1. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Cervical High-Risk Human Papilloma Virus in Cervical Specimens of Woman with Normal and Abnormal Cytology in Anbar province, Iraq
Basheer S. O. AL-Mawla, Mothana A. Khalil*, Rafal M. Murshid, Batwl A. Ameen
Cervical High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) is used as a marker for early cervical cancer (CC) detection as these viruses are the leading cause of CC. Therefore, the detection of these viruses is very necessary for the use of prophylactic methods against this cancer and other diseases associated with these viruses. Objective:
To know the prevalence and genotype of cervical HR-HPVs in normal and abnormal cervical lesions of women attending Al-Ramadi Maternity and Children’s Teaching hospital, Iraq. Material and Methods:
Descriptive cross-sectional study was done on 339 women with cervical lesions in AL-Ramadi Maternity and Children’s Teaching in cooperation with Anbar Medical College, Ramadi, Iraq, during a period from August 2019 to February 2020 to detect the prevalence of different HPV types in women with or without cervical cytological abnormalities using “clinical Pap smear tests” in addition to “Xpert-HPV procedure”. Results:
Cervical HR-HPVs were confirmed in 12.9% of all patients, of them, 5.0% were cervical HR-HPV-18-45 followed by cervical HR-HPV-16 (presented in 4.4% of the patient), followed by other HR-HPV 11 (3.5%). Multiple cervical HR-HPV types had been detected in 6.1% of the positive confirmed patients. There was a statistically significant difference with regard to the prevalence of cervical HR-HPV types within different types of histological smears (P-Value 0.000) and that some HPV types spread in the normal cytological smears of the infected woman. Conclusion:
The prevalence of cervical ″HR-HPV″ in 339 patients included in the study was 12.9%. Cervical HR- HPVs16, 18 – 45 & other HR-HPV were the HR- HPVs of current study. This requires the inclusion of vaccines against these viruses in the prophylaxis program in Iraq.
2. Prospective Process Validation for the Manufacture of Telmisartan Mini Tablets
Patil Pratiksha, Rashmi. P*, Shantha Kumar GS, Omari Mariam, Das Arijit
Failure in developing an effective process for the manufacturing of drug products may lead to severe consequences like product recalls and plant closure. As a result, process validation has gained a prime focus as an essential product development activity. In the limelight of this notion, the research goal of current work was to carry out prospective process validation for the manufacture of Telmisartan mini tablets along with a capsule containing them. Telmisartan mini tablets production was trialed and tested for results. The Formulation that gave promising results was considered and concluded for process validation. Protocol and batch manufacturing record (BMR) were prepared for three consecutive batches of the same size, method, equipment, and validation criteria. The critical process parameters were identified, mini-tablets were compressed by using the direct compression method and evaluated. The results of three consecutive batches were compiled with specifications. It indicated that the process employed here offers a high degree of assurance to produce quality products meeting pre-determined specification limits and quality attributes.
3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns, and Biofilm Formation for Klebsiella pneumoniae
and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Bacteria, its Genotype Identification and Phenotype Affiliation
Ahmed A. Mhawesh*, Marwa M. Khudair, Yusra A. Radeef, Rawya F. Chillab, Mayyahi M. T. Jaber
In the study, 80 urine samples were collected from patients, suffering from urinary tract infections from both genera (male and female) with age ranging from 11–60 years admitted in Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital in Baghdad during a period from May to August 2020. The samples were identified according to microscopic, morphological, cultural, and biochemical tests. It was found 50 positive cultures and 10 samples act as a control. Antibiotics susceptibility was tested and the results showed significant differences at (p < 0.05). Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and Klebsiella pneumoniae
were isolated from urine samples and act as multidrug resistance. High antimicrobial resistance levels were detected: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, amikacin, meropenem, piperacillin, doxycycline, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, vancomycin, rifampicin, colistin, which were resisting to K. pneumonia
was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, doxycycline, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, vancomycin, rifampicin, and P. aeruginosa
was resistant to amikacin, piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, rifampicin, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, colistin. Biofilm calculation is occurrence after incubation at 37ºC in different times. The mixed culture characterized additional pathogens alike gram-negative bacteria. Biofilm formation has been associated with an increasing possibility of infection, particularly through infection of bacteria in urinary tract infection (UTI), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs); this study represented SHV-5 in P. aeruginosa blaVIM
in K. pneumonia
4. Anti-proliferative Activity of Annona muricata
Seeds Extracts against Esophageal Carcinoma within SKG Cell Line
Saja N. Addai, Bahir A. R. Mshimesh*, Ahmed M. Al-Shammari
Esophageal cancer is very aggressive and the 6th most prominent cause of cancer death throughout the world. It had an extremely poor prognosis, and current chemotherapy treatments like 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) often have limited success and fatal outcomes. Recently, plenty of studies report the significant anti-proliferative effects of different extracts of Annona muricata
and their isolated acetogenins (AGEs) towards various cancer cell lines, so it may be a candidate as an alternative or adjuvant to chemotherapies. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of A. muricata
seeds extract (AMSE) showed concentration-dependent growth inhibition for SKG cell line by MTT assay. Chou-Talalay analysis showed a synergistic effect between extracts and 5-FU on the SKG cell line. Hematoxylin and eosin staining after 72 hours showed different morphological changes. The AO/PI double staining assay after 72 h showed that the percent of the dead cell significantly elevated in 5-FU, chloroform, ethanol, and their combinations. Analysis of RT-qPCR after 24h showed that the Bax gene was up-regulated by 5-FU, chloroform and its combination, while downregulated by ethanol and its combination. The Bcl2 was up-regulated by 5-FU while downregulated by chloroform, ethanol, and their combinations. Human apoptosis antibody array analysis showed that AMSE and their combination after 24 hours could induce cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-8 and modulation of apoptosis-related proteins (such as Fas, CD40, TNF-α, TNF-β, and TNFR), which confirmed the contribution of the extrinsic pathway. Also, overexpression of cytochrome-c, Bax, and bad proteins, along with the suppression of Bcl-2, confirmed that mitochondrial-dependent pathway also contributed to AMSE-induced cell death. In conclusion, chloroform and ethanol extract of A. muricata
have a powerful cytotoxic activity and synergistic effect with 5-FU against SKG cell lines. The proposed underlying mechanism involves the induction of apoptotic proteins.
5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Propranolol Hydrochloride via
Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 2, 4-Dinitrophenyl Hydrazine
Ehsan D.H. Habeeb*, Intidhar D. Sulaiman
A simple, sensitive, and accurate spectrophotometric method was developed for determining the propranolol hydrochloride (PPH) in a pharmaceutical formulation. This approach is based on the oxidation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPHz) with potassium periodate and coupling with PPH in an alkaline medium in order to from a stable greenish brown colored water-soluble dye with maximum absorption at 481 nm. The curve of the calibration is linear up to 1-35 μg/mL with molar absorptivity of (6224.16) L/mol.cm. The limit of detection (LoD), as well as the limit of quantitation (LoQ), have been respectively (0.1375 μg/mL) and (0.4166 μg/mL). The proposed approach was applied successfully to determining propranolol hydrochloride (PPH) in its dosage forms.
6. A Comparative Study of Retinol-binding protein-4 and Progranulin in Iraqi Women with Thyroid Disorder
Eiman A.A. Abass, Warka’a T. AL-Sa’adsi, Mezher N. Moslem
Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate the metabolic processes required for normal development and growth; also, to organize metabolism in adults, any defect in thyroid function leads to abnormality in thyroid hormones level. The current study has been designed to find the relationship between retinol-binding protein-4 and progranulin in the serum of Iraqi women with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, also, to study whether these patients are exposed to a risk of developing diabetes mellitus, and PGRN may be a biomarker in detection early stage of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods:
in this study, serum samples were obtained from 50 Iraqis women patients, [25 patients with hypothyroidism (G2) and 25 patients with hyperthyroidism (G3)] in addition to 25 healthy women as a control group (G1), their ages ranged from (30–55) years. The patients attended the Specialized Center for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Baghdad. Results:
the results in this study showed a highly significant decrease in RBP4 levels and a significant increase in PGRN levels in G2 and G3, respectively, compared with G1. Additionally, a considerable increase in BMI, FSG, and HbA1C levels in G2 and G3 Comparison with G1, and a significant difference between G2 and G3 patients. Conclusions:
The current study is the first to shed light on the relationship between PGRN and thyroid disorder, which provides a guide on the increase in PGRN levels of patients with a thyroid disorder, especially in patients with hyperthyroidism, related with metabolic and glucose abnormalities, and then, it may be a trustable predictive biomarker for detection early stage of diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients with a thyroid disorder. Also, there was a significant correlation between RBP4 and PGRN in these patients. In addition, these patients with hyperthyroidism were more likely to diabetes than patients with hypothyroidism.
7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Esomepreazol in Pure form and in its Pharmaceutical Preparations
Enas H. Abdullah*, Qabas N. Rashid
Two simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of Esomeprazol (ESO) in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods are: (I) synthesis Schiff’s base between ESO and Vanillin regent “4-hedroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde” in acidic medium to produce an intense yellow colored product, and (II) diazotization and coupling reaction between ESO and P-aminobenzoic acid”, in an alkaline intermediate to from an intense brown colored product. A maximum absorption at 386 nm using reagent Vanillin and 412 nm on using reagent P-aminobenzoic acid. Beer’s Law is obeyed in a concentrations range of 6-120 μg/mL and 25-240 μg/mL with a molar absorptivity 9.314 × 104 and 1.47×105 L/mol.cm for Vanillin and P-aminobenzoic acid, respectively. The limit of detections (LOD) was found to be 0.048 and 0.023 μg/mL for Vanillin and P-aminobenzoic acid respectively. The suggested method was prosperity implement to the estimation of “This drug” in pure form and in the pharmaceutical formulations.
8. Production of Fructo-oligosaccharides by Purified Inulinase from Klebseilla pneumoniae
and using it as a Prebiotic agent
Hadel K. Abbas*
, Sahira N. Muslim, Rajwa H. Essa
A novel strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae
among 45 isolates collected from urine samples, had an ability to produce extracellular inulinase when grown on basal medium containing inulin as a substrate. Inulinase was fractionated with ammonium sulfate at 70% saturation at a higher level in comparison with organic solvent (methanol, ethanol, acetone, propanol, and butanol). Inulinase was purified with a recovery yield of 34.5% and 2.73 fold of purification by using ammonium sulfate followed by ion-exchange chromatography on the DEAE-cellulose column. Fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) is produced by reaction of purified inulinase with its substrate and characterized by UV-spectrophotometer in comparison with standard FOS. The effect of FOS on the growth and activity of local lactic acid bacterial isolates revealed that three concentrations (1, 2, and 4%) of FOS had stimulated the growth of lactic acid bacteria with two logarithmic cycles for Lactobacillus plantarum
) and Lactobacillus pentosus
). At the same time, FOS gave the maximum stimulating growth for Lactobacillus gasseri
) with three logarithmic cycles. So that FOS has a potential prebiotic property of enhancing of lactic acid bacteria which supports gastrointestinal health.
9. Spectrophotometric Estimation of the Lansoprazole by Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 2, 4-Dinitrophenyl Hydrazine
Saba H. Jamel, Intidhar D. Sulaiman
A simple, accurate, sensitive, and low-cost technique was advanced to measure the optical spectrum to the determination of lansoprazole in pure form and dosage forms. The method relies on the oxidation of the reagent 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPHz) with potassium periodate (KIO4) and coupling with the lansoprazole (LPZ) in the alkaline medium to form a stable with reddish-brown colored dye with a maximum greatest absorption at 484.5 nm. The reaction is carefully completed when optimizing the variable affecting it. The concentration range from 1-30 μg/mL obeys Beer’s law and the molar absorptivity value of (13260.132) L/
mol.cm. Detection limit was (0.1266 μg/mL) and Sandell’s sensitivity value 0.0278 μg/cm2. The method has been successfully applied to the estimation of lansoprazole in dosage forms.
10. Synthesis and Identification of New (azo-heterocyclic) Derivatives and Study of their Biological Activity as Anti-bacteria and Fungi
Shaimaa Adnan*, Amer Ghafil
This research involved synthesis new heterocyclic compound such as tetrazole, β-lactam, oxazepine, imidazolidine-4-one, thiazolidine-4-one, quinazoline, thayazin-4-on, derivatives, this compound prepared from starting react 5-nitrothiazol-2-amine with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid to gate azo derivative (1), (1) interact with phosphoryl trichloride to produce thiadiazole compound (2), (2) interact with vanillin to produce Schiff base (3), after that (3) react with (sodium azide, chloroacetyl chloride, phthalic anhydride, glycine, alanine, Tryptophan, 2-mercaptobenzoic) to get heterocyclic derivatives All these compound characterized by 13C-NMR, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1HMNR. We then study the biological properties for all heterocyclic derivatives to ward two different kinds of bacteria and two different kinds of funguses.
11. Synthesis, Structural Study, and Biological Activity Evaluation of VO(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) Complexes with New Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Pyrazine
Bushra M. Fayyadh, Wurood A. Jaafar*, Basima M. Sarhan
New Schiff base [3-(3-acetylthioureido)pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid][L] has been prepared through 2 stages, the chloro acetyl chloride has been reacting with the ammonium thiocyanate in the initial phase for producing precursor [A], after that [A] has been reacting with the 3-amino pyrazine-2-carboxilic acid to provide a novel bidentate ligand [L], such ligand [L] has been reacting with certain metal ions in the Mn(II), VO(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), and Cd(II) for providing series of new metal complexes regarding general molecular formula [M(L)2XY], in which; VO(II); X=SO4,Y=0, Co(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Hg(II); Y=Cl, X=Cl. Also, all the compounds were characterized through spectroscopic techniques [ IR, UV-Vis, atomic absorption], conductivity measurements, chloride content, elemental micro analysis in addition to the 1H,13C-NMR for ligand [L] only. Based on the results taken from the methods mentioned above, the proposed geometrical structures with regard to each prepared complex have been in the agreement with octahedral formula.
12. Preparation and In-vitro
Characterization of Tacrolimus as a Solid Self-microemulsion
Duaa J. Al-Tamimi*, Ahmed A. Hussien
Objective: The present investigation is aimed to improve the dispersibility, dissolution rate, and ultimately the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble BCS class II drug Tacrolimus by formulating it as self micro emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). Materials and Methods: Nine formulas of liquid SMEDDS of the drug were formulated using peceol, labrasol ALF, and transcutol HP as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively, depending on tacrolimus solubility study in these components. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were plotted for the identification of an area of micro-emulsification. The prepared systems were characterized for thermodynamic stability, robustness to dilution, self-emulsification time, drug content, globule size, and polydispersity index. The optimized liquid SMEDDS was transformed into powder using Aerosil 200 and Avicel 102 as the adsorbents and characterized for its flow properties. Results and Discussion: The selected formula (F1) composed of Peceol, Labrasol ALF, Transcutol HP, Aerosil 200, and Avicel 102 powder retained the self micro emulsifying property of the liquid SMEDDS. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction studies confirmed the solubilization of the drug in the lipid excipients and the transformation of the drug’s crystalline form to the amorphous one in solid-SMEDDS. This was supported by scanning electron microscopy studies. In-vitro dissolution studies revealed the enhanced release of the drug from solid-SMEDDS which reached more than 89% within 10 minutes as compared to pure drug and the marketed formulation, which reached 19% and 80.4% after 1-hour, respectively. Conclusion: Both liquid and solid SMEDDS showed superior in-vitro drug release and characterization profiles compared with pure powder and the marketed product (Prograf). All of these prove solid SMEDDS to be a promising approach to improving problems associated with poorly soluble drugs’ oral delivery.
13. Dapsone as Novel Reagent for Determination of Doxycycline via
Diazotisation Coupling Reaction
Firas H. Awad*, Anmar G. Taki
A sensitive, simple, accurate, and precious spectrophotometric method for the determination of doxycycline (Dox) was developed and applied in both pure and pharmaceutical form. The reaction is based on the dapsone diazotization in a hydrochloric acid solution with sodium nitrite. The salt formed in diazonium is then reacted to form yellow-orange azo- dye with doxycycline in the sodium hydroxide solution, showing a maximum absorption at 468 nm. The law of beer obeyed in the concentration range of 1-8.2μg mL-1 and molar absorption is 5.573 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. The relative standard deviation is ≤ 2, and the average recovery is 98.7%. The method was suitable for determining doxycycline in its pharmaceutical preparation, as a capsule, with no interference by widely known excipients used as additives in its commercial formulations. The finding aligns favorably with the official method.
14. The Safety and Efficacy of Periurethral Injections of Bulking Agent in Women with Urinary Incontinence
Mohammed B. Ismail, Hasanain F. Al-Timimi, Huda F. Al-Hamadani, Usama A. Nassiri
At present, among the most widely used procedures carried out in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urethral bulking agent (UBA) injection comes second. It is a second-choice treatment procedure after urethral sling placement. Urinary incontinence attributable to intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) is treated with UBA injection. Although several bulking agents have been suggested and tried while some have been removed from the market because of safety reasons, the hunt for a perfect bulking agent is still on. Aim of Study:
To evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of stress and mixed urinary incontinence (UI) in women using a peri-urethral injection of the bulking agent hyaluronic acid dextranomer gel (NASH.DX)-Urodex. Patients and method:
A prospective cohort study that included 24 women with SUI was was carried out in Ghazi Al-hariri hospital for Surgical Specialties between November 2016 and December 2017. Results:
Mean patients’ age is 44 years (range13–75 years) with a mean parity of 5.5 (range from 2–9 child). The mean operating time is 14 minutes (ranging from 13-15 minutes). Postoperative complications occur in four patients (16.6%), two patients have urgency 8.3% and 1-patient dysuria 4.16% and one patient failed. No patient has developed an infection at site of injection or hematoma or retention Conclusion:
The UBA procedure can be employed for the management of patients with SUI and MUI as an effective and safe technique.
15. Analysis of Some Candidate Genes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome for Iraqi Women
Thamer M. Jasiem*
, Saad H. Khudhair
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the multifunctional disorders related to endocrinopathy in females of reproductive age. Most of the family studies reported that PCOS is related to a genetic basis by noted the high number of females affected between the relatives and PCOS patients. The relation between inheritance and PCOS still unknown, and the most recent studies indicate that this syndrome could be a multifunctional trait. The isolated DNA by using a special reagent kit DNA-express, from the peripheral blood leukocytes of women were diagnosed with PCOS their age from 25 to 44 years old, and 23 healthy women as a control group, the amplification reaction used (SNP-express) by PCR and specific kits for three candidate genes (MTHFR, CYP17 and CYP21). The detected the produced by horizontal electrophoresis method and then visualized into identified the alleles in different genes its used. The present results showed a significant difference between the candidate genes and polycystic ovary disorder under two level p < 0.05 and p < 0.01. The significant difference in MTHFR(C677T) gene was the polymorphic marker T < C and the p < 0.05, p < 0.01 values and carriers Genotype C/T
alleles are increased the risk of this disorder. In comparison, the significant difference in CYP17 P450-C17 gene was C < P in the significance level p < 0.05 and the patients carrier heterozygote P/C more candidate to development the PCOS and the patients whose carriers CYP21 R341P gene also candidates by effect by this syndrome whose carriers heterozygote R/P under the p < 0.05, p < 0.01 significance levels. For known the interaction between the genes used the multifactor dimensionality reduction method (MDR method) and shown the estimation between the polymorphic all the candidate genes and associated with PCOS and development with this disorder.
16. Study the Effect of Testosterone Activated Hormone on the level of Concentration of Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium, and Sodium in the Blood of Bodybuilder Athletes
Wisam O. Toamah*, Ayad K. Fadhil, Ihsan A. Alzamily
Bodybuilding is an important sport of great interest worldwide. In the Arab world and in our country, Iraq in particular, as the demand for this sport increased during the last period. The halls and its sports centers have spread, but like other sports, there are some health problems that may accompany this sport if some athletes go through non-athletic and unhealthy methods intended to obtain great results with less time and effort than in normal cases. One of the most important and dangerous of these methods and practices that have absolutely nothing to do with this sport or others use of certain drugs and medications, including hormones and compounds, that speed up required results and at the same time have catastrophic effects on the athlete’s health. This, it is necessary to study a serious health problem resulting from these practices from a purely chemical perspective, which is the effect of some hormones taken on the concentration of some important chemical elements in the blood and to determine whether it leads to an increased or decreased concentrations of some elements found in the blood, which in turn in both cases leads to the appearance of certain symptoms and malfunctions of many parts of the body. This study included two theoretical and field aspects, where the theoretical side contained several axes included the general framework of the study, that is, defining the problem, importance, and objectives of the study, where a focus was placed on a specific type of hormones and compounds are most commonly used by athletes in this study, while the field side contained the scientific methodological procedures used in the study, and identified Samples taken from (50) athletes who use the stimulating hormone (testosterone) in addition to 50 samples from ordinary people who do not use any stimulant compounds and do not exercise any sports activity (control group), as well as the field side, included the presentation of some data and its analysis and the most important results that were also reached the most important recommendations and suggestions developed by researchers, which would contribute to identifying ways to remedy the problem.
17. Synthesis and Characterization of New Maleimide Polymers from Dapsone
Zaied A. Mosaa*, Ezzat H. Zimam
New monomer, and new homogeneous and heterogeneous polymers were synthesized based on the maleimide compounds and sulfa drugs in this work, the first step including preparation of Azo compound (A
) via the reaction of dapsone with p-amino acetophenone. Then derivative of compound (A
) was synthesized by the treatment. It with maleic anhydride to produce amic acid (B)
and with acetic anhydride in the presence of sodium acetate to produce maleimide (C)
by using dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent. The (C
) compound on heated with azobisisobutyronitrile (AINB) initiator, will give Homopolymaleimide polymer (D
). When it reacts with acryl amide in the presence of AINB initiator, it will give copolymer maleimide compound (E
). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H NMR spectroscopy, and 13C NMR spectroscopy have characterized all the synthesized compounds.
18. Physiological Effects of Sertraline on Lipid Profile and Some Biochemical Parameters of Laboratory Mice
Wissam S. Hashim*, Wurood M. Al-Silaykhee, Aiad G. Arean, Shaimaa K. Waad
This study is aimed to reveal the anticipated effects of sertraline on some physio-biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods:
A total of 42 adult male mice of 30–35 grams weight were adopted. Mice were randomly allocated into three groups; control, sertraline high, and sertraline low. The experiment extended for 3 months. The control group mice were dosed with distilled water. The sertraline low group was dosed with 8 mg sertraline hydrochloride, and the sertraline high group was dosed with 12 mg sertraline hydrochloride. All groups were dosed orally and daily for three months. Results:
The results revealed that sertraline causes hyperlipidemia (LDL, VLDL, CHO, and TGs), elevation in hepatic enzymes (AST, ALTS, and ALP), urea, sodium, and creatine of both treated groups and the effects were more severe in sertraline high group comparing them with the control at (p ≤0.05). Conclusions:
Sertraline does affect lipid milieu besides renal and hepatic functions.
19. A Comparative Evaluation of Calcitonin and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels with Chemotherapy for Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients in Kerbala Governorate
Ban M. Shaker AL-Joda*, Aziz H. Jasim
Carcinoma is now identified as one of the extremely important medical troubles defiance the population. For this reason, we were encouraged to investigate the causes of the spread of cancer in the human body. This study included 100 patients with gastric (50%) and colon (50%) Cancer. 50 of those cancer’s patients were on chemotherapy, and 50 of them were without chemotherapy. Results:
The findings pretence a highly important result (p < 0.01) augmentation in the levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and calcitonin as a tumor markers in patients on gastrointestinal (GIT) cancer. In our study, patients on GIT cancer were classified into two groups, group 1-patient were contended with chemotherapy (65 patients), and group 2, patients were not contended by chemotherapy (35 patients). The findings showed a highly significant (p ˂ 0.01) rise in the rank of calcitonin and CEA in chemotherapy-treated patients relative to non-chemotherapy-treated patients. Conclusion:
Gastric and colon cancers are associated with elevated CEA and Calcitonin values. Chemotherapy is not enough drugs to treat cancer, and it is causing to metastasis the cancer when used without radiotherapy. Therefore must use a dependent-dose of radiotherapy with it to save the bone. Calcitonin is a cancer inhibitor in a gastric cancer through inhibits a gastric acid.
20. Impact of Toll-Like Receptors 7 and 9 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Iraqi Patients with Urinary Bladder Carcinoma
Manhal F. Ahmed*, Shahlaa M. Salih
: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key sensor molecules that are expressed together on immune cells and on tumor cells and trigger an immune response and cancer treatment. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between TLR-7 and 9 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level, and progression of urinary bladder carcinoma (UBC). Methods
: This study included 57 UBC Iraqi patients with 50 healthy control subjects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits estimated serum level of TLR-7, TLR-9, and TNF-α. Results:
Showed a significant increase in TLR-7 in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in comparison to none muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and control. Expression of TLR-9 and TNF-α were significantly higher in MIBC and NMIBC in comparison to control. Also, results revealed a significant positive correlation between TLR-7 and TLR-9 with TNF-α level. Conclusions:
Upregulation of serum circulating TLR-7 and TLR-9 may regulate TNF-α production and could be playing a role in UBC progression and development.
21. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-bacterial Study of N-substituted 1,2,4-Triazole Derived from L-Allose
Ziad T. I. Alkayar*, Khalid T. Abdalluh
This work focused on synthesizing new carbohydrates tethered to triazole rings at both primary carbon atoms derived from L-allose. Oxidation of allose 4 gave aldaric acid of allose 5. The hydroxyl group’s protection at C2 to C5 position of aldaric acid of allose was carried out using acetic anhydride. Acetylation of both carboxylic groups with the thionyl chloride gave 1,6-dichloro tetraacetate 7. Treatment of compound 7 with semicarbazide gave the corresponding semicarbazide derivative 8. Then, this was subjected to intramolecular cyclization with KOH to give the 1,2,4-triazole derivatives 9. The triazoles ring were fully alkylated with different alkyl chloride to give the desired products 10a-d. The synthesized compounds were confirmed using infrared (IR), and NMR spectroscopy.
22. Analysis of Amoxicillin in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Biological Samples Based on Micro-cloud Point Technique Prior to Spectrophotometric Determination
Baker S. Mohammed, Wijdan S. Khayoona
A simple, green, and cost-effective method for the trace determination of amoxicillin (AMX) based on micro-cloud point extraction (MCPE) prior to spectrophotometric determination has been demonstrated. To extract AMX using MCPE method, the procedure was carried out using Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The effects of main parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as surfactant and salt concentrations, solution pH, temperature and incubation time were inspected and optimized. Under optimum conditions, good analytical features were obtained. A calibration curve was found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.02 – 3.50 μg mL-1
with low detection limit (0.05 μg mL −1
), good precision with the relative standard deviation of < 2.3%, and high recoveries in the samples (> 96.5%). The obtained results determine the proposed methodology is applicable in satisfactory manner to determine the AMX in pharmaceutical preparations and biological samples.
23. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity of a new Ligand 2,5-bis[(2E)-2-(2-bromobenzylidene) hydrazinyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole with Some Transition Metal Complexes
Weaam A. Salman
One of the limitations in curing infection has been considered to be bacterial resistance to a variety of antibiotics. Therefore, such a condition resulted in developing novel anti-microbial agents. Hence, a lot of researchers specially investigated the new 2,5- disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives, which exhibit alternative biological activities. Then, new transitional metal (Fe(III), Ni(II) as well as Cu(II) complexes of ligand 2,5-bis[(2E)-2-(2-bromobenzylidene)hydrazinyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole were prepared. All the prepared complexes were diagnosed by IR, elemental analyses, H1-NMR and mass spectral. The electronic behavior of their link data has been confirmed. It was concluded that ligand had coordination via nitrogen (N) and (NH) atoms, which has been noted in during the study for each complex. Ligand coordinated through the [15NH] and the nitrogen atom of Schiff base [N3]. This view is more supported by a band’s appearance returned to the metal–nitrogen stretching vibration at 540–547 cm–1 in the complexes. With regard to the findings obtained, we recommended the tetrahedral geometry for Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes, whereas Fe(III) complexes were presented octahedral geometrics. All the synthesized complexes have been screened for anti-bacterial by using the spread method and measurement inhibition zone with E-coli and staph aureus (DMSO).
24. Infection with Alternaria spp
. and Aspergillus flavus
that Isolated from Sheep’s Milk on Oxidative Status in Male Rats
Saif T. Jasim
The current study was designed to show some pathogenic fungi isolated from sheep milk. Milk samples were collected from 50 sheep in different regions of Anbar city, which appeared healthy and without any disease. Each sample was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose Agar at 28 ± 2ºC for 4–7 days. Two types of isolation were used in the current study: Alternaria spp.
and Aspergillus flavus
. A 21 male rats were utilized and distributed as follows (seven rats in group): Group A received a normal diet only and then killed at the end of experiment. Group B administrated (intraperitoneally) of Alternaria spp.
conidia (107 conidia/mL normal saline.), and then killed after infection. Group C administrated (intranasal) of A. flavus
conidid (107 conidia/mL normal saline.), and then killed after infection. The result show that the percentage of mold infection was Alternaria spp.
2 (8.7%) and A. flavus
4 (17.4%), respectively.
25. Prepare Local Vaccine for Vaccination of Chicken Against Coccidiosis by using Live Oocysts of Different Species of Eimeria
Ban A. W. Gailani, Afaf A. R. Muala, Saif S. Kamel*, Omar F. H. Bedi
The study was conducted to vaccinate chickens against coccidiosis by using a live vaccine containing 7 species of chicken Eimeria, Eimeria tenella
(40%), Eimeria brunetti
(21%), Eimeria necatrix
(20%), Eimeria maxima
(7%), Eimeria mevati
(6%), Eimeria acervulina
(3%), Eimeria praecox
(3%). A total of 120 chicks at one day of age, Broilers Habbard type used in the Experiment. The birds of the Experiment were allocated on 3 pins; each contains 40 chicks. The birds chosen for the Experiment were vaccinated at the 9th day of age, with a suspension of mixed Eimeria that contain 50 oocysts of E. tenella
with percent of other species, respectively. The vaccine was given to chicks in the 1st pins (40 chicks) with drinking water. The chicks in the 2nd pin were given vaccine by crop inoculation, the chicks in the 3rd pin left non-vaccinated as a control group. All groups were challenged at 25 days of age with 50000 sporulated oocysts of live E. tenella
with the percentage of other species found in the suspension by crop inoculation. The mortality % was recorded daily till the end of the Experiment. Clinical signs observed 4 to 10 days post-vaccination and challenged. Body weight was measured at 25, 32, 48 days of age, and weight gain was calculated. Fecal sample collected at 16, 25, 32 days of age and examined for oocysts count. The following parameters had been done seven days post-vaccination and challenge: Packed cell volume (PCV), score lesion of intestine and caecum. The experiment results pointed out that the vaccinated chicks develop resistance against the Eimeria species present in the suspension; by reducing in the clinical signs of vaccinated groups seven days post-challenge. The Experiment was recorded a significant difference between vaccinated and non-vaccinated in mortality percentage; control groups recorded the highest rate of mortality compared with vaccinated groups. The PCV elevated significantly in vaccinated groups after challenge compared with that of the control group. The chicks showed significantly highest weight gain, in the control group and bird vaccinated in drinking water, comparing with those of the crop inoculation group. Seven days post-challenge, lesion scoring of intestine and caecum were reduced significantly in vaccinated groups compared with control. In the chicks’ feces, the oocysts count showed a significant reduction in the number of oocysts in vaccinated groups compared to control groups 7 days post-challenge. The results showed no significant differences in all parameters measured in the experiments between the birds that were vaccinated with drinking water or by crop inoculation. The protection ratio in broiler arranged between, 89-90% experiment respectively, depending on the method of inoculation. It was concluded that the prepared vaccine, which was given to the chicks at 9 days of age decreases the severity of the clinical signs, mortality percentage, lesion scours, and oocysts count in the feces of vaccinated broilers.
26. Spectrophotometric Determination of Dapsone in Pharmaceutical Formulation by Schiff҆s base with p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde
Waleed S. Ahmad1, Mohammad S. Abdulaziz
The study includes simple, sensitive, and rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of dapsone (DAP) in aqueous solution. The method is based on the Schiff’s base formation which is achieved by coupling of DAP with P-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde (P-DMAB) at pH 2.04 to yield a yellow color product exhibiting maximum absorbance at 454 nm, Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range 1.6–9.6 μg/mL of DAP, with correlation coefficient 0.9996, with a molar absorptivity 1.8747×104 L/mol.cm, sandellʹs sensitivity index of 0.0132 μg/cm2, D.L 0.0390 μg/mL and Q.L 0.1179 μg/mL, RSD, relative standard deviation 0.18–0.36%, the average recovery is 99.49%, the stoichiometric ratio between the drug and reagent 1:2. This method has been applied successfully for determination of DAP in pharmaceutical preparation.
27. Biotherapy Exploration for Gallbladder Stones Removing In vitro
Mithal A. A. Oun, Atheer A. Majeed, Sanaa R. Oleiwi
Latterly, non-surgical pharmaceutic have been based on dissolving gallstones and saturated bile salt, which is contained 70% in near cholesterol. Therefore, the article takes care of the transforming agent Streptococcus sp
. Such as a model for inducing plasmid pMG36bsh
for processing of gallstones removing in vitro
. Whole transcripting messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of Streptococcus sp
. was gauged in Prime script TM RT reagent Kit, to monitor the change after attending pMG36bsh
vector and set up Streptococcus sp
. have two copies of cholesterol-reducing genes (cgh, bsh
) used to look like gallstone fragments in bacterial growth culture. To find data that was assumed to be released in bacterial bsh
expression, reduce the amount of gallstones in culture when bile salt serves like inducing stiff for associated bsh
genes. The removing ratio depended on bacterial species with their living environmental kind. Whereas, Streptococcus mutans
has given a 56% (n = 2) signification removing ratio, and Streptococcus parasanguinis
was 24% (n = 1), considering non-significant result when they comparted with wild type reducing ratio and S. salivarius
used like digestive balance probiotic drugs, get 82% (n = 1) significant removal ratio.
28. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride in Pure Forms and Pharmaceutical Preparations by Oxidative Coupling Reaction as a Reagent in the Presence of N-bromosuccinimide
Mohammad S. Abdulaziz
The article describes a simple, speedy, and sensitive spectrophotometric method to determine the trace amounts of trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH) in an aqueous solution. The method involves the oxidative coupling reaction of TFPH with N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPPDA.2HCl) reagent in an acidic medium during availability of N-bromosuccinimide to develop an intense violet color. This water-soluble product exhibits maximum absorbance at 552 nm. Beers law follows a concentration range of (1–20) μg/mL, with a molar absorptivity of 1.4×104 L/mol.cm, Coefficient determination (R2 = 0.9989). Sandel ̓s index of 0.030 μg /cm2. The average recovery is 100.8045 % and D.L of 0.1435 μg/mL, Q.L. of 0.4349, and relative standard deviation of 0.11–0.59%. The proposed method gets compared with the other standard method using t-test and F-test. The results reflect no significant variation between both the methods. The proposed method was applied conveniently, to determine Trifluoperazine.2HCl in its pure state and pharmaceutical formulations.
29. Bioequivalence Study of a Newly Developed Azithromycin Suspension Versus Zithromax®
Following a Single Dose to Healthy Fasting Adult Subjects
Mays E. Alani, Duaa J. Al-Tamimi, Mustafa I. Al-Mahroos, Afaq M. Ammoo, Mariam J. Al-Tamim, Jaafar J. Ibraheem
Azithromycin is an orally administered semisynthetic azide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. It is structurally related to erythromycin with similar spectrum of activity. Azithromycin has a prolonged elimination half-life (2–4 days) due to extensive tissue penetration, making the drug suitable for once-daily dosing. Azithromycin is widely prescribed to adults and pediatric patients. Objective:
The present study aimed to compare the rate and extent of bioavailability (bioequivalence) of a newly developed generic azithromycin suspension (200 mg azithromycin/5 mL) as a test drug product with azithromycin suspension (Zithromax®, Pfizer, USA) as the reference brand drug product. Methods:
Both drug products were administered as a single dose of 500 mg (12.5 mL suspension) to 28 healthy adult male Arabic subjects applying fasting, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover design with three weeks washout interval between dosing. Serial blood samples were obtained from each subject before drug dosing (Zero time) and then up to 72 hours post-dosing. The concentrations of azithromycin in the plasma sample of each subject were determined by a validated High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)/MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, truncated AUC0-72hr and Tmax were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Results:
The mean ± SD values of Cmax, AUC0-72hr and Tmax of azithromycin for the test product were 358.2 ± 120.6 ng/mL, 2722.3 ± 1116.2 ng.hr/mL and 2.57 ± 1.19 hours, respectively. The corresponding values of these parameters for the reference product were 315.8 ± 89.5 ng/mL, 2567.2 ± 846.7 ng.hr/mL and 2.63 ± 1.10 hours, respectively. The 90% confidence interval for the primary parameters used in bioequivalence evaluation namely Cmax and AUC0-72hr were within Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) acceptance range of 80-125%. Conclusion:
It can be concluded from the current investigation that the test and reference products are bioequivalent. Both products were well tolerated by all subjects and unexpected adverse events were not observed throughout the study. Thus, the newly developed generic azithromycin suspension may be considered interchangeable to Zithromax® suspension in clinical practice.
30. Impact of Arthrocentesis in Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Problems
Imad K. Abbas al-Rifae*, Zaid M. Akram, Qaisar K. Oraibi
: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) illnesses denote varied pain and dysfunction circumstances connecting the masticatory scheme and decrease life eminence of the subjects. Arthrocentesis is a modest and less offensive operating technique for managing interior imbalance than arthroscopy and recovering than additional traditional techniques as medications, occlusal applications, and rehabilitation. The study aimed to assess the efficiency of arthrocentesis, in combination with a steadying immobilize, in refining purpose, dropping pain, and inhibiting additional worsening of the TMJ function. Methods
: This study was done in Al-shaheed Ghazi Al-Hareeri Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Operation. Entirely patients recognize with TMJ illness after do X-ray in the radiological department. Total of 40 patients (4 men) and (36 women) with an age of 18–35 years old. Each patient was assessed for the subsequent strictures preoperatively and followed up for 1 month after the previous lavage. Results:
This study revealed marked female predilection with a female ratio of about 90% (36 patients) and a male ratio of 10% (4 patients), with a mean age of 23.32 years old, range between 18 and 35 years old. In general, all patients tolerated treatment procedures without any serious complications during either Arthrocentesis and previous medication and splint therapy. The results of parameters after one-month follow-up were: pain level (VAS):
Group A: mean 2.2, Group B: mean 2.8 So group A get better than group B. Maximum mouth opening:
Group A: 39.8 mm, group B: 38.6 mm. Joint click:
At the end of follow up only 6 patients show no change in joint click; all others show a decrease in clicking. Conclusion:
Using 0.9% normal saline solution and betamethasone injection with occlusal splint have satisfying benefits, ease, security, patient’s approval of injection procedure, and absence of important adverse effects and problems.
31. Detection of Some Virulence Factors and Antibiotics Susceptibility of Psudomonas aeruginosa
Kareem I. Mubarak
The current study conducted by collecting 150 specimens from different sources include urine, wounds, burns, sputum, to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa
bacteria, the specimens were collected from medical laboratories for pathogenic analysis in Baquba city -Iraq during the period from 1/9/2019 – 1/7/2020 to detection virulence factors, antibiotic resistance of bacteria, the biofilm formation ,and the effect of sub minimum inhibitory concentration (Sub-MIC) of Ciprofloxacin antibiotics in biofilm production. This showed 35 (14.28 %) P. aeruginosa
isolates were identified from the total clinical specimens by the standard identification methods, the percentage of distribution of isolates between the specimens source as following urine (10.6%) wounds (16.36%), burns (35%) and sputum samples (15%). The result of investigation of virulence factors of P aeruginosa
isolates reveal that lipase 30 (85.71%), haemolysin and gelatinase production were 35 (100%), and extended spectrum-lactamase enyme (ESBLS) Production were 30 (85.71%). Biofilm formation by 35 P. aeruginosa
showed that 33 (94.28%) of total (35) isolates form biofilms, as following: 15 (42.85%) isolates form strong biofilm, 8 (22.85%) form moderate bifilm,10 (28.57%) produce weak biofilm, and 2 (5.71 %) not production, antibiotic resistance of isolates showed the highest percentage of resistance against ticarcillin (95%), cephalothin (90%) and ceftazidime (63%) whereas the lowest resistance for colistin, ofloxacin, imipenem were 31%, 25%, 16% respectively, the influence of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (Sub-MIC) (8 μg/mL) of ciprofloxacin on Biofilm formation showed the reduction of biofilm formation degree from strong in 15 isolates (100%) to weak formation in 8 isolates (53.34%).
32. Antibiotics Susceptibility of Environmental Bacteria: Ralstonia pickettii
and Pseudomonas luteola
Isolated from Shatt Al-Hilla in Babylon Province, Iraq
Huda A. Mohammed*, Lubna A. M. Al-Shalah, Azhar O. Althahab
Introduction: Ralstonia pickettii and Pseudomonas luteola
are opportunistic pathogens; gram-negative bacteria have been found in moist soil which causes pollution of pure water which leads to many diseases by these pathogens. Results:
In the current study, R. pickettii
and P. luteola
were isolated from the Shat Al-Hilla in Babylon province. In this study were found R. pickettii
more resistant to antibiotics than P. luteola
and not sensitive to any antibiotics that used in the test while intermediate to four antibiotics from seventeen antibiotics. Whilst P. luteola
sensitive to three antibiotics include Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxa, and resistance to seven antibiotics. Conclusion:
It has been concluded that R. pickettii
more resistant to antibiotics and do not have an sensitive to any antibiotic used in this study compared to P. luteola
that proved sensitive to some antibiotics.
33. Spectrophotometric Estimation of Cefixime via
Oxidation Reaction using Sodium Hypochlorite
Deena M. Abd AL- Jawad*, Farha K. Omar
A sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method has been proposed to estimate cefixime in its pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method depends on the oxidation of cefixime by sodium hypochlorite in the acidic medium in the presence of a methyl red pigment where the color of the dye appears after the oxidizing agent has run out with the drug as the dye absorption was measured at the wavelength of 524 nm and the method follows law with a concentration range of 0.5- 7 μg.mL-1 with a correlation coefficient of( ), molar absorptivity of (10.44942× 104
) l mol-1.cm-1 and the Sandell᾽s sensivity (0.0048) μg.cm-2. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical preparations.
34. In vitro
Cytotoxic and Genotoxic of Lipopolysaccharide Isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae
AS1 on MCF-7 Human Breast Tumor Cell Line
Sura A. Abdulateef, Mohanad H. Hussein, Ali Z. Al-Saffar
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria induces many biological activities such as host defense, immunomodulation, antioxidant, and anti-proliferative activity. LPS extracted from the locally isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae
) AS1 was evaluated for the efficiency of K. pneumoniae
AS1 LPS in inducing toxicity and genotoxic activity against breast tumor cell line MCF-7 in vitro
. LPS from K. pneumoniae
AS1 was extracted using a simple procedure of brief sonication and hot phenol. The crude LPS was subjected to Sepharose Cl-6B gel filtration chromatography column and two major peaks were eluted with the carbohydrate content of 41.42% and 21.65% for peak 1 and peak 2, respectively. The LPS collected from peak one was authenticated using high-performance liquid chromatography with purity of 90.53%. The cytotoxic effect of K. pneumoniae
AS1 LPS was analyzed using methyl thiazole tetrazolium assay against MCF-7 cells compared with normal WRL68 cells. LPS exhibited a significant decrease in MCF-7 viability in a dose-dependent pattern with good cytocompatibility when applied LPS against normal WRL68 cells. As determined by DNA fragmentation assay, K. pneumoniae
AS1 LPS induced an apparent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation in MCF-7 cells compared with controls.
35. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of Schiff Base Derivatives with 4-Bromo-2,6-Dimethylaniline and Study their Complexes with Some Transition Metal Ions
Aseel H. Abad Al-Ameer
New complexes of some transition metal lions [Cr(III),Cu(II) and Zn(II))] with prepared ligand 2-(((4-(1-((4-bromo-2,6-dimethylphenyl)imino)ethyl)phenyl)imino)methyl)phenol were synthesized. The new complexes’ structures were characterized by elemental microanalysis (CHN), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal gravimetric, flame atomic absorption, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurement, and mass spectra. According to the obtained data, the probable coordination geometries of these complexes were suggested as octahedral. All complexes were found to be non-electrolyte.
36. Physiological, Histological, and Biochemical Evidence for the Effect of Two Azo Dyes on Mice Model
Hanan M. Ali*, Salma S. Abbas, Qutaiba M. Al Dulaimee, Saad S. Hammadi
The effects of (E
-pyrazol-1-yl) phenyl) sulfonyl) diazenyl) phenyl) acetamide (L1) and (1S
)-3-(isopropyl amino)-1-(4-(2-methoxy ethyl) phenoxy)-1-((E
)-(3-nitrophenyl) diazenyl) propan-2-ol (L2), in the Mus musculus
L. from Balb/C were studied. These azo dyes showed well ability to destroy cancer living cells and reduce the growth of human breast MDA-MB231 cancer cells. Therefore, the complete blood count (CBC) was then done for the three groups of mice A (injected with L1), B (injected with L2) and C (the control). The results were indicated that the changes in the red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood platelets (PLT) and the white blood cell count (WBC), were very slightly affected by each azo dye in contrast with the control. The average of data received by each test then was calculated. The results of WBC were displayed a little bet lemphobinia, which can be improved using vitamins. Also, the statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 20 with p < 0.05 at a significant data, which expressed according to Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and multivariate ANOVA. Further, the cutoff values for each blood test were also intended. The results were revealed that the cutoff values were variable and seems to be reasonable in contrast with the control. These results were confirmed by using the tissues of the investigated organs (heart, kidney, and liver). The results were looked acceptable because, the mice are still alive and are active until diesection. Hence it is recommended that these azo dyes as a new anticancer drugs.
37. Determination of Trace Cocaine Based on New Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Combined with Solid-phase Microextraction
Enas A. Hadi, Yehya K. Al-Bayati
This article has developed a novel, sensitive, and cheaper methodology based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), using different functional monomers as vinyl acetate and 1-vinyl imidazole, with suitable cross-linker and the template (cocaine), to fabricate a monolithic solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS); all these analytical methods used for extraction, preconcentration, and selective identification of cocaine and its derivatives. Firmness, stability, and duration of the fabricated fiber give its fundamental and indispensable role in SPME. The purpose of selectivity of the processed fiber is also clarified in detail by the extraction procedure. This study explores the variables that affect polymerization. The template in a solution containing Cocaine The selectivity of related and unrelated compounds under ideal conditions is also optimal. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for Two patients, repeated experiments for three measurements range from at 20–100 ppm of Cocaine –4–5 %. The relative recoveries obtained for Cocaine in spiked human urine samples are in the range of 96–105 %.
38. Assessment of the Level of Adherence to Insulin Therapy and Diet Recommendations Among Diabetes Patient
Ola A. Al-Latif Hamid*, Ameer K. Al-Humairi
Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and disturbances in metabolism, with rising prevalence globally due to various factors such as aging, decreased physical activity and increasing obesity. Optimal adherence of diabetic patients both with insulin treatment and dietary recommendations is necessary to achieve the full clinical benefit of therapy. Objectives of the Study:
Assessment of adherence to insulin therapy and adherence to diet restriction among diabetic patients. Methodology:
Cross-sectional study conducted in Merjan Teaching Hospital, Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital, Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital, and Diabetes Disease Center in Babylon and Thi-Qar governorates, and included 151 diabetic patients during the period from February-June 2020. Data were collected using a specially designed questionnaire form that includes the standardized Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) to assess insulin therapy adherence and diet restriction. Results:
Males formed 50.3% of the study sample. Majority (44.4%) were overweight (BMI 25–29.9). Only 23.8% of patients had high adherence to insulin therapy, while 49.0% had low adherence. Insulin adherence was significantly correlated with RBS, HbA1c, occupation, and SES (p < 0.05). Adherence to diet was significantly associated with RBS, HbA1c, adherence to insulin, gender, marital status, and occupation (p < 0.05). Conclusions:
Adherence to insulin therapy was low in almost half of patients. It was found that the level of adherence significantly impacted glycemic control. Adherence to dietary recommendations was closely correlated with insulin adherence.
39. Synthesis, Characterization of Isatin Dithiocarbamate Derivatives with Expected Biological Activities
Mohammed H. Mohammed, Ali A. Leelon
The present work demonstrates the synthesis of isatin dithiocarbamate derivatives in a satisfactory yield, involves the synthesis of the parent nucleus((Z)-3-((4-aminophenyl)imino)indolin-2-one)(A) by reaction of isatin with p-phenylenediamine (Schiff,s base reaction) ,then will be reacted with carbon disulfide in basic media (triethylamine) and acetone as solvent to afford dithiocarbamate salt ((Z)-N,N,N-triethyl-S-(1-((4-((2-oxoindolin-3ylidene)amino) phenyl)amino) vinyl)thiohydroxylammonium) (L) compound, finally the dithiocarbamate salt reacted with different alkylating agents as(benzyl chloride ,methyl iodide, p
-nitro benzyl chloride and phenacyl bromide) to get four final products named as (AL1, AL2, AL3, AL4). All titled compounds were prepared screened for their in vitro
preliminary antimicrobial activities against four bacterial strains, two of them are gram-positive bacteria include Staph. aureas, Strep. Pneumonia,
and two gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia oli
, Pseud aeruginosa,
and two fungal strains, Candida albicans
and Candida glabrata
by well diffusion method. (AL1, AL2, AL4) compounds showed slightly antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria while (AL3) showed moderate antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria only as well as, AL1 shows highly antifungal activity against (C. Glabrata
), and a slight antifungal activity against by others using cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin as standard antibacterial drugs while used fluconazole as a standard antifungal drug.
40. Investigation of the Effect of Calcium Oxide on Acute and Subchronic in Kidney and Testis of Wister Male Rats
Khawla A. Kasar1*, Ibtihal AL-shamarti2, Shurooq Wesam Al-Shaibani3, Qais AL Ismaeel4, Rawya F. Chillab
Aim of the study:
The study was carried out to evaluate the modification of kidney and testis tissue of Wister male rats induced by calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaO-NP). Background:
The fifth chemical element on the crust of the earth is calcium. It is noted that calcium is the essential mineral for all organisms because it plays an important role in the human cells functions, and it is the effect on binding the bone and teeth by producing calcium phosphate. On the other hand, the low level of calcium element in the body leads to weakness, dental caries, and muscle cramps. Methods:
The animals were divided into two groups according to CaO treatment. The first group received single normal saline and was considered a control group; the second group received 100 mg\kg CaO-NP orally of bodyweight-only for 10 days on a row. Rats were sacrificed the10thday of treatment, and tissues were obtained for histological evaluation included kidney and testis. Results:
Many modifications were observed in kidney tissues, including necrosis of mesangial cells and podocytes with infiltration of inflammatory cells and hemorrhage. Additionally, testis tissues showed necrosis of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. Conclusion:
Calcium Oxide Nano Particles decreased number of spermatozoon in seminiferous tubules adult male Wister rats.
41. Association Between TNF-α (-308G →A) Gene Polymorphism and Burn Patient with Sepsis
Raghda S. M. Al-Omari*, Mahdi H. Al-Ammar
Burning is damage to the skin and loss of the primary barrier of infection. Burned skin is at risk of infection as long as the barrier is absent. If not treated, infection caused by serious burns can be life-threatening and lead to sepsis. Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction due to the anti-infection host not responding; early treatment is critical. Sepsis is the leading cause of death, resulting in up to 50 to 60% of burn injury deaths. Therefore, the present study aimed to diagnose sepsis in burn patients and to study the relationship between TNF-α (-308G →A) gene polymorphism and burn patient with sepsis. Recorded results showed that procalcitonin (ng/mL) (PCT) significantly higher in sepsis than in without sepsis burn patients group (p < 0.05), 9.16 ± 5.07 versus 0.57 ± 1.27 respectively. The genotypes relative frequency in burn patient with sepsis were as follow : GG ( 40 % ), GA ( 45%) and AA (15%); while in burn patient without sepsis subjects : GG (53.3%), GA (33.3%) and AA ( 13.3%). G allele is higher frequency (62.5%) in burn patients with sepsis than A allele (37.5%). The presence of heterozygous GA genotype in the TNF-α-308 was associated with sepsis of burn patient
42. Effect of Hydrotropic Solubilisation on Quantitative Determination of Ulipristal Acetate in Pharmaceutical Formulations
R. B. Kotnal, Santosh Karajgi*, Vinayak Ragi
The study’s main objective was to solubilize poorly water-soluble drug ulipristal acetate, develop an analytical method for the quantitative estimation, and validate the analytical method developed. Validation parameters studied like range, linearity, and assay. Methods:
Ulipristal acetate is freely soluble in distilled water when 1.5 M Nicotinamide was used as a solubilising agent. Ulipristal Acetate shows an Absorption maximum at 298.55 nm in first order mode of measurement using Shimdzu UV Spectrophotometer 1800 spectronic model. Result:
At the absorption maximum 298.55 nm, ulipristal Acetate shows a linear response in the range between 5μg/mL to 25μg/mL concentration. Conclusion:
The current study is useful for the aqueous solubilization and quantitative determination of ulipristal acetate in pharmaceutical formulation thus avoiding toxic solvents.
43. Detection of Plasmid Mediated Efflux Pump Genes in Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli
isolated from Clinical Samples
Tuqa S. Al-Salmani1*, Amal A. Kareem,1 Mustafa S. Al-Salmani
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli
becomes an important problem that threatens life because it plays a vital role in disseminating antibiotic resistance genes. Objective:
Present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated efflux pump genes among MDR E. coli
isolated from clinical samples in Iraq. Methods:
Fifty MDR E. coli
isolates were isolated from clinical samples, then identified by the biochemical and microbiological methods, API-20 E system, and VITEK-2 System. All isolates were tested their susceptibility against 12 antibiotics by disk diffusion method, then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 16 antibiotics and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was determined by VITEK-2 Compact/AST-GN69 card. Results:
Out of 50 MDR E. coli
isolates, the isolation rate from urine was higher with 78%(39 isolates), while from infected wounds and blood were 14% (7 isolates) and 8% (4 isolates). All E. coli
isolates were showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 μg/mL), levofloxacin (MIC ≥ 8 μg/mL), norfloxacin and nalidixic acid, ampicillin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/mL), ampicillin/sulbactam (MIC ≥ 32 μg/mL), cefazolin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/mL), ceftazidime (MIC ≥ 64 μg/mL) and ceftriaxone (MIC ≥ 64 μg/mL). Most MDR E. coli
isolates were produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) with rate 60% (30 isolates). Out of 23 representative MDR E. coli
isolates (ESBL positive), five isolates harbored two plasmid-mediated efflux pump genes (qepA
) and two isolates had only qepA
, while oqxB
gene was not detected in any isolate. All isolates that carried qepA
showed pan drug-resistant (PDR) patterns that revealed resistance to 20 tested antibiotics. Conclusions:
The study concluded that the spread of oqxA
gene among E. coli
isolates refer to a greater risk on mankind.
44. Determination of Amoxicillin in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Molecularly Imprinted Polymer in Polyvinyl Chloride Matrix Membrane
Huda J. Hussein, Yehya K. Al-Bayati
This study was based on synthesizing four electrodes based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Using amoxicillin sodium (AMX-Na) as the template, 1-vinyl imidazole (VIZ) and vinyl acetate (VA) as monomer, and N, N-methylene bis acrylamide (MBAA) as cross-linkers and benzoyl peroxide as the initiator, two MIPs were prepared. In the preparation of non-impressed polymers (NIPs), the same composition was used without the template of amoxicillin sodium. Numerous plasticizers, such as tri-oly phosphate (TOP) and di-octyl phthalate (DOP), were used in the PVC matrix for the preparation of membranes. Slop, detection limit, lifetime, and linearity range of AMX-MIPs electrodes are the characteristics studied. There is no interaction with the drug Amoxicillin sodium in the results obtained from selectivity measurements on interfering cations (K+, Ca+2, Al+3) and certain pharmaceutical additives such as methylparaben propylparaben and trisodium citrate. The preparation electrodes have been shown good response, including testing pharmaceutical analysis.
45. Transethosomes a Novel Transdermal Drug Delivery System for Antifungal Drugs
Barik S. Mohammed*, Fatima J. Al Gawhari
The skin, particularly the stratum corneum considered a barrier to the entry of drugs, antifungal drugs, are widely used for the treatment of fungal infections and they are given either systemically or topically. Antifungal drugs are not fully effective due to many factors like poor skin penetration, inability to reach target sites, short residence time, systemic side effects, and low bioavailability due to hepatic metabolism which in turn require high or frequent dosing and decrease the compliance of the patients, Hence approaches have recently been focused on a novel transdermal drug delivery of antifungal drugs, one such approach are vesicular nano-carrier delivery systems these systems can produce sustained release of the drug, which minimizes the side effects, The frequency of dosing and increase patient compliance. Transethosomes as a novel vesicular carrier system introduced to minimize these drawbacks of antifungal drugs. Transethosomes increase the stability and solubility of antifungal drugs and hence increasing their efficacy in eliminating the infection. The drug is given as a semisolid dosage form lead to increase patient compliance.
46. Radioactive Wastewater Treatment using Magnetic Nanocomposite Material
Asia H. Al-Mashhadani*, Zainab M. Hassan
Radionuclide contamination has become a big problem after the development of nuclear power plants and the use of nuclear waste in making weapons used in recent wars. Here, using the electrical exploding wire method, the core-shell iron@carbon@magnesium nanocomposites were synthesized. Two vital properties make the nanoparticles very profitable as an absorbent material. On a mass basis, nanoparticles have much larger surface areas than the total molecules. It can also be reinforced with different reactor groups to increase their chemical affinity towards targeted compounds. Adsorption is among the different technologies available, one of the best technologies thanks to its ease of processing, low cost, and high efficiency. The fate of the environment and the toxicity of materials are essential issues in selecting materials and designing a wastewater purification system. Concrete actions included for the first time the treatment of particles on the surface of the negatively charged Fe3O4 nanoparticles, then the nucleus through the carbon cation round, then the growth of a thin layer of Mg+ (~ 30 nm). SEM characterization techniques indicate that the Fe3O4 @ C@Mg was very stable and magnetic with a specified large surface area (~600 sq/g). It was employed to remove uranium radionuclides from radioactively contaminated water. Results indicate the decreases in uranium concentration from contaminated water from 50 ppm to 10 ppm using Fe3O4 @ C @ Mg nanostructure. This research has suggested that Fe3O4 @ C@Mg can achieve stability and favorable functions at one time and can be easily separated by an external magnetic field after being used in radioactive wastewater treatment, which was of great practical benefit and cheap in radioactive waste extraction.