was to make a polyherbal syrup using aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, Allium sativum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, and Punica granatum in varying proportions in order to provide such an intervention. The agar well diffusion technique was used to screen the formulation for antimicrobial and antifungal activity against various organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, which are representative of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The syrup underwent review and standardization for multiple assessment criteria. Additionally, this formulation was subjected to an expedited stability test. Research demonstrated that the tested formulation outperformed the gold standard in terms of zone of inhibition. The formulation that has been produced meets all of the requirements, however, additional in-vitro and in-vivo investigations are needed to confirm its effectiveness.

58. Development and Validation of New Discriminative Dissolution Method for Dapagliflozin Tablets
Sandip Badadhe, Hanumant Bhusnar, Avinash Birajdar, Jayadeep Yadav, Bhagwat Chavan
In this study, we aimed to find out how well dapagliflozin worked by creating and testing a new way to dissolve the pills. We considered a great many factors, including the quantity of dissolved liquid, the liquid’s composition, and the rotational speed of the paddle. Apparatus II, or the paddle, was employed to get the perfect in-vitro breakdown profile. The dissolving media consisted of 900 mL of phosphate buffer with a pH of 6.8, and the machine was spun at a speed of 50 revolutions per minute. For the purpose of assessing the drug release method’s properties, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. Regarding the dissolving procedure, which was found to be in compliance with regulations, all applicable laws were followed, including those of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Extensive evaluation of several attributes, including precision, sensitivity, accuracy, and stability, led to the conclusion that the outcomes were satisfactory. We examined the patterns of breakdown for many entities using a range of methodologies, including model-dependent methodology, model-independent methodology, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). According to the results, there was a great deal of overlap between the two things. Dapagliflozin tablet production and quality control could benefit from the melting test that was given and shown. This is because it can distinguish among the examined commodities according to their unique release characteristics.

59. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Microemulsion Loaded Hydrogel Systems with Plant Bioactives in Combination for Treatment of Psoriasis
Vyas KB, Channawar MA, Dalal JS, Chandewar AV, Jumade PP, Vyas UB
Psoriasis is an autoimmune, long-lasting skin disorder affecting about 1 to 3% of the world’s population. Plant bio-actives like flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic acids, peptides, tannins, etc., are considered as the best alternative over synthetic drugs, especially for the topical treatment of such chronic skin ailments to avoid side effects of such synthetic agents.
The present study aims at the formulation and characterization of novel topical carrier systems for the incorporation of plant bioactive molecules from the class of alkaloids and flavonoids so as to enhance the therapeutic efficacy, bypass the side effects of synthetic drugs, and improve drug localization in the diseased skin to achieve site-specific action. This work created oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant formulations of plant bio-actives using oleic acid, polysorbate 80, and propylene glycol. Different batches of microemulsions with surfactant: Cosurfactant composition ranging from 25 to 34.8% were prepared and were embedded in a hydrogel system containing gelling agents like sodium alginate and carbapol 940 to get ease of topical application in the treatment of psoriasis. These developed micro-emulates (microemulsion loaded hydrogels) were evaluated for various parameters like viscosity, spreadability, content uniformity, microscopic examination, globule size, zeta potential, polydispersibility index, centrifugation test, dilution test, dye test, percent transmittance, conductivity test, etc. The developed formulations were pharmaceutically stable and efficient.

60. Comprehensive Study of Ehretia laevis in Treatment of Diabetes and Related Complications
Sukeshini Lote, Mahendra Kshirsagar, Deepak Mohale, Anil Chandewar
Diabetes mellitus appears to be a significant health issue globally, impacting millions of individuals and imposing an economic strain on healthcare systems all over the world. The pursuit of effective and safe alternative therapies has led researchers to investigate therapeutic plants with probable antidiabetic activity. This article highlights a comprehensive study investigating the therapeutic potential of Ehretia laevis in controlling of diabetes and associated complications in rats. The phytochemical investigation of E. laevis extracts observed phytoconstituents like flavonoids, phenolics, and triterpenoids. These phytoconstituents are known to possess antidiabetic properties. By injecting 60 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally once, rats were induced to develop diabetes. According to the experimental study, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced from 270 to 118 mg/dl after administering 200 and 400 mg/kg of aqueous and methanolic E. laevis extracts. Further evaluations on serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) revealed a significant reduction in their values, highlighting the control of liver complications. A lowering of serum urea and creatinine levels served to assess kidney-related complications. This comprehensive study sheds light on the potential of E. laevis in the treatment of diabetes and paves a path for the development of formulations, however, further mechanistic evaluation could be explored.

61. Formulation and Evaluation of Lipid-based Nanoformulation of Itraconazole
Amit Sinhal, Rajendra Wagh
The powdered form of itraconazole is white, flavorless, and stable, but it dissolves slowly in water. In comparison to palmitic acid, stearic acid has a stronger affinity (2.57), as shown by the partition coefficient test. UV-visible spectra analysis reveals critical compound insights. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) identifies significant peaks in itraconazole and related compounds. tween 80 is selected for solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) based on their appearance. Optimization using 0.5% w/v tween 80 yielded better particle capture. Thermal analyses display distinctive characteristics of itraconazole, palmitic acid, and polyvinyl alcohol. Viscosity studies mirror tear film behavior. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images demonstrate SLN’s potential ocular application without irritation. Antifungal studies exhibit effective inhibition of Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus growth. SN-7 reveals strong encapsulation efficiency, mean vesicle size, and sustained drug release over 12 hours. Pharmacokinetic studies shed light on SLNs’ influence on drug absorption and distribution, indicative of potential in drug delivery systems. These findings offer promising prospects in formulating enhanced drug delivery mechanisms and understanding their impact on drug pharmacokinetics. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed SN-7’s singular peak at 6.59 minutes. Both formulations showcased skin penetration and stability over three months under varied conditions. Skin irritation tests on rats indicated minimal reactions, affirming low irritancy, which is crucial for patient comfort and acceptance in topical drug delivery. These assessments ensure safety and effectiveness in treating fungal infections.

62. Formulation and Assessment of Lipid-based Nanoformulation of Luliconazole
Amit Sinhal, Rajendra Wagh
The luliconazole preformulation study aimed to determine the best way to administer medicine using SNEDDS. The plain white powder, luciconazole, showed a number of different crystal structures and was very soluble in isopropyl myristate and oleic acid, as confirmed through partition coefficients in n-octanol. With a robust linear standard curve at 295 nm, UV spectroscopy verified its dependability for analysis. Luliconazole and the necessary excipients for SNEDDS formulation were found to be compatible according to fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra. Using a 32-factorial design enhanced the efficacy and stability of SN-7 batches, especially when diluted with water. Thermal studies revealed formulation dynamics-critical thermal behaviors and crystalline structures (DSC and XRD). The end SNEDDS showed a strong suppression of Candida albicans growth and a higher viscosity, allowing for longer surface retention. Ethical approval facilitated comparative evaluations against a commercial formulation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis validated SN-7’s purity, enabling a benchmark for monitoring luliconazole plasma concentrations post-application and ex-vivo permeation studies, vital for potential fungal infection treatments. A rigorous three-month stability study affirmed SN-7’s unwavering properties across diverse environmental conditions, ensuring sustained effectiveness. An IEAC-approved skin irritation study on albino wistar rats endorsed SN-7’s minimal irritancy, underscoring its safety and comfort, which is pivotal for pharmaceutical acceptance in topical drug delivery.

63. Evaluation of Growth-differentiation Factor-15 Level and few Physiological Parameters Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Hassan A Farman, Raad R Naji
The study included 90 subjects and is divided into two groups: The first group is the patient group, which consists of 45 patients with diabetes mellitus type two; 45 patients with diabetes mellitus type two were identified by specialized diabetes doctors by samples collection in outpatients clinic at Diabetes and Endocrine Center in Marjan Medical City in Hilla city, Babylon province from 1 November 2022 till 31 Januray 2023. The blood samples of this study were obtained from patients and controlled through drug 5 mL of blood by using medical sterile syringes from a brachial vein and placed in a gel tube and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tube. Then the gel tube was placed at room temperature for 30 minutes to coagulate the blood, and samples were centrifuged (3000 rpm/min) for 5 minutes to separate the serum from other components of the blood. The serum was withdrawn by micropipette and then placed in the eppendorf tubes in two repeaters and kept frozen at -20℃ for the determination of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF 15), lipid profile and fasting blood glucose. The whole blood in the EDTA tube to determine HbA1C. The mean fasting blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c of diabetes patients is significantly higher at (p-value < 0.001) than that of controls. Diabetes patients had a significantly higher of serum lipid profile than the controls. Therefore, the mean of cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was highly significant (p < 0.001). The mean concentration of GDF-15 of patient groups was significantly increased than those matched groups of healthy control at (p < 0.001). In addition, the results also showed a highly significant increase (p < 0.001) in the mean of GDF-15 for the patient’s males and females in comparison with the control’s males and females. The correlation results indicated a statistically significant positive correlation in diabetic group between GDF-15 vs. FBS (r = 0.572, p = < 0.001) and HbA1c (r = 0.576, p = < 0.001). Positive non-significant correlations were demonstrated between GDF-15 vs. cholesterol (r = 0.131, p = > 0.05), triglyceride (TG) (r = 0.167, p = > 0.05), LDL (r = 0.38, p = > 0.05) and VLDL (r = 0.136, p = > 0.05). Negative non-significant correlation was between GDF-15 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = 0.137, p = > 0.05).

64. Unraveling the Therapeutic Prospects of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Parasitic Diseases
Harman Singh, Manveer Singh, Navdeep Singh, Himanshu Jain, Honey Goel, Viney Chawla
Parasites induce a spectrum of illnesses, ranging from mild to severe, often causing significant global outbreaks. Existing antiparasitic drugs exhibit toxicity and notable side effects. Nanocarriers offer a promising solution by mitigating these issues through reduced side effects, enhanced target delivery, and additionally regulated prolonged active ingredient release. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), a subset of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), have gained prominence for their favorable attributes. SLNs present themselves as a feasible option among colloidal carriers, offering an optimal release rate, stability, and precise target delivery. Their potential to deliver natural antiparasitic products is particularly noteworthy. Recent advancements in utilizing nanoparticles to enhance SLN stability and loading capacity are also explored in this review. The narrative encompasses SLN development, preparation methods, characterization, and the incorporation of drugs for combating parasitic diseases, offering insights into the evolving landscape of antiprotozoal SLN-saturated medications.

65. Pulsatile Drug Delivery Systems: A Comprehensive Review
Ravali V, P Balaji
A sigmoidal drug release profile is formed when a pulsatile drug delivery system (PDDI) initiates drug administration and follows it up with rapid and complete drug release. It ensures the correct dosage of the drug is delivered at the right time and place. Pulsatile drug delivery is effective for treating asthma, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, ulcers, and hypercholesterolemia, among others. There are many types of delivery systems in the pharmaceutical industry, including capsular, osmotic, single and multi-unit designs and membranes that are soluble and erodible. Innovations are directed toward conditions such as those requiring nocturnal dosing, high first-pass effects, and site-specific absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, these systems make dosing more convenient for patients, resulting in better compliance. As a result of the use of chronomodulated drug delivery systems, pharmaceutical therapy is more effective with a personalized approach.

66. Nanotechnology-based Intranasal Drug Delivery Systems: A Review
Shiv C Prajapati, Sunita Singh, Bhupendra Singh, Mukul Sengar, Vinay Mishra
An experimental study has focused on developing a different approach to systemic oral along with parenteral administration in order to overcome their common drawbacks, including hepatic first-pass, which reduces drug bioavailability following oral administration, off-target effects, low patient compliance, along with a slow onset of pharmacological action through first-aid cases. Novel drug delivery systems (DDS), mostly composed of polymers and biocompatible lipid materials, have significantly boosted this sector in recent years. The previously intranasal (IN) method of delivery is an acceptable non-invasive option. It is ideal for self-administration since the medication quickly enters the circulation, eliminating the initial pass effect, and it may additionally reach the brain’s cortex directly by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The combination of the IN route alongside DDS can, therefore, become a successful method for regulated drug administration, particularly when a rapid impact is sought or required. This study seeks to analyze the scientific literature on IN-DDS and its various routes for consumption (systemic, topical, pulmonary, and nose-to-brain). In this regard, the intranasal route offers a viable pathway for medication delivery reaching the brain because of its distinct anatomical characteristics. Nanoparticle-based technologies, in particular, have proven a remarkable ability to overcome the limitations of the intranasal route to induce drug accumulation throughout the brain despite avoiding systemic dissemination.

67. A Comprehensive Review on 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals
Rama D Korni, Akhil Majji, Thanmaisree Bora, Bhargavi Chelikani, Dileep K Gandi
The development of 3D printing technology has caused a paradigm shift in the pharmaceutical industry by making it possible to produce drugs on demand and according to a patient’s specific needs. This review paper aims to examine the developments, difficulties, and potential applications of 3D printing in the pharmaceutical industry. We examine the various methods used, the benefits it provide, the regulatory issues, and possible uses of 3D printing in the pharmaceutical sector. Additionally, we talk about how 3D printing will affect drug research, patient care, and the state of healthcare as a whole.

68. Regulating Drug Release with Microspheres: Formulation, Mechanisms, and Challenges
Rinki Vishwakarma, Harshal Tare, Sachin K Jain
Controlled drug release is a critical component of current drug delivery systems, aiming to improve therapeutic efficacy while minimizing negative effects. Because of their tunable features and numerous applications, microspheres have emerged as adaptable carriers for achieving controlled medication release. This review paper delves into the formulation techniques, mechanisms, and issues connected with controlling drug release utilizing microspheres. The essay begins by discussing the importance of controlled medication release in healthcare and the critical role that microspheres play in accomplishing this goal. It then looks into the numerous formulation options for microspheres, including material selection, production processes, and drug inclusion techniques. The impact of microsphere properties such as particle size, shape, and drug loading on release kinetics is also thoroughly examined. The processes influencing drug release from microspheres are described in detail, including diffusion-controlled, erosion-controlled, and swelling-controlled release mechanisms and the interaction of polymer characteristics and drug-polymer interactions. The article looks at sophisticated methods for producing targeted drug release, including exterior stimuli-responsive microspheres and internal stimuli-responsive systems. Site-specific targeting strategies are investigated, including passive targeting via the increased permeability and retention (EPR) effect and active targeting via ligand-functionalized microspheres. Despite its promise, microsphere-based drug delivery systems face a number of obstacles. Major challenges are burst release, stability, scale-up, immunogenicity, and regulatory issues. In the context of microsphere-based drug delivery, recent advances in enhanced characterization techniques, nanotechnology integration, combination therapies, personalized medicine, and new trends are discussed.

69. Skin Penetrating Lipid Vesicles: Ethosomes in Drug Delivery and Cosmeceuticals
Umesh Jadhao, Harshal Tare, Sachin K Jain
Ethosomes, or skin penetrating lipid vesicles, are proving to be effective delivery systems for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This article thoroughly examines ethosomes, including their structure, formulation methods, characterization tactics, and skin penetration mechanisms. Ethosomes are able to deform and penetrate the stratum corneum thanks to their special lipid compositions and elasticity, which let them get around obstacles in transdermal drug administration and cosmeceutical application. The selection of lipids, surfactants, and active compounds for ethosome formulations, as well as the function of ethanol as a penetration enhancer, are covered in detail in the current article. The discussion of various production processes and characterization methodologies emphasizes the significance of size distribution, zeta potential, and encapsulation effectiveness.
The review investigates the mechanisms through which ethosomes interact with the stratum corneum and other skin barriers and the variables affecting the effectiveness and depth of their transdermal administration. The applications of ethosomes in the delivery of both hydrophilic and lipophilic medicines and their promise in targeted and localized treatments highlight their adaptability. The clinical implications are discussed, illuminating preclinical and clinical research that highlight the improved efficacy and safety of formulations based on ethosomes.
Ethosomes provide a platform for improving the distribution of active substances like vitamins, antioxidants, and peptides in the field of cosmeceuticals. Their uses encompass topical formulations for skin whitening, hydration, rejuvenation, and antiaging and skin care products. The paper also discusses future directions in ethosome research, such as customized medicine and combination medicines, as well as regulatory issues and difficulties with commercialization.

70. Current Insights of Nano Suspension Drug Delivery System: A Patent Review
D Jeslin, K Masilamani
Unfortunately, water-solvency continues to be a usual characteristic of medication newcomers in medicine improvement pipelines today. Different cycles have been established to improve the solvency, disintegrating rate, and bioavailability associated with these dynamic fixes having a place utilizing the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) II through IV orders. Since the mid-2000s, nanosuspension, nanocrystal delivery, and nebulous strong scatterings have been more established approaches to overcome the obstructions of ineffective water solvent pharmaceuticals in food and drug administration (FDA) accessible goods. This work supplies a refreshed examination of nanosuspension and dissimilar strong scattering methods, particularly for orally conveyed medications. Moreover, solvency is a vital variable for medication adequacy, autonomously of the course of development. Ineffectively solvent drugs are many times difficult assignments for developers within the sector. Customary methods to improve solvency are of little significance, specifically when the pharmaceuticals are ineffectively liquid all the while they’re watery as well as non-fluid mediums. Nanosuspension technology can be employed to enhance the potency and solubility with insoluble substances medicines. Nanosuspension possesses dual-phase structures made up of precise medication particles scattered throughout a liquid medium kept in check with surfactants. Those strategies generally straightforward plan offer advantages compared to alternative methods. Various methods, comprising wet manufacturing, regions assembling, emulsifying, evaporating the solvent, and releasing simple liquid methods, are employed when making nanosuspension. Subsequently enjoys convenience conveyance via diverse courses, comprising oral, parenteral, aspiratory even visual courses. The current proposal plan provide the ongoing strategies employed to get ready small suspensions, including their application in medication conveyance.

71. Study of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Status in Thyroid Dysfunction: A Systematic Review
Bushra, Sangeeta Kapoor, Tariq Mahmood
Background: The frequency of thyroid disorders is rising quickly, making them a major socioeconomic issue. Oxidative stress is also connected to thyroid disorders with increasing frequency. Moreover, an association between underlying inflammatory processes and oxidative damage must be considered because most thyroid ailments are seen to have an underlying inflammatory basis. Aim & objectives: This systematic review assesses the oxidative stress in thyroid dysfunctions and their association with inflammatory processes. Methodology: A systematic review of the literature was done using databases that included- PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Research Gate and Google Scholar using the keywords “oxidative stress”, “inflammatory markers,” and “thyroid disorders” from 2000-2022. After separately evaluating citations and abstracts, two reviewers examined full-text publications and came to an agreement on the research that should be included. We conducted this research using the preferred reporting items for systematic research and meta-analysis (PRISMA). Results: A total of 531 articles were found, out of which only 51 met the criteria of inclusion. A significant heterogeneity across the studies was found. In these studies, various oxidant/antioxidant and inflammatory markers were used to determine oxidative stress and its association with inflammatory processes. Most studies found a high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by an imbalance of thyroid hormones that can cause oxidative stress with a consequent lipid peroxidation response and accelerated inflammatory response. Conclusion: Data from the literature demonstrated a significant correlation between oxidative damage results and elevated ROS production. Thyroid issues can potentially trigger or exacerbate oxidative stress and ROS generation, which can worsen oxidative damage. Additionally, recent research indicates that OS and inflammation may be related in some way since mitochondrial reactive species are signalling molecules that cause the release of proinflammatory cytokines.

72. Current Update on Electrospun Nanofiber Mats as a Wound Healing Drug Carrier
Nagansurkar S B, Hemant K S Yadav, Raizaday Abhay
Electrospun nanofiber mats are being researched as attractive wound-healing drug carriers owing to their exclusive features, large active surface area, interlinked porosity, and customizable drug release kinetics. These mats may be infused with antibiotics, growth hormones, or stem cells to hasten the process of healing and lessen the likelihood of problems. Controlled and sustained medication delivery is the key payback of electrospun nanofiber mats. Electrospun nanofiber mats promote wound healing in part because of the favorable milieu they provide cell adhesion and proliferation of the affected tissue due to their enhanced active surface area. Mats of many kinds are discussed in the review. Electrospun nanofiber membranes can be created in a diversity of configurations, along with a single layer, a coaxial structure, and many layers. Recent studies have shown the efficacy of using electrospun nanofiber mats to deliver a variety of therapeutic compounds for wound healing. Treatment of wound infections using antibiotic-loaded electrospun nanofiber mats may help slow the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Electrospun nanofiber mats supplemented with growth hormones are known to hasten wound healing by encouraging the local tissue’s proliferation and differentiation. Delivery of stem cells to the wound site, where they may develop into new skin cells and stimulate tissue regeneration, can be accomplished with the help of electrospun nanofiber mats. In conclusion, electrospun nanofiber mats provide an exciting new platform for the delivery of drugs to promote wound healing. Their enormous surface area, interconnected porosity, and adaptable drug release kinetics all make them excellent vehicles for delivering a wide range of therapeutic medicines to the wound site.

73. Antidiabetic Drug-loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle and Its Importance in Drug Delivery
Vijayakumar P, Balaji P
The global health challenge of diabetes mellitus continues to escalate, affecting millions of people worldwide. Managing this chronic condition necessitates lifelong treatment to control hyperglycemia and prevent complications. The delivery of antidiabetic medications can be improved by solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). This review provides an overview of current research on antidiabetic-loaded SLNs, summarizing their efficacy, safety, and challenges. Various antidiabetic agents, including insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, and GLP-1 agonists, have been successfully encapsulated into SLNs, offering improved pharmacokinetic profiles and therapeutic outcomes. Despite their potential, optimization of SLN formulations, scale-up challenges, and translation to clinical practice remain areas requiring further investigation. With ongoing advancements in nanotechnology and drug delivery, antidiabetic-loaded SLNs hold promise for revolutionizing diabetes therapy and improving patient care.

74. Analytical Review on Newly Approved Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Drugs
K Pravalika, Subhashini V
Diabetes and hypertension are the principal causes of death all over the world. Both diabetes and hypertension coexist frequently. Managing both is a multi-faced task requiring extensive care. Therapeutic intervention optimization and ensuring patient safety are the results of assessing medications in biological samples. The development of an analytical technique specific to the measurement of a medicinal chemical in a certain matrix requires careful consideration of the various equipment options and an understanding of their relative capabilities with regard to selectivity, sensitivity, usability, speed of investigation, etc. This article aimed to systematically analyze many popular quantitative analytical techniques for measuring some newly approved antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs in pharmaceutical planning. Several chromatographic techniques have been employed for quantitative research into these pharmaceuticals. Rapid, accurate, cost-effective, and straightforward drug analysis methods are now essential for developing and using new technologies.

75. A Review on the Evaluation of Serum Adipokine (adiponectin, leptin) Levels in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systemic Review
Kainaat Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Alok Singhal, Shalabh Agarwal, Sangeeta Kapoor
Background: This review enumerates current knowledge of adipose tissue and reveals processes by which adipocytes affect obesity and cardiovascular illness. Obesity, according to growing evidence, is a crucial factor that influences cardiometabolic phenotypes. However, the pathogenic mechanisms are still unknown. As per recent reports, adipose tissue interacts with a variety of organs, including the lungs, heart, and kidneys, by secreting multiple cytokines known as adipokines. Aim and Objectives: The current study examines the adipokine (adiponectin and leptin) profiles of adipocytes from the adipose tissue and biochemical and clinical parameters in patients with heart disease (CVD).

Methods: Relevant articles were retrieved by screening the following databases: Medline (PubMed, Scopus), Web of Science. Keyword searches included ‘adiponectin’, ‘leptin’, AND ‘cardiovascular disease’, from 2013-2023 (May). The retrieved studies were subjected through a screening procedure to identify case-control, cohort and epidemiological studies that contained the required data. Per preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted the systematic review. Results: A total of 2377 studies were found relevant, out of which only 90 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these 90 studies we reviewed 50 articles that are included in the systematic review. Conclusion: The dysfunction of adipose tissue triggered an alteration in the secretory profile of adipokines, which serves as a signal of metabolic disorder. An imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine formation exacerbates cardiometabolic diseases and CVD challenges.

76. Therapeutic Potential of Nanomaterial-based Drug Delivery
Vidhya R Umapathy, Prabhu M Natarajan, Bhuminathan Swamikannu
The medical market for sophisticated therapeutic medicine delivery systems is growing at a breakneck pace. There are many benefits to using nanotechnology and nanomaterials in treating chronic human illnesses, such as the ability to target the delivery of drugs to particular areas. Improving the therapeutic effectiveness of current and future medications might be as simple as creating new drug delivery methods. The prime applications related to nanomaterial drug delivery include immunotherapeutic agents, diagnostic testing, cancer therapy and nutraceutical delivery. Nanotechnology has the capacity to collaborate with physics, biologists, chemists and pharmaceutics to form a multidisciplinary contribution in the rise of novel diagnostic and therapeutic technology. Nanomaterials can be used in specific sites targeted by drugs for brain illnesses. These nanodrugs can cause lesser immune response and maintain low inflammatory conditions compared to heavy drug particles. Along with this, nanodrugs can cause damage at the genetic level, create oxidative stress and inhibit cell death according to their particle size, shape, surface and its composition. In this current review various applications, current trends and recent developments in nanomaterials are elucidated. The detailed mechanism and cutting edge nanomaterial based drug delivery were explained along with this.

77. A Review on Natural Polymer Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide
Rishabh Mishra, Tarun Parashar, Srishti Morris, Vikash Jakhmola
The developing interest in normal polymers for different applications has brought tTamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) into the spotlight. Gotten from Tamarindus indica seeds, TSP’s special properties make it a convincing biopolymer. This complete audit investigates TSP’s attributes, extraction techniques, and far reaching applications. Featuring its part in drug delivery, wound healing, and then some, the audit highlights TSP’s biocompatibility, mucoadhesive nature, and adaptability. While TSP offers various advantages, challenges like extraction hardships and variable organization exist. Future possibilities in drugs include progressed drug delivery system, biocompatible supplements, and creative oral definitions. The survey likewise underscores the requirement for thorough clinical preliminaries, protected innovation contemplations, and joint effort for TSP’s fruitful interpretation into certifiable applications. In general, TSP emerges as a promising biopolymer with significant industry-wide potential.

78. Revolutionizing Medicine: Advances in Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems
Rahul Bijwar, Harshal Tare
Polymeric drug delivery systems have emerged as a transformative force in modern medicine, reshaping the landscape of drug delivery and patient care. This review article comprehensively explores the advancements and innovations that have propelled polymeric drug delivery systems to the forefront of medical research and practice. Beginning with a historical perspective, we trace the evolution of drug delivery systems, highlighting the pivotal role played by polymers in this journey. We delve into the diverse array of polymeric drug delivery systems, ranging from nanoparticles and hydrogels to implantable devices and polymer-drug conjugates, elucidating their unique characteristics and applications. A critical focus of this review lies in the criteria governing polymer selection, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, and drug-loading capabilities. We illuminate the remarkable impact of polymeric drug delivery systems across various medical domains, including oncology, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, and chronic conditions. Furthermore, we explore recent breakthroughs, such as smart polymers for responsive drug release and nanotechnology-driven precision medicine, which are revolutionizing patient care. Clinical success stories and FDA-approved polymeric drug delivery systems underscore the tangible benefits these innovations bring to patients. Despite these remarkable achievements, challenges and future directions are also examined, addressing regulatory considerations, scalability issues, and the integration of emerging technologies. We conclude by emphasizing the transformative potential of polymeric drug delivery systems and call for sustained research and development efforts to harness their full capabilities. This review illuminates the dynamic and promising future of polymeric drug delivery systems in revolutionizing medicine and advancing the frontiers of patient-centric care.

79. Profiling Potent Medicinal Plants: Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, and Annona squamosa in Diabetes Management
Suresh Dhakar, Harshal Tare
Diabetes mellitus, a global metabolic disorder, continues to affect millions, necessitating alternative therapeutic strategies to complement existing treatments. Medicinal plants have historically been significant in managing various diseases, including diabetes. This review paper profiles three potent medicinal plants – Allium sativum (garlic), Azadirachta indica (neem), and Annona squamosa (sugar apple) – that hold promise in the arena of diabetes management. Delving into their historical context, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and modes of administration, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of their therapeutic potential. Preliminary studies have indicated that the bioactive compounds in these plants exhibit antidiabetic properties, supporting their traditional use in many cultures. This review underscores the importance of integrating such natural remedies into modern therapeutic strategies, offering potential benefits in diabetes care and promoting holistic health.

80. To Study the Evidence of Linking Adipokines (Adiponectin, Leptin) with Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review
Zaara Ahtasham, Tariq Mahmood, Jigar Haria, Sangeeta Kapoor
Background: A growing body of world health has shown that there is a correlation between derangement of adipokines section and metabolic syndrome, but a small number of studies also refused the data. Considering these aspects, this study is intense in pursuing precise knowledge regarding the same and the conclusion. Aim and Objective: This study investigates the connection between markers of metabolic syndrome and adipokines, particularly leptin and adiponectin. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were used for a thorough literature review. From 2013 to 2023, the terms “adipokines and metabolic syndrome”, “adiponectin and metabolic syndrome”, and “leptin and metabolic syndrome” were searched. This review made use of the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta. Results: About 3448 previous studies were searched, of which 85 studies fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 85 papers comprised this systematic review, and we examined 60 of them. An overvalue of most studies showed that decreased adiponectin levels are linked with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome. However, patients with metabolic syndrome had higher risk levels of both leptin and the leptin-adiponectin ratio. Conclusions: Obesity affects the generation of adipokines, which regulates the many factors of the metabolic syndrome, through unique and linked pathways. Therefore, we conclude that obesity resulting from a high-fat, high-sugar, high-lipid diet may affect various organs, increasing the risk of metabolic diseases and the underlying causes of insulin resistance and triggering an inflammatory response.

81. Auxiliary Substances for Enhancement of Complexation Efficiency and Dissolution Rate of Drug-Cyclodextrin Complexes
Priya Patil, Subhash Kumbhar, Vishwajeet Ghorpade
Background: Enzymatic starch breakdown yields 1, 4-linked D-glucopyranoside subunits, which are the building blocks of the cyclodextrin (CD) family of macromolecules. β-Cyclodetrins (β-CDs) have the capability to improve the solubility of partially soluble drugs, as well as their permeability across biological membranes and stability. However, factors like limited solubility, high cost of derivatives and their toxicity at high concentrations has directed the researchers toward multicomponent inclusion complexes (MCIC). Introduction: Incorporating auxiliary substances (AS) leads to MCIC formation during complexation. The auxiliary agent interacts at the molecular level with the CDs, enhances the complexation competence of β-CD or its derivatives, and minimizes the amount required for solubilization of poorly soluble drugs. They also enhance stability of drug-CD complex. Due to these advantages, the popularity of MCIC has increased amongst formulation scientists. Conclusion: This review describes various AS that could be used to prepare MCIC to expand solubility and other properties of drugs and minimize cost of related formulation.

82. Promising Antidiabetic Effects of Pomegranate Fruit Parts
More RK, Pingale PL, Upasani CD
Diabetes is a physiological illness that develops as because of decreased insulin secretion and/or its and /or how it functions within the body. Food metabolism becomes altered as a result of low or inactive insulin. As the illness worsens, the body begins to experience pathological alterations such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular problems. Diabetes mellitus is treated through oral hypoglycemic agents, which are synthetic drugs. As there are many side effects are associated with a longer duration of treatment of synthetic drugs, there is need to develop herbal medicine. There is much evidence that almost all parts of the pomegranate fruit help avoid and control numerous illnesses and conditions, such as diabetes. This review highlights the pathophysiological conditions of diabetes and also summarizes many laboratory and clinical studies of pomegranates that have examined the pomegranates its elements with regard to physiological and biochemical events of diabetes and related considerations.

83. Role of Drugs in the Presence of HLA-B*51 and HLA-B*51 Subtypes in Iraqi Behcet’s Disease Patients
Tharwa H H Al-Tai, Hayfaa S AL-Hadithi, Dina S AL-Yasiry
Background: Behcet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, progressive disease with an unknown cause that affects numerous organs and systems. Several alleles of HLA-B*51(HLA-B*5101, HLA-B*5108, HLA-B*5105 and HLA-B*5104) are found to be associated with Behcet’s disease. Objective:. Detection of the most common HLA-B*51 subtypes in Iraqi Behcet’s disease patients. Patients and methods: This study compared 60 patients with BD to 30 healthy people as a control group from December 2020 to the end of May 2021. Their blood samples were taken in order to test for the presence of HLA-B*51 and HLA-B*51 subtypes using real-time PCR (rtPCR) and the sequence-specific primers technique (PCR-SSP). Results: HLA-B*51 frequency was highly significant among patient group 49 (81.70%) in comparison to the control group, and the most frequent subtype was HLA-B*5105 22 (36.67%) in Iraqi patients. Conclusion: In Iraq, there may be a link between HLA-B*51 frequency and Behcet’s illness patients. HLA-B5105 was the most common subtype in Iraqi patients.

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