International Journal of

Drug Delivery Technology

ISSN: 0975 4415

Peer Review Journal

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This journal is member of Crossref. 

1. 23Full Factorial Designs for Formulation and Evaluation of Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug
Desavath C. S. Naik, Arigela Bharathi
This study aimed to formulate ibuprofen fast-dissolving tablets using a natural super-disintegrant to enhance their anti-inflammatory activity. In this survey, three factors in a two-level (23) factorial design were employed to examine the effects of three factors, i.e., effects of Ocimum gratisimum mucilage [A], sodium starch glycolate [B], and croscarmellose sodium [C] on dependent variables such as in vitro method, in water absorption, and percent drug release at 5 minutes. The pH range for all formulations was 7.2 ± 0.24 to 7.2 ± 0.25. The drug content percentages ranged from 198.92 ± 0.78 to 201.5 ± 10.55%. The in vitro relationship is that after transient administration of the system, it remains intact for an extended period of time. Water absorption was in the range of 45.9 ± 0.15 to 99.9 ± 0.25%; optimized formulation water absorption was estimated to be approximately 55 ± 0.05% to 195 ± 0.040%. Formulations F2 and F4 reflected rapid drug release within 5 minutes, and all formulations except F3, F6, and F7 exhibited approximately 90% drug release within 10 minutes. Experience has shown that the independent variables chosen to have a significant effect on the dependent variable, demonstrating the robustness and adaptability of the design implied by optimization. The developed system could be a promising alternative strategy to increase ibuprofen retention in the stomach, thereby enhancing its therapeutic efficacy. It even offers the added benefit of reducing stomach irritation, tissue damage, and ulcers by avoiding direct contact of the drug with the gastric mucosa.

2. Preparation of Posaconazole Nanosponges for Improved Topical Delivery System
Barik S. Mohammed, Fatima J. Al-Gawhari
The objective of the current research was to develop the posaconazole (PCZ) loaded NS into the carbopol 934 polymeric gel for prolonged drug release and improved topical delivery; seven different nanosponge formulations of PCZ were formulated using the emulsion solvent diffusion method using various amounts of polymer (ethylcellulose, EC). The aqueous and dispersed phases were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and dichloromethane. The prepared nanosponges (NS) were studied for particle size, structural appearance, and in vitro drug release. Furthermore, the selected formula was formulated as hydrogel and was evaluated for physical characteristics, drug content, and in-vitro drug release. Morphological studies revealed irregular shapes, rough and porous surfaces of nanosponges. The particle sizes were in the range of 201.6 ± 29.9 to 4904.7 ± 540.4 nm. In-vitro release studies revealed the sustained release pattern of the drug-loaded nanosponges. The lyophilized PCZ-NS formula had a 12-fold increase in saturation solubility over PCZ pure powder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the selected formula showed no significant shifts in the positions of wavenumbers compared to that of pure drug. This indicates there is no interaction between drug and excipients used. PCZ NS loaded hydrogel significantly improved the dissolution rate, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of pure PCZ hydrogel.

3. Protective Role of Kelakai (Stenochlaena Palustris) Extract on Malathion-induced Genotoxic: FTIR Spectroscopy Study
Eko Suhartono, Noor Muthmainah, Dona Marisa, Salmon C. P. T. Siahaan, Noer Komari
Malathion is a genotoxic pesticide that destructs DNA. Many research have proven it, yet the mechanism has not been clear. That is the reason why this research needs to be conducted. This research used two groups, control, and two treatment group. The control group (P0) was 100 μL of Human Genomic DNA Female solution, while the treatment group (P1) was 100 μL of Human Genomic DNA Female solution which was added with 100 μL of 6 mM malathion solution. The other treatment group (P2) was 100 μL of Human Genomic DNA Female solution which was added with 100 μL of 6 mM malathion solution. Each group of solutions was incubated at 37oC for 48 hours. Then the absorbance was determined by FTIR. The content of the kelakai extract was determined by GC-MS. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed that the ethanolic extract of kelakai contained 6.1% hexadecanoic acid and 6.54% Neophytadiene. the percentage changes in the absorbance of guanine, thymine, cytocin, and adenine were significantly different in each group. So as deformation of the NH-groups in DNA bases. This means that kelakai extract can inhibit DNA damage.

4. Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Gel of Alhagi Camelorum with its Anti-inflammatory Activity
Garima Verma, Sushil Kumar, Amit Singh
This paper emphasizes the anti-inflammatory effects of Alhagi Camelorum. Most of the diseases are caused by a continuous swelling, including cancer. There is hence a need to neutralize inflammation. A. Camelorum, a medicinal plant, has been historically utilized as a remedy in Ayurveda and other systems of folk medicine. Thus, several techniques were utilized by Wister rats to examine A. Camelorum anti-inflammatory properties. The plant material was crushed into a coarse powder in a grinder after drying and stored at a room temperature for further investigation. The powdered plant material of A. Camelorum was subjected to successive solvent extraction (hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol) in soxlet extraction method. Different extracts were analyzed using a traditional procedure to evaluate the various physicochemical properties. The HPTLC report is included to the file. It was discovered that the methanol and chloroform drug extract contained flavonoids (good anti-inflammatory properties) when quercetine was used as a marker. Topical gel of methanol and chloroform drug extract of A. Camelorum were prepared with Carbopol 934, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and carboxymethyl cellulose. These gel formers have been created, tested, and gel chosen, which showed good propagation and consistency, to get the right consistency of the gel formulation. Gel containing methanol drug extract FM2 and FM10 formulation showed highest in-vitro release which were selected and subjected to carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. Our study reveals the anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of A. Camelorum were found to be significant.

5. Progression-free Survival of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer in Iraqi Patients Treated with First-line Chemotherapy
Mohammed Hasan, Mazin Judy, Mohammed A. H. AL-Zobaidy
Background: Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive cancer. According to the latest data published by the World Health Organization, the number of new cases in 2020 in Iraq was 674 and represented 2% of all new cancer cases. Most of the pancreatic adenocarcinomas have spread outside the pancreas at the time of diagnosis. Progression free survival is the time between the date of diagnosis to disease progression or death. The current study aims to compare progression free survival between three chemotherapy regimens; Gemcitabine, Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel and FOLFIRINOX of advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer in Iraqi patients. Methods: Patients were divided into three groups; patients who will receive Gemcitabine, those who will receive Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel, and patients who will receive FOLFIRINOX. The patients were observed for disease progression by computed tomography which was performed every three months for the tumor response and progression. Results: In the Gemcitabine, Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel, and FOLFIRINOX groups, the median Progression Free Survivals were (4, 5, and 5.7 months, respectively; p < 0.05), where FOLFIRINOX was superior to Gemcitabine monotherapy and Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel. In addition, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, hypokalaemia and neuropathy were highly in the FOLFIRINOX-treated patients than in both Gemcitabine and Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel groups of patients. However, anaemia and thrombocytopenia were higher with Gemcitabine and Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel than were with FOLFIRINOX. Conclusion: The median Progression free survival is better for the Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel and FOLFIRNOX than for Gemcitabine alone. Also, adverse effects are more common with FOLFIRINOX than with other first-line chemotherapeutic agents.

6. The Comparison of the Effect of Recombinant FSH in Antagonist Protocol on Serum and Follicular Fluid Kisspeptin between PCOS and non-PCOS Infertile Women during ICSI
Ghada B. Raaf, Amal A. Mohammed, Mufeeda A. Jawad
Background: Reproduction is a highly delicate organized process accomplished by the controlled interaction of the higher centers in the brain, the gonads, and different body parts. Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that acts as a key regulator controlling the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and organizing the reproduction process. Gonadotropins treatment used in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation increases the follicular count in an attempt to improve the pregnancy rate. However, one of its drawbacks is the increase in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome risk. Published data proved that kisspeptin has a fundamental role in regulating follicular growth and maturation at central and peripheral levels highlighting its possible role in diagnosing and treating infertility problems. Objective: To study the influence of gonadotropin (recombinant FSH medication) used in ovarian hyperstimulation program on the level serum and follicular fluid kisspeptin level in PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Subject, Materials, and Method: This is a cross-sectional study performed in the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Al-Naharin University, from September 2020 to July 2021. The study includes a sample of (80) infertile Iraqi women aged (18-40 years) scheduled for an intracytoplasmic sperm injection program after being stimulated by GnRH antagonist protocol. On the day of oocytes retrieval, blood and follicular fluid samples were drawn from each participant to measure kisspeptin level using ELIZA technique. Results: In PCOS patients, significant positive correlations were found between recombinant FSH medication with serum and follicular fluid kisspeptin level (p < 0.05). Serum kisspeptin was insignificantly higher in the PCOS patient (p = 0.838) while follicular fluid kisspeptin was insignificantly lower in the PCOS women (p = 0.651). There were significant correlations between serum and follicular kisspeptin in the PCOS and the control groups (p = 0.000) and (p = 0.002), respectively. Conclusions: Serum and follicular fluid kisspeptin are positively correlated with the cumulative recombinant FSH medication used by infertile polycystic ovarian syndrome women undergoing ICSI, addressing the possible role of kisspeptin in improving the pregnancy rate in PCOS patients with a lower incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

7. Some of Biochemical Tests for Blood Serum and Some of Hematological Variants of the Blood for Iraqi Camels Infected with Blood Parasites
Zahra M. Al-Hakak
This study was conducted to measure some biochemical tests of blood serum and some hematological variables of Iraqi camels infected with blood parasites. We collected randomly (70) blood samples for the period of time from the beginning of 1/6/2018 to 30/6/2019 with an age ranging (less than one year – 14 years) (For both sexes), (20) samples of which, with a percentage (28.57%) from camels who were in good health condition for approval as a control group to compare the results of their chemical and blood tests with the results of the tests for camels infected with blood parasites, and a number (50) samples, at a rate (71.43%) from camels, who was suffering from anemia, pall and yellowish of the mucous membranes, combined with areas of edema in the neck, chest, genitals and limbs. The first work of the study is to do clinical examination of all the animals used for research then make blood smears, and biochemical tests of blood plasma was performed, then a statistical analysis of the results obtained was performed using the (SPSS) program. The results of the research showed that number (14) at (28%), had babesia, number (15) at 30%, had anaplasma while (9) at (18%) had trypanosoma, and number (12) at 24%, had thalaria. The results of the clinical examination, after comparing them with the control group, showed there was a statistically significant difference at a level of (p < 0.05) between healthy and infected camels. As for the results of the blood tests, it was noted there was a decrease in the values of the tests for the blood samples of animals infected with blood parasites than in the animals of the control group, thus, a statistically significant difference at a level of (p < 0.05) was recorded between the two groups, but there was no statistically significant difference at a level of (p < 0.05) between animals that infected with blood parasites between them. The results for the values of MCV, MCH, and MCHC, we found that they did not show any statistically significant difference at a level of (p < 0.05) between the control group and the group of infected animals also between the infected animals between them. The results of the total number of white blood cells and the differential count for each type of leukocytes in the control and infected group showed a significant statistical difference at a level of (p < 0.05) between the two groups and between the types of leukocytes between them and the results of the biochemical tests, the presence of a statistically significant difference at a level of (p < 0.05) between the control group and the infected camel group.

8. Restoration of Euglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Pioglitazone as Fourth Drug in Oral Combination Therapy: An Experimental Study
Abdulhamza R. Hmood, Hameed A. Alhibaly, Satar J. R. Algraittee, Ban W. H. Bdair
The global burden of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is on the increase with over 500 million individuals of the world’s population being affected and diabetes associated deaths reaching over a million yearly. The progressiveness of the disease coupled with poor adherence to treatment requirements and lifestyle modifications T2DM very challenging as patients on single drug treatment may eventually require combination therapy up to the level of triple therapy without achieving euglycemia. In this study we hypothesize that the addition of pioglitazone as a fourth drug, may restore euglycemia and prevent the use of insulin. A total of 107 T2DM patients already on triple combination therapy were recruited and pioglitazone was introduced as a fourth drug in 66 patients (experimental group) while 41 patients served and as control. After 3 months, the mean post-treatment HbA1c in the experimental group was 7.00 ± 0.50% which showed statistically significant difference compared with the experimental group’s mean baseline HbA1c of 8.47 ± 0.51% at p < 0.05. Also, the mean post-treatment HbA1c of the experiment group showed statistically significant difference when compared with the post-treatment HbA1c of the control group at p < 0.05, i.e., 7.00 ± 0.50% (experimental group) vs. 8.55 ± 0.73% (control group). Our findings indicate that the addition of pioglitazone significantly improved the glycemic profile of the experimental subjects without necessitating the adoption of complex insulin-dependent strategies.

9. Oral Health Status among a Group of Population with Chronic Kidney Disease in Iraq
Raghad R. Al-Zaidi
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been identified as one of the irreversible deteriorations in renal function that naturally progresses over years. This disease has been considered as one of the worldwide public health problems that have reverse consequences of kidney failure, cardio-vascular diseases as well as premature mortality. The present study was conducted to assess the seriousness of dental caries in association with the oral cleanliness among patients suffering from CKD compared to the controls according to age groups and gender. Materials and Methods: This research employed thirty patients with CKD in ages from (24–72) years (male, female) attending kidney center centers in Medical City Teaching Hospital in Baghdad province, Iraq, were selected for the study compared to 30 healthy people matching in age and genders with the study group. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS), Gingival (GI), calculus (CI) indices as well as plaque (PlI) have been applied for measuring oral health status for these two study groups. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 26. Result: The (CKD) group has been caries-active. The greater DMFS-values have been registered for the study in comparison with the control group and highly statistical difference has been observed, concerning DMFS (p<0.01). (DS, MS, FS) higher in CKD patients than control with highly significant difference between them regarding to (DS, MS) only. PlI, GI, indices have been greater in the study group than that of the controls and differences were not observed to be significant. The CI index has been greater in the study group than that of the controls and significant differences have been observed (p < 0.01). Significant correlation has been not found between PlI, GI, CI indices and DMFS indices in study group. Conclusion: Participants suffering from (CKD) experienced greater caries severity than the normal participants.

10. Isolation of Three Secondary Metabolites from the Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Plant for the First Time
Zahraa S. Al-Tameemi, Maha N. Hamad
Objectives: Phytochemical screening and identification of certain types of secondary metabolites that not separated yet from the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plant. Background: E. camaldulensis Dehnh. (Family: Myrtaceae) is one of the most widely distributed species of eucalyptus trees and the original land of this variety is Australia. E. camaldulensis Dehnh. is the main species that distributed in various regions of Iraq. E. camaldulensis has active constituents rich in pharmacologically significant secondary metabolites with proven activities including anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, and others. Methodology: Defatting step of leaves and fruits separately with n-hexane was preceding the extraction process by maceration with 50% acetone followed by subsequent fractionation process and isolation step achieved by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The resulting three fractions had been undergone preliminary chemical tests suggesting the presence of steroids, terpenoids, and tannins. The isolation process had been given rise to the separation of three phytoconstituents identified by different chromatographic techniques resulting in the confirmation of the non-polar compounds isolated from the hexane fraction comprising the phytosterol stigmasterol and the possible diterpene turraeanin J. The polar secondary metabolite isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction is the dimer tannin oenothein B. Conclusion: The Iraqi E. camaldulensis plant rich in various secondary metabolites presents diverse pharmacological activities. The first isolation might be around the world from the Eucalyptus genus, is the expected diterpene turraeanin J, and the first isolation from the species around the world are oenothein B and stigmasterol.

11. Determining the Oxidative State in Children with Enterobiasis Infection
Tabarek A. H. Nassief, Alaa M. Awwad, Taqwa A. H. Nassief, Mohammed A. Mustafa
The objective of current study is determining the oxidative state in children with Enterobiasis infection. The current study was done among children aged 3 years to 10 years in Tikrit city, Iraq. 135 children were used in current work at January 2020 to November 2020. The number of males was 57 and female was 78. The cello tape method was to detect infection of Enterobiasis vermicularis. The findings demonstrated that the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in an infected children show significant (p < 0.05) elevated compared with healthy children. The levels of Glutathione (GSH) and catalase in an infected children show significant (p < 0.05) reduce compared with healthy children. Otherwise, the levels of IL-2 in an infected children show significant elevated compared with healthy children. So, the study found that there is a direct relationship between E. vermicularis and oxidative status in children with a direct effect on interleukin 2.

12. Evaluation of Serum Ghrelin Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Before and After Supplementation of 5000 IU of Vitamin D
Sabah H. Mohammed, Ammar L. Hussein
Background: Throughout the twenty-first century, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has emerged as a severe worldwide public health concern, with the incidence of the disease growing on an annual basis. T2DM has been linked to abnormalities in glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism, among other things. Diabetes has been related to low vitamin D levels, as have the preventive effects of sufficient vitamin D consumption on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular problems in people with T2DM. In addition to regulating hunger, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis, ghrelin is known to be involved in many other biological functions as well. Aim of the Study: One of the goals of this study is to compare the levels of the hormone ghrelin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and after they have taken an oral vitamin D supplement of 500 IU. Patients & Methods: From January 1st to March 31st, 2021, a follow-up case study was conducted in Kirkuk Governorate. The study comprised 60 diabetes type 2 patients who were given 5000 IU of vitamin D for two months and then had their serum ghrelin levels checked before and after treatment. The SPSS application was used to examine all of the data. Results: In this study, the mean level of ghrelin was elevated significantly in type two diabetes mellitus before administered vitamin D treatment as compared with type two diabetes mellitus after administered vitamin D treatment at p-value <0.01 Conclusions: It was concluded that vitamin D was an important treatment protocol in management of type two diabetes mellitus

13. Expression of Urotensin II of Human Placental Tissues and in Serum in Gestational Diabetic Mellitus in Iraqi Woman
Israa A. Lafta, Nahla A. AL-Bakri, Wasan A. Abdulhameed
The placenta is an organ between the mother and fetus necessary for fetal growth and development. Gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most frequent metabolic condition detected during pregnancy. It is characterized as hyperglycemia of various severity with onset or first detection during pregnancy that does not clearly describe any form of preexisting diabetes. Urotensin II (UII), a pluripotent vasoactive peptide, is important in developing insulin resistance. This study aimed to determine the level of Urotensin II(UII) in placenta and in the serum of diabetic and nondiabetic women. Methods The blood and placenta tissue collected from 50 ladies had been enrolled in this research (25 females with uncomplicated), (25 women with gestational diabetes). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to look at the expression of the Urotensin II (UII) marker in placenta specimens. The IHC analysis revealed that Urotensin II expression was primarily found in placental cytotrophoblast and the syncytiotrophoblast. The results of an immunohistochemistry investigation using the Urotensin II (UII) marker revealed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in diabetic women’s placentas and serum than control groups. In conclusion, the Urotensin II is mainly located in the cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast. That was significantly higher in the gestational DM group.

14. Graphene oxide/(Carboxymethylcellulose-Sodium alginate-Acrylic acid) Surface: Synthesis and Characterization for Adsorptive Removal of Azure A from Aqueous Solutions
Layth S. Jasim, Alaa S. Alwan
Graphene oxide/(Carboxymethylcellulose-Sodium alginate-Acrylic acid) was studied as the adsorbent of Azure A dye. The time to reach the equilibrium state for Azure A adsorption on the surface of hydrogel composite GO/(CMC-SA-AAC) is 120 minutes. The rate of dye adsorption on the surface of the hydrogel composite was excellent because hydrogel composite has a large surface area to absorb the largest possible amount of dye. A pseudo-first-order and a pseudo-second-order model observed Azure A dye’s adsorption kinetics on the hydrogel composite GO/(CMC-SA-AAC) surface. Illustration using the adsorption process data reflects a pseudo-second-order model. Linear forms of adsorption isotherms, Langmuir equations, Freundlich, and Timken equations were also studied. Thermodynamic effects, pH, and ionic strength effects were examined to determine the maximum absorption. Thermodynamic functions of Enthalpy (H). Gibbs free energy (G), and Entropy (S) also were studied.

15. Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil Isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) Against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria
Linda Mohsen, Huda Jaber, Widad M. Kamel
Objective: The current study is designed to evaluate the activity of essential oil of Origanum vulgare against multi-drug resistant bacteria and both G+ and G- bacteria. Material and Methods: O. vulgare essential oil was isolated by Clevenger-type apparatus according to the procedure described in the British pharmacopeia volume II. Five species of bacteria were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of O. vulgare constituent in this study, Two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, and multidrug resistance Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis). All bacteria isolated from different clinical sources. The stock solution (1-mg /16 mL) concentration had been prepared as follow: 1 mg of essential oil dissolved in 16 mL of (DMSO) dimethyl-sulfoxide. The serial dilution of 1-mg/mL was the following concentrations: 1000, 500, 250, 125 and 62.5 μg/mL were prepared for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion. Ampicillin and Amoxicillin were used as positive control for all strains, while DMSO as negative control. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. vulgare shows a good antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria as well as the other studied types of bacteria.

16. Formulation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Gel containing Ethanolic Extract used as Local Anesthetics in Oral Cavity
Rupali Sontakke, Rohit Singhal, Neetesh K. Jain, Shantanu Sontakke
Conventional dosage forms frequently produce leakages and drip. There is a need for the development of innovative formulation technology that fulfills certain criteria such as desirable product dispersion throughout the system, retention for intended intervals, and adequate release of drug. These features can be achieved using bioadhesives based novel delivery systems. In-situ gelation is a process of gel formation at the site of application after the composition or formulation has been applied the site. Formulation and evaluation of one such bioadhesive based novel drug delivery system for an effective and patient friendly use of drug to formulated In-situ polyherbal gel. Piper betel L. (Pan, leaves) fam. Piperaceae; Spilanthesacmella Murr. (Akarkara, fruit), fam. Asteraceae; Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel, fruits) fam. (Umbelliferae); Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S.G. Harrison (Clove, clove bud) fam. (Myrataceae) and Capsicum annum L. (Capsicum, fruits) fam. Solanaceae is medicinally important and is used as local anesthetics in oral cavity and these herbs were taken for formulation of polyherbal gel using Carbopol 934 & HPMC. The prepared formulation was evaluated, and the results were presented. The results indicate that the PHG-3 have satisfactory results when compared with other formulated PHG.

17. Cephalometric Analysis of Sagittal Lip Position in Different Skeletal Classes for Sudanese Adults
Sama Hamid, Ghassan Baher
Background: Since the cephalometry was introduced, many studies presented normal values for Caucasian populations. While in Africa, most studies have established normal values and ethnic differences associated with the skeletal pattern. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anteroposterior lip position for Sudanese adults with Class I, II and III malocclusion by Burstone, Ricketts and Stiener analysis. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalographs for 218 [120 females and 98 males] Sudanese patients, were taken in natural head position, all were manually traced, categorized according to the skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion. Three reference lines; Burstones, Ricketts and Steiners were traced and the linier distance between line and tip of the lips were measured by digital caliper. Data were analyzed using SPSS [statistical package of social science] software version 25. Descriptive analysis was done for each variable of each subject, independent sample t-test to verify the gender difference in each skeletal class. One-way ANOVA test: to compare the measured variables among the skeletal classes in each gender and in total sample. Tukey HSD test: to test any statistically significant difference between each skeletal classes. Results: More protrusive lips were recorded when compared to Caucasian norms, significant difference in the sagittal lip position in different skeletal occlusions, with the skeletal class II having the more protrusive lips and differed significantly from class I and III. In class I group males had significantly more protrusive lips than females related to the three reference lines, also in class III related to Burstones line. Conclusions: The sagittal lip position was associated with the pattern of skeletal occlusion. Sudanese have more protrusive lips than Caucasians, and should be dealt with accordingly.

18. The Role of Saccharomyces boulardii as a Probiotic in Mice with Celiac Disease
Shahd M. Obaid, Asmaa H. Shaker, Fahad K. Y. Al-Dulaimi
Saccharomyces boulardii is used as a probiotic with the purpose of introducing beneficial microbes into the intestines and protection against pathogens. The goal of this study is to see if it can prevent mice from celiac disease. 20 mice were divided into four groups as follows: control, disease (1.5 mg/g gliadin oral), co-treatment (S. boulardii 106 cfu/kg oral after gliadin gavage) and S. boulardii 106 cfu/kg groups. Tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTg-IgA), pepsin, amylase, vitamin D3 was measure by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analytical statistics; the data were compared using ANOVA. Results shown the tTG-IgA was increase in the group disease but was decrease in co-treatment (S. boulardii 106 cfu/kg oral after gliadin gavage) and S. boulardii 106 cfu/kg groups. Pepsin and vitamin D3 had decreased in group disease, However, in the co-treatment group, things returned to normal. Amylase levels in the disease group were greater than in the control group, Between the co-treatment and control groups, there was a decrease. We found that giving S. boulardii to those with celiac disease improved their biochemical, which was more noticeable after they were exposed to gliadin.

19. Formulation and Evaluation of Liposomes Containing Fluconazole
Vishal D. Yadav, Ashwini D. Shinde, Prakash D. Jadhav
Liposomal transporters are potential in topical drug delivery. In the current research work, statistical study for the formulation of fluconazole liposomes for topical delivery carried out by factorial design approach. For the preparation of liposomes, phospholipid (DPPC) and cholesterol were taken at 03 different concentrations and preparations were done by using ethanol injection technique. Optimized batch determined by applying experimental design on all nine batches and then optimized batch was characterized for zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release, antimicrobial study and stability studies. From results of analysis, it was concluded that vesicle size and entrapment efficiency are dependent on the cholesterol and lipid concentration. Batch F9 shows less particle size and entrapped efficiency was high. Liposome raises the skin penetration compared to marketed formulation. Antifungal activity of liposomal suspension was determined by disk diffusion technique against Candida albicans. Diameter of zone of inhibition of liposomal suspension was 24 mm; while zone of fungal growth of marketed gel (Flucos 0.5%) was less than liposomal drug i.e., 20 mm. Batch F9 was analyzed for physical stability studies. Liposomal suspension was stored at 4°C for 1 month. After one month they analyzed for the change in physical appearance, pH, %Entrapment efficiency, particle size of the vesicles, and Zeta potential. There was no change in the physical appearance neither in the formulation consistency of vesicles. Liposomal preparations could be a promising approach in novel drug delivery system.

20. Comparison of Sizes of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Extracted from Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Berberis vulgaris Plant Extract Against Some Types of Bacteria and Yeast
Sura M. A. Majeed, Mais E. Ahmed, Israa A. Ali
Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolation between 12.5 to 1.8% routine works may be a possible peroral route of infective endocarditis and found in the oral cavity by examined using saliva. Similar supragingival plaque isolation was observed. The increased bacteria resistance to antibiotics multiple have led to novel methods for resistance bacteria; antimicrobial agents are well known (ZnO NPs) by biological method and are lower toxicity and biology safety ZnNOPs activity by plant extraction and less toxicity as well as bio-safe. The nanoparticle was synthesized by biological method (Green) by barberry (Berberis vulgaris) extract. In this study using (WAD) method using different concentrations between (128, 64, 32, and 16) mg/mL of ZnO NPs, The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a biological method where pH = 10 and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscope.

21. The Effect of Melatonin on C-reactive Protein, Serum Ferritin and D-Dimer in COVID-19 Patients
Zainab T. Hasan, Mohammed Q. Y. M. A. Al-Atrakji, Mohammad H. Alsaaty, Zaid D. Abdulnafa, Ahmed K. Mehuaiden
Aim: to evaluate the effect of melatonin on C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and D–dimer level in adult patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Method: this single center, prospective, randomized clinical trial conducted in Al-Shifaa hospital at Mosul, Iraq from 1st  December 2020 to 1st June 2021 on 158 patients divided into two groups 82 patients in melatonin group (given 10 mg melatonin) and 76 patients in control group. Then C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin and D-dimer level were evaluated and recorded at day 5, 11, 17 of symptoms. Results: Totally, 82 patients in the intervention group and 76 patients in the control group have completed the treatment. In comparison with the control group, the level of CRP, serum ferritin and D-dimer have significantly improved (p < 0.05) in melatonin group in the second week of infection. Conclusions: The adjuvant use of melatonin in COVID-19 patients has a potential to improve CRP, ferritin, and D-dimer.

22. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Toxic Properties of Novel Δ2-1,3,4-thiadiazoline and Δ2-1,3,4-selenadiazoline Derivatives
Zainab K. Al-Khazragie, Bushra K. Al-Salami, Adnan J. M. Al-Fartosy
Two new series of N-(4-acetyl-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide and N-(4-acetyl-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-selenadiazol-2-yl)acetamide compounds (where aryl = 4-nitrophenyl, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl, 3-ethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl, 2-chloroquinolinyl, and 6-chloro-4-oxo-4H-chromenyl) were synthesized in good yields by heterocyclization of thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) and selenosemicarbazones (SSCs) with acetic anhydride, respectively. The new TSCs and SSCs compounds was prepared by condensation reaction of thiosemicarbazide and Selenosemicarbazide with aromatic aldehydes in acidic medium. The structures of newly synthesized 1,3,4-thiadiazoline (TDZs) and 1,3,4-selenadiazoline (SDZs) derivatives were characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic method such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The purity of compound and evaluation of Rf value were determined by TLC. The toxicity of new compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD50 value by using Dixons up and down method. The antibacterial activity of 1,3,4-thiadiazoline and 1,3,4-selenadiazoline compounds were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Finally, antioxidant efficiency of all compounds were detected according to β-carotene bleaching method.

23. Effect of Dual Trigger with Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone on Ovulation Rate in Infertile Women received Aromatase Inhibitor Superovulation in Kirkuk City, Iraq
Salwa S. Mustafa, Enas T. Mousa
A prospective during the period October 2020 to April 2021, a comparative study was conducted at the Al-Nahrain University’s High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (HIIDART). The study’s primary goal was to determine whether using a dual trigger (FSH and hCG) could increase the likelihood of achieving pregnancy. The participants in this study totaled one hundred women. Before taking part in the study, each participant signed a written informed consent form that was approved by the Al-Nahrain University’s Ethics Committee before participating. A total of one hundred and one women participated in the study, who were chosen from among those who attended the consultant clinic of the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies in New York City. On the day of the IUI An ultrasound scan of the vaginal cavity was performed after 36 to 48 hours of trigger ovulation to confirm ovulation, measure, and evaluate the endometrial pattern, and assess sub endometrial blood flow. FSH, LH, Progesterone, and E2 levels were determined in a blood sample drawn on the same day for hormonal testing. Luteal phase support was initiated on the day of the IUI and continued for two weeks by administering 400 mg of progesterone vaginal suppository daily to the patient. Estimation of Beta human chorionic gonadotropins 14 days after IUI. The distribution of study groups by general characteristics is shown in Table 1. Study patients’ age was ranging from 19 to 39 years with a mean of 29.98 years and a standard deviation (SD) of ± 5.3 years. The highest proportion of study patients in all groups was aged between 25–34 years, overweighed, and complained from infertility for less than five years’ duration. The comparison in hormonal parameters between study groups at day of IUI is shown in Table 4.5. Mean of FSH level was significantly lower (p = 0.031) in group C than that in groups A and B (6.98 versus 9.06 and 9.3 IU/L respectively). Mean of E2 level was significantly higher (p = 0.001) in-group A than that in groups B and C (69.62 versus 53.32 and 36.65 pg/mL, respectively). The comparison in percentage of change in hormonal parameters at day of IUI compared to that at day of trigger according pregnancy outcome is shown in table (4.16). No significant differences between women who get pregnant than that in those who didn’t, in percentage of change of all other hormonal parameters at day of IUI (p ≥ 0.05) compared to that at day of trigger.

24. Formulation and Characterization of Hydrogel of Proniosomes Loaded Diclofenac Sodium
Mustafa H. Al-Hamadani, Sarmad Al-Edresi
Diclofenac Sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects. Diclofenac sodium topically (gel 1%) has mild site reactions, with a relatively short duration of action and low permeability need for multiple uses. This study aimed to produce hydrogel of proniosomes to enhancing solubility and permeation of diclofenac topical used. Proniosome was prepared by using the coacervation phase separation method using Span 60 and Tween 80, lecithin and cholesterol. The hydrogel base was prepared from carbopol 940, then Proniosome was mixed in ratio one to one (1:1). Viscosity, release, permeation and stability were assayed. Results revealed a successfully prepared hydrogel loaded with proniosomes, which was consequently loaded with its payload. The release study carried out in vitro revealed a control-released behaviour over 28 hours which was 6 fold higher than the ordinary preparation i.e. lack of proniosomes. To sum up, the hydrogel of Proniosome preparation loading with Diclofenac Sodium was approved to overcome controlled release and skin permeation problems.

25. Simultaneous Determination of Pharmacological Active Phytocompound Gallic Acid and Quercetin in Aerial Parts of Solanun indicum and Solanum xanthocarpum by Validated High Performance Thin‑layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Method
Murteza Iqubal, Satish K. Sharma, Md. Sarfaraj Hussain, Mohd. Mujahid
Objective: Quantitative standardization of plant‑based products is challenging albeit essential to maintain their quality. This study aims to develop and validate high‑performance thin‑layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous determination of gallic acid and quercetin from aerial parts of Solanum indicum and Solanum xanthocarpum. Materials and Methods: The stock solution (1-mg/mL) of standard, gallic acid and quercetin in methanol: Water (1:1) was serially diluted and spotted (5 μL) on silica gel 60 F254 thin‑layer chromatography plates. Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Methanol (3.5:4.8:1.0.:0.7, v/v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase for analysis at 280 nm. Results: The developed method was robust and resolved gallic acid and quercetin at Rf 0.34 ± 0.03 and 0.55 ± 0.01, respectively. The limit of detection (26 and 47 ng band-1) limit of quantification (78 and 141, recovery (99.6–99.8 and 98.5–99.7%), and precision (≤1.98 and 1.97) were satisfactory for gallic acid and quercetin respectively. Linearity range for gallic acid and quercetin were 100–1000 (r2= 0.9993) and 150–900 ng band-1 (r2= 0.9956) and the contents estimated as 0.63 ± 0.01% and 0.57 ± 0.01% w/w in SI and 0.51 ± 0.01% and 0.69 ± 0.01% w/w for gallic acid and quercetin respectively. Conclusion: The developed HPTLC method was rapid, accurate, precise, reproducible, and specific for the concurrent estimation of gallic acid and quercetin. The method has been successfully applied in the analysis and routine quality control of herbal material and formulations containing Solanum Species.

26. Ovarian Cysts Formation in Patients with Breast Cancer on Tamoxifen Therapy in Iraqi Female
Israa J. R. Saeed, Ali M. Hasan, Sumaya A. Abdulrahman
Background: Tamoxifen shows complex hormonal actions, breast cancer that occurs in the premenopausal period treated with tamoxifen created huge quantities of estrogen. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of ovarian cysts formation in tamoxifen treatments by ultra-sonographic examinations. Method: A prospective study was carried out in the Oncology and Nuclear medicine specialist Hospital, Mosul/Iraq. There were 14 premenopausal and 36 postmenopausal patients. The inclusion criteria were patients with breast cancer who had been on tamoxifen therapy. Fifty patients were included during a period of 10 months. The following parameters were assessed by ultrasound, endometrial thickness and ovaries conditions, with clinical parameters, age of patients, weight, and associated symptoms. Results: A total of 50 patients getting tamoxifen management, 14 (28%) of them are premenopausal range their age was between 25 to 44 years, and 36 (72%) postmenopausal range their age was between 45 to 78 years. There’s a correlation between the age group of patients and ovarian changes and cystic formation the ovarian cysts were diagnosed. There’s a relation between increased endometrial thickness and incidence of ovarian cyst in patients receiving tamoxifen therapy and mild relation between increased endometrial thickness & RT ovarian cystic formation in which the p-value of RT ovary = .049. In contrast, the LT ovary shows a relation with p-value = .025, which was significant. Conclusion: Ovarian cysts are common genital tract complications of tamoxifen therapy, which had been developed in this study in about 20% of cases. Ovarian cysts can grow together with premenopausal and postmenopausal patients getting tamoxifen for treated breast cancer.

27. Synthesis and Spectral Identification of New Azo-Schiff Base Ligand Derivative from Aminobenzylamine and its Novel Metal Complexes with Cu(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)
Athmar A. Kadhim, Ibtihal K. Kareem, Abid A. M. Ali
The research included the preparation of the New Azo Schiff Ligand derived from 4,5-diphenyl imidazole. The ligand was prepared from the amine reactor with the coupling component to prepare the azo aminobenzyl amine. After that the last compound and 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde which obtained the ligand mentioned some metallic complexes were prepared for the ions of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II). The new azo-schiff ligand complexes after purification were identification by using the available spectral and analytical methods such as Mass spectrum for the new ligand and (ultraviolet-visible, FTIR) spectroscopy, CHN analytics, Atomic absorption, and conductivity measurement. According to these techniques the new azo-schiff ligand was pidentate and the proposed geometrical shape was octahedral for the three complexes.

28. Impact Study the Fig and Olive Juices on the Pathogen Bacteria using Digital Image Processing Methods
Hanaa F. Abbas, Rabab F. Abbas
There is a very little research using combined image processing with biological methods, and in this paper digital image processing methods, segmentation, image enhancement, Framelet transform, extraction features by SURF and classifications by Google net were used on various pathological bacterial samples where five specimens were collected from bacteriological culture from the educational laboratories of the city of medicine – Baghdad, Iraq by the transport media, which were used for 72 hours the samples include Pseudomona aeroginosa, Escherichia coli isolate from Urine, Entero klebsiella isolate from sputum, Staphylococcus aureus isolate from wound and S. aureus isolate from sputum Nutrient agar (NA) are prepared and then inoculated the samples obtained from the transport medium on NA medium and gestated for 24 hours at a rate of two plates for each isolate. The effect of olive and fig juices at different concentrations on these bacteria was studied to inhibit them and the inhibition zone was determined using digital image processing and biological methods. In biological methods, the biologists cultivate bacteria in blood agar plates to determine the resident of becteria were examined in the electron microscope by using the eyes and often they need to re-implant the sample in other mediums to know the affects of plants or drugs on these bacteria. This requires the cost of media and chemical materials and time, while the proposed image processing method which used in this paper helps biologists to be able to diagnose the resident of bacteria with less effort, cost, and time.

29. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Effect of Topical Serratiopeptidase in Mice
Jawnaa K. Mammdoh, Labeeb H. Al-Alsadoon, Ghada A. Taqa, Amer A. Taqa
Proteolysis enzyme therapy plays a key role in treating a wide range of nutritional and genetic diseases. Serratiopeptidase is a proteolytic enzyme with pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects. It is applied topically to guarantee that the enzyme reaches the therapeutic activity. A total of fifteen healthy adult male white mice were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. All mice have injected a formalin to induce edema in the mouse paw. The first group was left untreated control; the second and third groups were applied 1 and 2 percent serratiopeptidase ointment, respectively, topically to the mouse’s right-hand paw. Results: By analyzing Stage 1 licking time (pain reaction time) at 1 and 2%, the proportion of edema production and inhibition in the serratiopeptidase groups significantly differed from the appearance of the control group. The ointment made a substantial difference in serratiopeptidase concentrations (22.66 ± 1.45), (20.3 ± 2.6) having been applied at various quantities in when compared to just the ointment (61.66 9.93) seconds. While the difference between different Serratiopeptidase ointment concentrations, in the first stage, the percentage of inhibition at the time of licking was (63.25%) and (67.07%) in Serratopeptidase ointment (1.2%), respectively. In contrast, in stage 2, the percentage of inhibition at the time of licking was (37.24 %)(72.04%) when using a 2% concentration. Conclusion: Topical use of serratiopeptidase ointment was found to be effective. It contains anti-inflammatory properties as well as modest analgesic properties.

30. The Correlation of Chemerin Hormone with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women at Samarra City, Iraq
Nora S. A. Aljaff
The study was conducted on 70 samples out of which, 40 samples were infected with polycystic ovary syndrome and 30 samples were from healthy women (control group) and their ages ranged between (18–35) years and the samples were collected from external medical laboratories of radiology and ultrasound units in Samarra city. After that blood was collected from sample study and separated by centrifugation. The biochemical parameters were estimation, including (chemerin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)) and it was relied on ultrasound and hormone analyzes. The nationality of the patient for the purpose of diagnosis and confirmation of PCOS. The results of the current research showed that there was a significant increase in the levels of Chemerin and T.G, LDL, VLDL in the blood serum of people infected with PCOS compared to healthy Women, and the results also showed a significant decrease in the level of HDL in the blood serum of Women with the PCOS compared to healthy people.

31. Inferior Vena Cava Catheterization for Exhausted Hemodialysis Access Patients in the Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq (Single center Two years’ Experience)
Sabah N. Jabber, Abdulameer M. Hussein, Hazim M. Shni
Background: Progress number and long period survival of chronic renal failure patients needing dialysis have presented a new difficulty associated with a vascular entree and its problems. Aim: The study aims to show the effectiveness and safety of the surgically placed heamodylisis catheter in the inferior vena cava in-patient with exhausted access. Patients and Methods: A prospective study for two years from (1 January 2014 – 31 December 2015), including 50 patients (35 males and 15 females). All patients with end-stage renal disease had exhausted access—surgical catheterization of IVC through Rt. Lumber incision using cuffed long double lumen catheter, pediatric type catheter was used in pediatric age group. The procedure was done under general anesthesia in twenty-one (21) Patients, while in the other 29 patients were done under spinal anesthesia. Results: First 6 months’ patency rate was 98%, while the 1-year patency rate was 44%. Complications rate was seen in 4% of patients, and the mortality rate was 2%. Conclusion: Operating IVC catheterization is a harmless and well-organized technique with little morbidity and mortality rates.

32. Preparation with Biological Study for Pyrimidine Derivatives from Chalcone
Rana N. Atiya, Nada A. Salih, Ruaa W. Adam
Pyrimidine has been mentioned to present diverse biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tubercular, anti-bacterial, in additional to another biological activities, therefore, many medicine containing pyrimidine moiety have been observed. Due to the pharmacological importance of pyrimidine derivatives, the present work coms as attempt to synthesis of various pyrimidine derivatives by series of steps starting from chalcone, compounds (1 and 2) which were prepared by Cliesen-Schemidt condensation of acetophenone with (4-bromobenzaldehyde or 4-chlorobenzaldehyde). Then cyclization of compounds (1 or 2) with urea or thiourea to produce compounds (3 or 4 respectively). by another way, compound (1) was cyclized with thiourea to produce 4,5-Dihydropyrimidine-2(3H)-thione compound (5) which could be reacted with 3-cyanobenzyl chloride or benzyl chloride to give 2-Arylalkylthio-2,5-dihydropyrimidine derivatives compounds (6 or 7, respectively). These target compounds were confirmed on the basis FT-IR, and 1H-NMR techniques. The biological study was evaluated against tow bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus as gram positive) and (Klebsiella pneumonia as gram negative) in concentration (50 and 100) μg/mL. It was found that derivatives have biological activity against growth these bacterial.

33. Anatomical and Histological Revision of Bulbourethral Gland in Reproductive System of Male Hamster
Methak A. A. A. Al-Shemkhi, Zainab S. Mohammed, Zahraa S. R. Najjar, Wijdan K. N. Al-Qraawy
The anatomical consequences revealed that the bulbourethral glands in Syrian hamsters are in the form of a pair of small, oval-shaped glands and have a white color, similar to the fruit of a pea, each gland has a single duct that flows into the urethra, and these glands are buried under the cavernous bulbar muscle on both sides of the urethra. The length, width, and weight were about 0.7 cm, 0.4 cm, and 1-g. Histopathological outcomes presented that the bulbourethral glands are a complex tubular-alveolar gland, lined with simple columnar epithelium. These glands are multi-lobed, each lobe consists of small simple alveoli that are connected directly or through a narrow and short tube. The goal of this study to know more anatomical and histological information for this gland for its significant and key role in the sexual reproduction.

34. Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Domperidone as Solid Dispersion Tablet
Ayam Ayad, Ahmed A. Hussien
In this study, we need to enhance the solubility of the domperidone drug of Class II in the biopharmaceutics classification system and enhance the in vitro dissolution by forming a solid dispersion by two methods solvent evaporation and fusion method. In solid dispersion formation study, we used poloxamer188, poloxamer407, and peg6000 in different proportion (1:1, 1:3, and 1:5) to study their effect of them on solubility and dissolution, the polymer that gives high solubility and high percent of drug release in first 20 minutes is PEG6000 in ratio (1:5) (F15) that prepared by solvent evaporation. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to characterize and evaluate solid dispersion.

35. The Outcome of using Clomiphene Citrate in Late Luteal Phase for Stimulation of Ovulation in with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women
Enas J. Alobaidy
Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is one of the first and commonest drug management for treating ovulatory dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients as it is cheap, has minimum adverse effects, and needs less monitoring. There is a common difference concerning ovulation and pregnancy rates due to antiestrogenic properties y that influence the endometrium and cervical mucus. In the present study, we compare the influence of late luteal phase clomiphene administration to the early follicular period on ovulation regarding total mature follicles, serum estrogen (E), and progesterone (P), the thickness of the endometrium, pregnancy and pregnancy loss rates. Patient and Methods: This study conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 212 women with PCOS, conducted in a private clinic from 1st of May 2017 to 15th of September 2019. The first group’s women were established with 100 mg of CC daily “early CC administration group” after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) intended for 5 days (110 patients, 223 successions), while the second group, women in “ late CC collection” established 50 mg of clomiphene citrate twice per day used for 5 days start on day three of the menstrual cycle (102 patients, 210 successions). Results: There are no significant differences in the early CC group patients (group 1) (58.1% vs. 51.8%) in the ovulation rate in the early CC group patients. In group 1, the whole total of follicles during induction was significantly greater, and the thickness of endometrium with hCG injection was significantly greater (9.1–0.24 vs. 8.2–0.50 mm), while not significantly altered between Serum E2 and P. Getting pregnancy bout 23/110 successions in the first collection (22.9%) and 17/102 rounds (14.7%) in the second Clomiphene Citrate collection; the variance was statistically not significant. The pregnancy loss rate was the same in both collections. Conclusion: Management with luteal phase clomiphene citrate in PCOS patients resolved extra growth of the follicle and increased endometrial thickness, leading to a higher pregnancy rate.

36. Analysis of Some Candidate Genes for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Iraqi Population
Thamer M. Jasiem
This study was designed to determine different genes of the frequencies of polymorphic of several functional groups, cytokine genes (IL-2, IL-17), and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPN22) in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. The extraction of DNA was done by using a special reagent from Whole Blood Leukocytes with the help of a reagent (DNA Express-blood). This reagent was used to isolate the DNA from natural sources. After extracting the DNA carried out the amplification reaction using (SNP-express) by PCR and specific kits for every gene. Detection of amplification products by horizontal electrophoresis method and then visualization and identification of amplification products to investigate the alleles in various genes its used and finally combination between the genes by MDR method. The results were shown that different polymorphic markers of three genes IL2, IL17, and PTPN22 for two groups, patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and control group (healthy individuals) of Baghdad people which presence of an association between Rheumatoid arthritis and a number of polymorphic markers of the genes IL2, IL17, and PTPN22. The association of the polymorphic marker A < C of the IL-2 gene, however, the association of the polymorphic marker T > G of the IL-17 gene, while the association of the polymorphic marker T > C of the IL-17 gene.

37. Synthesis, Spectral, and Thermal Analysis of a new Schiff-base Derived from Terephthalaldehyde
Ali. H. Amteghy, Maha A. A. Hameed, Jabbar S. Hadi, Bushra K. Al-Salami
A Schiff base were prepared by the condensation of 1,4-terephthalaldehyde with aromatic amine and characterized by spectroscopic techniques namely IR, HNMR and EI-mass. the results revealed the condensation between aldehyde and amine in 1:2 molar ratio. The thermal stability and kinetic parameters were studies by TG/DTA analysis and the Coats- Redfern methods was applied to evaluate the activation energy (E), enthalpy of activation (ΔH), entropy of activation (ΔS) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG)

38. Study of N-Acetyl Cysteine Plus Metformin Versus Metformin Alone in Treatment of Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Jwan G. Aqrawi, Huda I. AL-Qadhi, Farah A. Al-Asadi
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal abnormality in reproductive-age women. The reproductive features include increased androgen production and disordered gonadotropin secretion leading to menstrual irregularity, skin problems, and infertility. In addition to these important reproductive manifestations, PCOS has metabolic characteristics that include prominent defects in insulin action and β-cell function. Treatment should be individualized based on the patient’s presentation. Few medications were approved for the most common symptoms of PCOS, leading to the off-label use of approved medications for other indications. One of the most common medications being used off-label is metformin. Dietary supplementation such as N-acetyl cysteine has been recommended for PCOS therapy because it has at least one functional property in the PCOS-induced pathway. Objective: To compare the effect of N-acetyl cysteine plus Metformin and Metformin alone for their efficacy and safety in Iraqi women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Patients and Methods: 45 women diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria were randomly assigned into two treatments group, group 1 received N-Acetyl Cysteine (1800 mg/day) plus Metformin (1500 mg/day), and group 2 received metformin (1500 mg/day). Body mass index (BMI), menstrual regularity, clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, serum levels of various hormones follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone), in addition to the clinical outcome assessed by ultrasonography, were evaluated before and after 3 months of treatment. Results: After 3 months and compared to pre-treatment values, a significant difference in pregnancy rate, BMI, menstrual cyclicity, clinical hyperandrogenism manifestations (only Hirsutism), hormonal profile, and ultrasound findings (only the percentage of mature follicle > 9 mm in size) were found in N-Acetyl Cysteine plus Metformin groups; while in Metformin group only significant effect on serum testosterone level observed. Both treatment groups had no significant effect on acne, androgenic alopecia, and ovary volume. When the effects of both treatment approaches were compared, no significant difference was observed in BMI, clinical hyperandrogenism manifestations, side effects, serum testosterone, and serum FSH level. Adjunctly used N-Acetyl Cysteine showed significantly higher effects on menstrual cyclicity, serum LH level, and mature follicle than metformin alone. Conclusions: N-acetylcysteine plus Metformin is superior to metformin alone, affecting the menstrual cycle, serum LH level, and follicle maturation. Due to the lack of adverse effects, N-acetylcysteine can be regarded as an appropriate substitute for insulin-reducing medication in PCOS treatment.

39. Biocompatible Polymer Microneedle for Transdermal Drug Delivery: Classification, Recent Trends, and Application
Radhika C, Gnanavel B K, Kamesh K
Microneedle plays an efficient role in delivering drugs as a modernized technique. The research on microneedle is still a challenging role as it involves various factors like design, material, drug nature, drug delivery approach, and other environmental facts. Proportional with design, testing of microneedle also involves various methods like experimental, analytical, and numerical methods. The available testing methods for predicting the microneedle behavior under compression loading are discussed. In this review, the categorization of microneedle based on the fabrication, types, geometrical shape, drug delivery approach, and material so far used is elaborated. The drive of this paper is to deliver a detailed outline of polymer materials on microneedle. It is observed that in recent years polymer microneedle can endure the applied force and avoid a catastrophe during the puncture process for delivering drugs.

40. Molecular Detection and Immunology Study of Hepatitis A Virus in Children under 6 Years Age
Saif H. Morshed, Anwar S. Saihood
Introduction: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is the most common viral infection that causes hepatitis and remains a global health problem for both developed and non-developed countries. Method: This study was done in Al Suwaira General Hospital for 70 current HAV infections (1–6 years old) children with the addition of 20 healthy children. Result: Infection rates were higher in patients between (3–6) years than in (1–3) years by using both enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Infection rates were also higher in patients in rural areas than urban areas. The interferon level was significantly higher in children who have current HAV infection than the healthy control children.

41. Detection of the Antibiotic Susceptibility Against Proteus Species and Escherichia coli Isolated from Patients with Ear Infections
Ehsan F. Hussein
Introduction: Infections of the ear effect all ages especially infants and young and can be divided into two main forms such as otitis media and otitis externs. Ear infections associate with several types of pathogenic microorganism, replicate of antibiotic uses, age and health care. The most prevalence pathogenic bacteria of ear infections are Proteus spp and Escherichia coli. The resistance of the antibiotic represents a biggest problem to the human health. Methods: The samples of ear swabs are collected with sterile wooden sticks and the sterile container. This for isolation and detection of the E. coli, Proteus spp and Acinitobacter spp through using the biochemical tests and the VITEK 2 system. And then determine the antibiotic activity patterns against these bacteria through use the disc diffusion method on the plates of Moller Hinton ager by many antibiotic types. Results: Among all ear swab samples the percentage of positive bacterial growth is 33.333 %, and the percentage of both Proteus spp and E. coli equal to 20%. The females are more infective with infect percent equal to 60% than males, which equal to 40%. The Antibiotic susceptibility patterns show Azithromycin, Gentamycin, Amikacin, Imepinem and Meropenime have activity against Proteus spp. Whereas Cefoxitin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Meropenime, Amkacin and Gentamycin have activity against E. coli. And Pipicarcillin/Tazobactam, Cefazalin, Cefepime and Imepinem have activity against Acinitobacter spp.

42. Immediate Real-time Estimation of a Combination of Drugs Containing Amino Groups with Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
Imad T. Hanoon, Mumin F. H. Al-Samarrai, Mahmood Z. Lafta
The drugs olanzapine and ephedrine hydrochloride have been estimated in real-time by developing a method that avoids the pre-separation of the two drugs if they are present together, making the method accurate, sensitive, and simple. The method is the derivative of spectral ratio method, in which the absorption spectrum of the mixture of the two drugs is divided by the absorption spectrum of one of the two drugs, which is calculated as an overlap. The outcome of the process is the absorption spectrum of the other drug that is required to be estimated. Then it is derived as the first derivative was used for the absorption spectrum of olanzapine and ephedrine hydrochloride. The results of this method showed compliance with Beer’s law, as the range of concentrations ranged from (15–30) to (5–28) mg.mL-1, The results were accurate and well-accepted, as they ranged between RSD% (0.00005–0.00808) and R.E% (0.00057–0.02189) for the two drugs, respectively, in this way. The proposed method has been successfully applied in estimating the two drugs in some pharmaceutical firms.

43. Synthesis and Characterization of New Diazo Derivatives, and Study of their Biological Activity
Luay Ali, Shaimaa Adnan
This work included the synthesis di azo compound in many steps. The first react is 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid to get azo derivative.1 The second step involves react1 with thiosemicarbazide to get thiadiazol.2 the last step is react2 with imidazole, 8-hydroxy quinoline, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4,5-dichloro imidazole, and 4,5-diphenyl imidazole. All these compounds are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (FTIR, 1H-NMR) spectroscopy and evaluated against two kinds of bacteria and two types of antifungals.

44. The Role of Nkx-6.1 Gene Expression in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients
Mohammad M. Al-Halbosiy, Huda S. Alagely, Mohammed M. Ahmed, Sanar S. Alagely
In the pancreas, NKX6.1 gene is required and play important role in proliferation of beta cells in human and is a also sometimes dual role in transcription regulator role that links to the region riches with AT -sequences that is found in promoter region of desire genes. In this study, we focus on the role of Nkx-6.1 gene on the in B cell and Diabetes mulitas, it was found that the Diabetic patients had lower expression of Nkx-6.1 gene than the non-diabetic and the expression varied from male to female patients and varied according to ages.

45. Antibacterial and Antitumor Potentials of Some Novel Coumarins
Noora T. Abdulaziz, Yasser F. Mustafa
The growing rise of resistance developed by highly contagious microorganisms and malignant cells is a frightening threat to mankind. The search for novel bioactive molecules and their biological potentials may replenish our armory with weapons capable of combating this danger. The Bargellini reaction was used to convert hymecromone into a new Bargellini-based molecule, however its applicability to further functionalize hydroxycoumarins has not been reported. The latter was reacted with a variety of halophenols to produce the N1-N12 congeners. By looking at and studying the spectrum charts of the produced compounds, the molecular structures were clearly recognized. The antitumor and antibacterial potentials of the produced compounds were evaluated. The first potential was tested using an MTT-based experiment versus 6 malignant tumor cells, namely MCF-7, SK-OV-3, HeLa, KYSE-30, AMN3, and SKG. A broth-dilution test was used to assess the antibacterial potential versus 6 gram-negative bacterial pathogens, including including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Haemophilus influenza, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The findings of evaluating these potentials indicated that the fluorinated-congeners (N1, N5, N9) seemed to have a robust and wider antitumor impact against the cancerous-cell-lines under investigation. In the meanwhile, the chlorinated-congeners (N2, N6, N10) demonstrated good antibacterial activity against the pathogens studied. The fluorinated-congeners were shown to be promising scaffolds for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs that are more effective in cancer therapy. Furthermore, the chlorinated-congeners might be used as antibacterial agents against gram-negative bacteria.

46. Monitoring the Prophylactic Enoxaparin Therapy on Orthopedic Patients
Rashwan Ghanim, Mubder A. M. Saeed, Khalil Ibrahim, Nabeel A.J. Ali
Background: Fixed daily enoxaparin dose is used as anticoagulant prophylaxis despite variations in body weight and unknown renal function Aim of the Study: Monitoring prophylactic enoxaparin therapy through Anti-Xa measurement and evaluating the adequacy of fixed single daily dose (40 mg s.c) for 4 weeks in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with total hip or knee surgery. Patients and Method: The study included 52 patients admitted to the Basrah Teaching Hospital for total hip and knee surgeries, 43 patients for Total Knee Replacements (TKR), and nine for Total Hip Replacement (THR). Blood parameters measured were D-dimers, anti-factor Xa activity, serum potassium, activated partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), blood urea and platelets count for all patients according to the schedule at the pre-operative time, 4 hours after the second dose of enoxaparin, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after surgery. Results: The majority of the patients were overweighted. In patients with knee and hip replacement, the serum level of anti-factor Xa was found to be lower than the therapeutic level in most of the patients (0.08 ± 0.12 mean ± sd). However, it was significantly changed between the pre-operative, 4 hours, 2weeks, and four weeks after surgery; the D-Dimer value was significantly increased overtime between the pre-operative, 4 hours after the second dose of the enoxaparin therapy, and at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, while the patients continued to receive 40 mg enoxaparin once daily as anticoagulants prophylaxis. There were significant changes over time regarding the APTT in knee replacement patients. There were no significant changes in serum potassium levels over the study time. Three patients (5.8%) developed venous complications, one patient (1.9%) developed a fatal pulmonary embolism, and two patients (3.8%) developed venous thromboembolism (DVT) Conclusion: The dose of the enoxaparin of 40 mg once daily was inadequate in the majority of the patients, and the risk of DVT is still high with a high mortality rate; however, the use of the thromboprophyl axis. The D-Dimer test can predict the occurrence of the DVT and might be a helpful screening parameter in patients undergoing joint arthroplasty.

47. Estimation of Serum Trace metals (Zn and Cu) and Thyroid Hormones in Hypothyroidism
Adil M. Hashim, Ghadeer H. Al-Ardhi, Ali M. Abd-Alameer
Hypothyroidism causes clinical and biochemical abnormalities due to Thyroid hormone synthesis is reduced, and thyroid hormone levels in the blood are low. Since, thyroid hormone insufficiency slows numerous metabolic processes, maintaining optimal health needs an adequate quantity of carbs, proteins, and fats and trace elements, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Previous studies compared trace element levels in hypothyroidism patients and healthy people, on the other hand, they had mixed results. This study is aimed to see if there was a link between changes in blood levels of certain elements (zinc ZN, copper CU) and thyroxin and threonine levels in hypothyroidism patients. We planned to estimate the serum copper and zinc concentration in patient serum compared with healthy person as control. Thyroid hormone levels in the blood were determined using an enzyme immunoassay technique (EIA). The concentration of trace elements, as well as copper and zinc, is determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) method. We took 25 patient samples with 25 normal subjects and determined the thyroxin, EIA measurement of thyroxine hormone concentration. This study demonstrates that trace elements have a role in a variety of metabolic processes, either as essential nutrients or as cofactors for different enzymes. Leading to hypothyroidism, either directly or indirectly. As a result, the findings show that in hyperthyroidism illness, copper and zinc metabolism is aberrant.

48. Histopathological Changes in Placentas of Gestational Hypertension Women
Alaa N. Abudullah, Nahla A. Al-Bakri, Wassan A. Abdulhamed
Background: Gestational hypertensive is a frequent pregnancy condition that contributes considerably to motherly prenatal morbidity then mortality. Material and Methods: The current study included fifty placentas, twenty-five were collected from uncomplicated normotensive pregnant women, and the rest (25 placentae) were obtained from females with pregnancies complicated by pregnancy induce hypertension at third trimester. Histological sections were prepared using routine hematoxyline and eosin staining. Results: The morphometric parameters in hypertensive group revealed that there is a decrease in the mean placental weights, mean placenta diameter, mean placenta thickness and mean fetal weight in comparison with normal women. The histological study of placenta with gestational hypertension showed a significant increase in syncytial knots and calcification and hyalinization area also fibrinoid necrosis are observed. Conclusion: The gestational hypertension well reflected on mother placenta.

49. Interleukin-13 and Immunohistochemical Study of Iraqi Patients with Thyroid Goiter
Ameer M. Jafar, Ihsan A. Hussein, Anwar I. S. Al-Assaf, Tharwat I. Sulaiman
Thyroid goiter is a type of autoimmune disease and complex endocrine system, which includes a number of diseases that share a cellular and humoral immune response leading to functional impairment and thus an increase in gland size. As it represents 90% of thyroid diseases. A current study was designed to investigate the effect of interleukin-13 (IL-13) on thyroid goiter in Iraqi patients, as well as its relationship with the receptor of the programmed cell death process (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)) and the role of them in the occurrence of the disease. Forty samples of peripheral blood were collected from Iraqi women with Thyroid goiter diagnosed by endocrinologists at Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical City for the period from 1/1/2019 to 1/4/2019 with mean age of 42.6 ± 7.8 years, to estimate IL-13 concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) technique, while 30 blood samples were taken from healthy females as a control group with matched ages to patients. Also, forty biopsies were collected from the thyroid gland of the same patients after completion of the total thyroidectomy to study the expression of thyroid tissues for TRAIL marker using Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Statistical analysis of results showed a significant increase in IL-13 level in the patients (183.21 ± 23.04 pg/mL) compared to controls (169.62 ± 32.52 pg/mL). With respect to immunohistochemical study, it was obvious that there is a significant difference in TRAIL expression among patients group and it has been observed a direct correlation between IL-13 level and TRAIL expression, an increase of IL-13 concentration (191.80 ± 25.59) was simultaneously with the increased expression of TRAIL 3 (50%) (p < 0.034), which confirm the potential role of IL-13 in stimulating TRAIL expression in thyroid tissue and thus the incidence of Thyroid goiter. Also, results showed a significant correlation between IL-13 level and the patient’s family history of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), while there was no significant correlation between IL-13 level and the patient’s family history of type1 Diabetes mellitus and smoking. On the other hand, a significant correlation between IL-13 concentration and TSH in patients sample were detected (p < 0.001), with no correlation with FT4 concentration in both patients and controls (p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the level of IL-13 in the patient samples and controls is a weak diagnostic tool for diagnosing Thyroid goiter except the concentration of 147.4723 pg/mL with a sensitivity of 100%, 30% specificity and 167.8581 pg/mL (sensitivity 70%, specificity 70%). In conclusion, IL-13 level and its correlation with TRAIL expression in Iraqi patients with Thyroid goiter may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of disease.

50. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD24 Protein as Cancer Stem Cells Marker in a Sample of Iraqi Women with Breast Carcinoma
Ali Q. Kadhum, Zahraa K. Zaidan, Waleed H.Yousif, Shalal M. Hussien
Breast cancer is composed of a heterogeneous group of tumors having numerous features, biology, and treatments. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a unique population of cancer cells featuring stem-cell like characteristics and based on growing evidence, they may start the development of PC as is the situation with other neoplasms. CSCs can inherently be resistant to medical treatment and lead to tumor relapse. However, the CSCs that propagate the cancer cells and tumors resistant to medical therapy may differ. The growing knowledge for the mechanisms of cancer resistance and the development of therapeutic techniques will enhance clinical outcomes and prevent the challenge of chemotherapy resistance. CD24 is a tiny mucin-like glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) – joined cell surface protein included in cell adhesion. Sixty patients of Iraqi women with breast carcinoma were included in this study. They were categorized into three groups, Group I (included 20 of newly diagnosed women patients with breast carcinoma), Group II (included 20 relapsed patients who underwent chemotherapy and recovered then after a while) and Group III (included 20 patients who showed resistance or no response to chemotherapy treatment). Clinicopathological parameters of each group of the study were studied and showed significant differences between groups, including age, grade, tumor size, histological type of tumor, and clinical stage. Histopathological parameters were also studied and showed different histopathological features of each group of the study, including high necrosis and severe hemorrhage and the tumor cells extended right from the luminal surface at the upper left towards the muscular is propria right to the lower right and there is a notable high variability in the spaces among the tumor mass longitudinal spaces. The percentages of immunohistochemical expression upon cell scoring data of CD24 positive cells for the groups I (43,55%), II (63,69%) and III with a higher percentage reaches to (78,89%) with significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between groups. In conclusion, CD24 marker could be targeted as cancer stem cells marker as they play a role in cancer resistance to chemotherapy and relapsing of the disease, so it could help in targeting therapy of breast cancer stem cells within the tumor tissue, preventing the recurrence of the tumor.

51. Isolation of Two Phenolic Compounds from the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Iraqi Eucalyptus Camaldulensis Dehnh.
Zahraa S. Al-tameemi, Maha N. Hamad
Background: Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Family: Myrtaceae) is one of the most widely distributed species of eucalyptus trees and the original land of this variety in Australia. In Iraq, E. camaldulensis Dehnh. is the main species that distributed in various regions of the country. E. camaldulensis has active constituents rich in pharmacologically significant secondary metabolites with proven activities including anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, and others. Objectives: Phytochemical screening of Iraqi E. camaldulensis was the main aim of this study with the isolation and some secondary metabolites. Methods: Defatting step of leaves and fruits separately with n-hexane was preceding the extraction process by using soxhlet apparatus with 80% ethanol followed by subsequent fractionation process with and the isolation step from the ethyl acetate fraction that achieved by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Results: The resulted ethanolic extract undergoes preliminary chemical tests suggesting the presence of flavonoids, coumarins, anthraquinone, and cardiac glycosides, while the saponins and alkaloids were absent. The isolation process gives rise to the separation of two phytoconstituents identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and results in the confirmation of C1 compound as the coumarin scopoletin and C2 compound as the phenolic compound chlorogenic acid. Conclusion: The Iraqi E. camaldulensis plant is rich in various secondary metabolites present. The first isolation might be around the world from this species is the phytoconstituent scopoletin. The phenolic acid chlorogenic acid was isolated for the first time from the Iraqi species.

52. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Rivaroxaban Tablet by Fused Deposition Modelling 3D Printing Technique
Ahmed M. Shkara, Mowafaq M. Ghareeb
The primary aim of this work is to use fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing technique in the formulation of immediate-release tablets of Rivaroxaban, an oral anticoagulant that acts by directly inhibiting Factor Xa. FDM is one of the 3D printing techniques with the advantage of formation of amorphous solid dispersion during the process of hot-melt extrusion (HME) required for filament production preceding the FDM printing. Rivaroxaban is insoluble in water, and the combination of HME and FDM 3D printing was successfully employed to enhance the solubility and dissolution of the drug through the formation of amorphous solid dispersion and modifying the design of tablets where 50% infill tablets showed faster dissolution compared to 100% infill tablets. Four formulas were selected for characterization, where Soluplus and Kollidon VA 64 were the main polymers employed with different plasticizers and different drug loading (2.5%, 10%, 20%) were tested. F14 with 50% infill released 95% of the drug in 45 min while F15 with 100% infill released 95% of the drug in 90 min, where both formulas containing 10% drug. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-Ray Powder Diffraction confirmed the conversion of Rivaroxaban from the crystalline state to the amorphous state.

53. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress as a Contributor of Anesthetic Agents Effects on Oocyte Quality and ICSI Outcome in Iraqi Patients
Athraa A. A. Mohammed, Raad G. Reshan, Hayder A. L. Mossa
Background: Infertility is described as a couple’s failure to conceive for at least a year, even when using unprotected, natural sex. Even though all anesthetic chemicals have been revealed in the follicular fluids, general anesthesia is still used in many IVF centers for patients who want to get pregnant. However, few or restricted studies support the adverse effects of these medicines on oocyte structure during ICSI, especially in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements in plasma during the preoperative and postoperative periods, as well as their impacts on Oocyte Quality. Objective: This paper provides an overview of data on the potential impacts of various anesthetic agents (particularly for Ketamine and Opioids) on Oocyte Quality in the ART cycle, focusing on the oxidative stress-free radical parameter. Material and Methods: The existing comparative study was conducted at the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies at Al-Nahrain University Baghdad, Iraq. The study comprised 60 infertile women split into two groups at random. All of the patients were administered general anesthesia, with 30 of them receiving ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) and the other 30 receiving remifentanil (0.5 mg/kg) for anesthesia induction. The research was conducted from December 2020 to June 2021. All participants signed a written informed consent form before being included in the study. Patients’ records were kept. We set up an intravenous line and collect serum for testing (ROS) levels in all patients before initiating general anesthesia and afterward. Clinical evaluation (history, examination, and investigation), controlled ovarian stimulation, ovulation stimulation, egg retrieval under general anesthesia, and follicular fluid collection, egg stripping, egg maturity evaluation, and intra-egg sperm injection into mature cells will all be performed on all participants (MII). Results: The participants in this study were 60 infertile women divided into two groups: 30 women who got remifentanil during general anesthesia for oocyte retrieval and 30 women who received ketamine during general anesthesia for oocyte retrieval. The concentrations of reactive oxygen species in the remifentanil and ketamine groups were compared. Before anesthesia, the median serum ROS concentrations did not change significantly between the remifentanil and ketamine groups (p = 0.051). After anesthesia, the median serum ROS concentrations did not change significantly between the remifentanil and ketamine groups (p = 0.367). Furthermore, no significant differences in median follicular fluid ROS concentrations were found between the remifentanil and ketamine groups (p = 0.051). Conclusion: The oocyte and embryo features of remifentanil and ketamine were not significantly different, indicating that none is preferable to the other in this regard. When remifentanil or ketamine was given, there was no significant change in serum or follicular fluid ROS levels.

54. Effect of Captopril on Neoangiogenesis in Adjuvant Induced Arthritis
Assim O. Farooq, Nadia H. Mohammed
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease with an autoimmune origin that affects joints and then progresses to be a systemic disease. Angiogenesis plays an important role in the evolution and progression of this disease. Captopril is an angiotensin enzyme inhibitor that is widely used to control elevation in blood pressure. This drug has anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities; for this reason, we try to investigate its action in RA. Methods: Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant inside the footpad of female albino rats. The animals have grouped into four groups: group A considered a normal control group, group B was considered an induction group, group C was treated with methotrexate (MTX) as standard treatment, group D was treated with 300 mg/kg captopril. On day 14 of immunization, treatments began and lasted for 21 days; at the end of the experiment, all animals were sacrificed, and serum was collected. The serum markers that had been evaluated were VEGF and TSP-1. Results Captopril significantly (p-value ≤ 0.05) decreased the serum level VEGF and significantly (p-value ≤ 0.05) increased serum level of TSP-1. Conclusion: Captopril has a significantly beneficial role in suppressing serum pro-angiogenic factor VEGF and decreasing serum antiangiogenic factor TSP-1 as a result of decreasing TGF- β1.

55. Ultrasound Biometric Parameters Differences Between Breech and Cephalic Presenting Fetuses: A Case-control Study
Asmaa K. Gatea, Huda A. R. Hussaini, Suhaila F. Al-Sheikh
Introduction: Fetal presentation is usually determined by maternal abdominal palpation. The sensitivity of this examination was widely different between studies (57–70%), and this had a significant dependency on the skill and experience of the examiner. The study assesses the relationship between fetal presentation (cephalic or breech) and ultrasonic fetal biometric measurements. Methods: a case-control study involved 86 aberrantly healthy pregnant women whose gestational age ranged between 24 to 40 weeks divided into two groups according to fetal presentation. The first group, their fetus, was presented as Breech (n = 33); in the second group, their fetuses were in cephalic presentation (n = 53) as determined by abdominal and ultrasound examination. For both groups, ultrasonic assessment of fetal biparietal diameter, femoral length, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and estimated fetal weight was done. The results were expressed as weeks of gestation and compared them using Statistical Package for Social Science; SPSS version 24, a p-value of less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. Multiple pregnancies, maternal disease during pregnancy (complicated pregnancy). Fetus with growth restriction and fetuses with congenital abnormalities, and those in labor were excluded from this study. Results: In term pregnancy, no statistically significant difference in all biometric parameters between the two groups except femoral length, which was significantly lower in breech than cephalic presenting fetus (36.06 + 1.34 vs. 37.25 + 1.21, respectively). While in preterm pregnancy, all the parameters in the breech-presenting fetuses were lagged behind those of the cephalic group with very highly obvious statistical values. Conclusions: There is no statistically significant difference in biometric parameters between term breech and cephalic presenting fetus apart from femoral length, which is shorter in breech while preterm breech had significantly lower biometric parameters than a cephalic presenting fetus.

56. Vitamin D Status and Correlation among Iraqi Adult Patients Attending Teaching Hospital in Babylon Governorate, Iraq
Amasee F. Jabbar, Hasan A. Baiee, Fadhil K. Jassim
Background: Globally vitamin D deficiency affected about one billion individuals. Vitamin D deficiency contributed to many health problems included serious chronic diseases. Previous studies had shown high rates of vitamin D deficiency in Iraq despite appreciable levels of sunshine. However, none have studied the features of vitamin D status among hospital patients with chronic diseases in Babylon province. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of Vitamin D inadequacy and its correlation among patients attending Merjan Teaching Hospital. Methodology: A cross sectional hospital-based study conducted using a pretested Questionnaire and blood sampling technique to measure Vitamin D serum levels among 240 conveniently selected patients in Merjan Teaching Hospital, Babylon governorate, Iraq, during the period from 1 February through June 2021. Results: High levels of deficiency among patients admitted to Merjan Teaching Hospital regardless the age, gender, income levels, and education and type of diseases. Amongst the studied patients, only (15.3%) of the participants had normal vitamin D serum level while more than half of them (53.5%) with vitamin D deficiency and (31.2%) insufficient Vitamin D. a significant and inverse associations were identified between inadequacy of vitamin D and diabetes or hypertension. Conclusions: High rates of vitamin D deficiency among Iraqi patients despite high levels of sunshine, inadequacy was significantly with aging, being female and having diabetes or hypertension. Public health strategies needed to address this high deficiency rates, including screening for VD inadequacy, food fortification with VD, health education campaigns for increasing exposure to sunlight all strongly needed requested.

57. Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory Effect of Curcumin as an Additive Therapy to Meloxicam in Management of Knee Osteoarthritis
Maiss S. Baqer, Mohammed M. Mohammed
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic degenerative arthritis diseases and a major cause of pain and physical disability among elderly patients. It can affect any joint in the body but most commonly, hip and knee joints. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, OA affected by a range of mechanical and biochemical factors. Various studies provided compelling evidence that low-grade inflammation and synovitis are playing a pivotal role in its pathogenesis along with oxidative stress. Unfortunately, there is no cure for the disease; thus, most current treatments are prescribed for alleviating symptoms only. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been used for centuries in ayurvedic medicine that gained an increasing surge of interest to explore its potential properties. Many in vitro and in vivo studies reported powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity for treating various pathological conditions, including OA, curcumin has shown chondroprotective potential on osteoarthritis disease. Aim of the Study: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin as an additive therapy to a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, meloxicam, in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Patients and Method: This prospective open-labeled randomized controlled trial was conducted among patients with mild to moderate knee OA. Sixty-two patients were enrolled in this study; only 42 patients completed the study. Patients were assigned randomly into two groups; group (A) 21 patients treated with meloxicam alone (15 mg/day), group (B) 21 patients treated with a combination of meloxicam (15 mg/day), and curcumin (1600 mg/day) for 12 weeks. Inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) serum levels were evaluated at the time of enrolment and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: Results gained from this study showed that treatment of knee OA patients with a combination of meloxicam and curcumin has a better effect on overall pain and physical function in addition to a remarkable decrease in serum pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) level (-39%, -24%, -30%) respectively after 12 weeks of treatment in respect to baseline levels. However, this reduction was significant only for IL-6. While those patients treated with meloxicam alone demonstrated no significant reduction. Conclusion: Curcumin represents a safe and effective anti-inflammatory product that exhibits a synergistic effect when used in combination with meloxicam, resulting in pain and physical activity improvement, which its anti-inflammatory effect may reflect.

58. Synthesis and Characterization of Biapehb/P(Aa-Co-Am)) Composites Hydrogels and their Kinetic Study as Adsorbent for Rhodamine 6g Dye from their Aqueous Solutions
A. IF. Atyaa, Layth S. Jasim, Hayder O. Jamel
BIAPEHB/P(AA-co-AM)) composites were made using a free radical polymerization technique that included potassium persulfate (KPS) as a precursor and N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a cross-linking agent. This study utilized the surface to extract Rhodamine 6G dye from its aqueous solutions. The time necessary for equilibrium was 45 minutes, which corresponds to when the peak adsorption value occurs. The surface was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques before and after the adsorption process. Also, ionic strength and pH experiments were conducted, experiments were conducted at pH 7 and 25°C. After completing the kinetic investigation on the adsorption process using pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order models, it was determined that the pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 09998) is more consistent with the adsorption process of dye on the composites surface and that by correlation coefficients accreditation.

59. Genetic Markers for miRNA-16 and miRNA-221 in Women with Thyroid Disorders
Aseel R. A. Qader, Buthainah J. Yousif
This study was conducted in some private laboratories in Baghdad and Salah al-Din for the period from 12/2/2020 to 25/3/2021 to investigate the role of microRNA in women with thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid cancer) by measuring Gene expression levels of two genes (MiR-221 and MiR-16), where a blood sample of 21 hypothyroid women and 15 hyperthyroid women and five representatives of women suffering from thyroid tumors were collected and compared with a healthy control group with 15 samples. The gene expression levels were measured by extracting microRNA from the blood. Scientists use real-time qPCR. The statistical analyses included removing the expression difference Fold of Expression by a value of 2(-ΔΔct). MiR-221. There is a decrease in gene expression for both hypo and hyperthyroid women and an increase in gene expression in women with thyroid tumors. As for miR-expression levels 16, the results were similar to the effects of MiR-221. There is a decrease in gene expression in cases of hypo and hyperthyroidism and an increase in expression in cases of tumors. This study clarified the role of miR-221 and miR16 in the possibility of thyroid diseases and tumors. Biologists determine both miR-221 and miR16 functions through the disturbance in the amount of their gene expression. It thus can be used as a biomarker that can be inferred, especially in the case of cancers.

60. Evaluation of Total Phenolic Content, Flavanoid Content and In-vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Moringa Oleifera Lam
Mohammed N. Alam, Rahul Kaushik, Lubhan Singh, Najam A. Khan
Objective: To evaluate total phenolic contents, flavanoid contents and in-vitro free radical scavenging activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Methods: Phytochemical screening, qualitative, quantitative determination of total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and in-vitro free radical scavenging activity such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power assay (RPA) were performed using standard procedures. Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic and aqueous extracts revealed the availability of important classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, and others. In comparison to chloroform and pet ether, the total phenolic content of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of M. oleifera leaves was found to be the highest as 99.24 ± 0.42 and 43.13 ± 0.062 mg/gm of gallic acid, respectively. The total flavonoid content of ethanolic and aqueous extracts was found to be 91.72 ± 1.98 mg/gm and 45.76 ± 1.85 mg/gm, respectively. In in-vitro DPPH free radical scavenging analysis, the IC50 ethanolic and aqueous extracts was found to be 237.6 and 456.9 μg/mL as compared to standards Ascorbic acid (122.7 μg/mL) and BHT (167.81 μg/mL), Whereas in hydrogen peroxide scavenging analysis the IC50 value were found to be 14.30 and15.92 μg/mL for ethanolic and aqueous extracts whereas for standards it was found to be11.30 μg/mL and 13.67 μg/mL for Ascorbic acid and BHT, respectively. Conclusion: According to our findings, the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves is a more powerful antioxidant in compare with aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves. Hence, this study suggested that M. oleifera Lam leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidants. More research is required to recognize the chemical compounds for various pharmacological attributes.

61. Effects of Simvastatin and Omega-3 on Autophagic Flux and Adipogenicity Marker (PPARγ) in Obese Male Wistar Rat Model Induced with High-fat Diet
Rasha Aljuboury, Nada N. Al-Shawi
Prescription of the lipid-lowering drug simvastatin, and omega-3 have been well-documented to possess anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and triglyceride-lowering properties. Their co-administration may demonstrate a complementary effect in lowering patients’ triglycerides and total cholesterol; these traditional therapies were used for many years to treat atherosclerosis and prevent myocardial infarction and stroke. But their effects as potential anti-obesity therapy and/or protection against obesity are not yet known through the inhibition of autophagy. Aim: The study aims to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on autophagic genes, including (P62) and on the adipogenicity marker (PPAR-γ), using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Method: One hundred twenty (120) male Wistar rats (5-6 weeks age and weighing 100-150g) were allocated into five groups: treated with two different doses of simvastatin, omega-3, and mixed treatment in addition to high-fat diet group which considered as a control group. Treatments were given for eight weeks. Three rats from each group were weekly authenticated along the 60 days interscapular brown adipose tissue, and inguinal white adipose tissues were obtained. Results: showed that well-known hypolipidemic drug-simvastatin has an obvious activation of P62/SQSTMI genes. This reflects a decrease in autophagic flux and consequent activation of PPARγ with its activation of thermogenic genes in adipose tissue in obese high-fat diet rats. Treatment with omega 3 alone and its co-administration with simvastatin produced no reduction in the autophagic flux, but there was a synergistic increase in the thermogenic mechanism. Conclusion: This study gave hope for the utilization of simvastatin and omega-3 as anti-obesity therapy; but, each of them acts by different mechanisms; where, simvastatin act through its reduction of autophagic genes that consequently activate the adipogenic PPARγ gene, which co-operates with thermogenic genes in white and brown adipose tissues that results in adipogenesis reduction and a consequent weight loss; while omega-3 caused a significant body weight reduction without down-regulating autophagy process and its co-administration with simvastatin enhance its thermogenesis process.

62. Comparison between Using Lidocaine and Lidocaine with Dexamethasone on the Onset and Duration of Epidural Anesthesia
Alaa H. Ali, Ali H. Jabbar, Zina Y. M. Rida
Background: Lumbar epidural anaesthesia in humans was first described by Pagés in 1921, His work was built on by Dogliotti in the 1930s who described how the epidural space could be recognised using a resistance loss syringe. Aim of the study is assessment the adding of dexamethasone as a stabilizer agent to lidocaine can prolong the duration of block and speed its onset. Methods: Twenty adult patients scheduled for elective lower abdominal and lower limb orthopaedic under epidural anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups: group A (n=10) received 1.5% lidocaine and group B (n=10) receive 1.5% lidocaine with dexamethasone (8 mg) via epidural catheter. Onset, duration of sensory block and pain score, adverse outcome was recorded and compared. Results: Onset of sensory block was the same in two groups, duration of block was significantly prolong by the addition of dexamethasone with no obvious adverse effects have been recorded. Conclusions: This study revealed that the addition of dexamethasone as additive to lidocaine in epidural anaesthesia prolongs the duration of block.

63. In silico Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of New Diazole- benzamide Derivatives as Glucokinase Activators
Ammar A. Hamid, Omar F. Abdul-Rasheed, Monther F. Mahdi, Abdul-Jabbar Atia
Background: Glucokinase (GK) is an important enzyme expressed in β-cells of pancreas and liver hepatocytes, acting as an insulin sensor and has a key role in glucose homeostasis. GK, therefore could be an attractive target for treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Activators of GK are novel drug candidates that activate the enzyme allosterically and exert their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Methodology: new derivatives with benzamide nucleus were designed carefully, underwent energy minimization, and then docked using the Genetic Optimization of Ligand Docking (GOLD). The in silico design and docking process was followed by the chemical syntheses using a well-defined synthetic scheme ended with the syntheses of these compounds, which were purified and then characterized successfully. Results: The docking analyses of the synthesized compounds (1c and 2c) suggested a complimentary fitting in the allosteric binding site of GK protein. Considering the PLP fitness, the hydrogen bonding, and the hydrophobic interactions, compound 1c was superior to compound 2c. All the compounds were synthesized with a good yield. Characterization and identification of these compounds were done individually using FTIR spectroscopy, 1H & 13C NMR, and Mass spectrometry (MS). The results of these analyses were consistent with the compounds’ proposed structures. These new benzamide derivatives might be used as the starting hits for the establishment of safe, potent, and orally bioavailable GKAs for the treatment of T2DM.

64. Synthesis and Characterization along with Spectral, Anticancer and Biological Activity Studies of Azo Thiazol Ligand Derived from 2-Amino-5-methylthiazol and its Complex with Ag(I) Ion.
Haider M. Hessoon, Haitham K. Dakheel, Faiq F. Karam
The research included the preparation of new azo compound derived from 2-amino-5-methylthiazol and its Complex with Ag(I) ion. The ligand and its complex were characterized after precipitating and recrystalized by available spectral and analytical techniques such as FT-IR, UV-visible, atomic absorption, 1HNMR, XRD Analysis and (C.H.N.S) analysis. From the obtained analyzes suggested molar ratios [M:L] was [1:1] for Ag(I)ion . The biological activity of two types of bacteria and two types of fungi was also studied, which proved their great effectiveness against these organisms. In this study, it was studied cytoxicity of ligand and Ag(I) complex on human UBC40 bladder cancer with normal cells by MTT assay. The results obtained indicate of the possibility using the prepared compounds as anti-cancer drugs in the field of pharmacology bladder cancer.

65. Diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhea Using Molecular Method in Infertile Iraqi Male
Raad H. Abu Khanjar, Ibtisam H. Al-Azawi
Background: Infertility is the inability of couples to have children after one year of marriage. There are many causes, including sexually transmitted diseases such as Neisseria gonorrhea, as these reasons can affect the characteristics of the semen. Aim of the Study: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of STDs (N. gonorrhoea) infection on semen quality as a risk factor for male infertility. Material and Methods: One hundred samples of sperm were obtained from infertile males, then analyzed using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), DNA extracted using a specific kit, and PCR performed. Results: From the one hundred patients investigated for male infertility, it was found that (43%) primary and (57%) secondary infertility, the oligospermia (42%), asthenospermia (38%), oligo-asthenospermia (6%), normal (13%), Azoospermia (1%), while was detection DNA of N. gonorrhea 7% from isolates, respectively. Conclusion: This investigation did not support the basic idea that Neisseria gonorrhea can cause male infertility. Moreover, no significant differences (p < 0.05) were supported between N. gonorrhea and Seminal fluid characteristics.

66. Formulation and Evaluation of In-vitro Antifungal Activity of Lemongrass and Citronella Oil against Selected Fungal Skin Infections
Arvind Kumar, Rakesh Patel
The essential oil collected from Cymbopogon flexuosus (Lemongrass) and Cymbopogon winterianus (Citronella) exhibited strong inhibition against all the selected fungi, evaluated in this study. Formulation of lemongrass and basil exhibited especially strong synergistic inhibition against Trichophyton tonsurons and Microsporum canis. In conclusion, we suggest the formulation of lemongrass and basil (BL-1) essential oils for the treatment of Trichophyton and Microsporum species, especially T. tonsurons and M. canis. This spreaded to many regions and parts of the world in recent decades and may reduce the efficacious dose of formulations of essential oils and thus minimizes the side-effects of synthetic antifungal agents. The therapeutic use of essential oils may also provide a solution for the rapid development of fungal resistance that is problematic with the currently available common antifungal therapeutics.

67. Effect of Hyperthyroidism on Lipid Metabolism and Evaluation of the Protective Role of Pomegranate Juice against the Risk of Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats
Mahmood S. Mahmood, Measer A. Ahmed
The study aimed to demonstrate the effect of hyperthyroidism on lipid metabolism and the importance of the protective role of pomegranate juice in reducing oxidative stress caused by hyperthyroidism. Thirty albino male rats (weights 125 ± 5 and age 4–6 weeks) were raised in the animal house of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Tikrit University for a period of 60 days. It was divided into six groups, the first included the control group treated with (1-mL of distilled water), the hyperthyroid group treated with thyroxine (TH) (300 μg/kg), the group treated with pomegranate juice (PG) (1-mL/100 g), and the group treated with thyroxine and pomegranate juice (TH +). PG), and the group treated with thyroxine and carbimazole (TH + CM) (0.5 mg/kg) and finally the synergistic group treated with thyroxine with pomegranate juice and carbimazole (TH + PG + CM). After the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. The results showed that (TH) treatment led to a significant increase in the level of T3 and T4 hormones and the level of malondialdehyde MDA and a significant decrease in the concentration of TSH hormone, lipid profile and antioxidants compared to the control group. The (PG) treatment led to a significant decrease in the level of total cholesterol TC, while the other studied treatments did not show significant differences compared with control group. The study showed that the treatment (TH + PG) led to a significant decrease in the level of T3 and T4 hormones and the level of MDA and a significant increase in the level of TSH, the level of TC cholesterol, triglycerides TG, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the level of antioxidants in the blood serum and liver extract in compared with the treated group (TH). The treatment (TH + CM) showed a significant decrease in the level of thyroid hormones and a significant increase in the concentration of TSH and the level of lipid profile, while there were no significant differences in the level of antioxidants in the blood serum and liver extract except for SOD in the blood serum compared with (TH) group. The treatment (TH + PG + CM) also showed a significant decrease in the level of thyroid hormones and MDA in the blood serum and a significant increase in the concentration of TSH, while a significant increase in the level of TC, HDL and LDL and an increase in the level of antioxidants in the blood serum, while TG and LDL did not appear. VLDL showed significant differences in compared with the (TH) group. We conclude from the current study the specific biological role of thyroid hormones in the metabolism and growth of white rats and the protective role of pomegranate juice in improving the disorders caused by hyperthyroidism.

68. Molecular Study of Virulence Genes in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Specimens Clinical in Najaf Province of Iraq
Nuha E. Saeed, Ahmed A. Hussein
The objective of this research is to isolate and identify 24 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from 251 clinical samples collected from patients in the Najaf Province. hospitals and visitors during a period from September, 2020 till the end of February /2021.The bacteria isolated from this specimens were obtained from patients infected with burns and wound infections, urinary tract infection (UTIs), bacteremia, respiratory tract infection (RTIs) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were A. baumannii isolates isolated in high percentage in the wound and burn was 10 (41.6%), urine 7(29.1%),blood 4(16.6%), septum 2(8.3%) isolate and the later is CSF only 1(4.1%). In this study all 24 of A. baumannii isolates were positive for biofilm formation, these results showed (62.5%) from all types of samples are strong, while about (25. %) from all types of samples are moderate biofilm and (12.5%) is weakly biofilm. and all bacterial isolates (24 isolate 100%) were able to resistant beta-lactamase antibiotics according to phenotypic detection. The blaOXA-51 gene and the bap gene were found to be positive in all 24 (100%) isolates tested positive for PCR to detect several major virulence factors in A. baumannii.

69. Evaluation of CA-125 and IL-17 in a Sample of Iraqi Women with Endometriosis
Wassan A. K. Abbas, Haneen S. Shaheed
Endometriosis is a disease with unknown pathogenesis that can lead to infertility; it is benign, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease characterized by the implantation, growth, and development of endometrial tissue is outside of uterine tissue may lead cause to endometrial cancer because it considered a common, chronic inflammatory disease, and etiology of the disease remains unclear. The main challenge of endometriosis in diagnosis and management is because it considers as a benign gynecological disorder. Many factors play a crucial role in the inflammatory process of endometriosis chronically, such as age, weight, interleukins, hormones, and other factors, which have been implicated in the disease’s pathogenesis. The present study was designed to measure the serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels in endometriosis patients to explain the role of these markers in the pathogenesis of disease and their correlation with age, body mass index BMI and correlation of these markers with each other. A total of 30 endometriosis patients and 30 healthy women, matching in average age and body mass index (BMI), were enrolled in this study. Patients with endometriosis and healthy women were attending Kamal Al-Samarrai Fertility and Infertility Hospital. Blood samples were aspirated from both groups to measure the serum CA-125 IL-17 levels by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The obtained results of serum cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) levels showed a highly significant elevation (p < 0.0001) in patients when compared with a control group. Also, the results recorded a highly significant elevation (p < 0.0001) in serum levels of interleukin-17(IL-17) between patients and the control group. On the other hand, the results declared that there was a highly significant inverse correlation between age and markers cancer antigen-125(CA-125) and interleukin-17(IL-17). The findings of the present study showed no significant correlation between serum cancer antigen (CA-125) levels and interleukin-17 (IL-17) with BMI and, regarding highly direct correlation among the studied markers (CA-125, IL-17), these results explain the role of CA-125 and IL-17in the pathogenesis of endometrioses.

70. Formulation and Characterization of Glibenclamide Nanoparticles as an Oral Film
Zainab J. Kadhim, Nawal A. Rajab
Glibenclamide (GLB), which belongs to Class-II (BCS), has poor oral bioavailability attributable to its insufficient aqueous solubility. The study’s major goal was to manufacture GLB as nanoparticles to increase its low water solubility and low bioavailability, as well as to load it as an oral film to give immediate action and enhance hypoglycemic effectiveness by avoid first pass metabolism. GLB nanoparticles were prepared by the solvent anti-solvent precipitation technique with different stabilizing agents such as PVP K15, soluplus, HPMC E15, poloxamer 188 and tween 20 as co-stabilizers, using different drug: stabilizer: co-stabilizer ratios of 1:1:0, 1:2:0 and 1:1:2, respectively. The optimized formulations of GLB nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, polydispersity index and size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, release study, x-ray diffraction, and surface morphology by SEM. The optimized formula was F10 exhibited a lower particle size of 61.6, a high dissolution rate, and no drug-excipient interaction. In this study, we focused on the casting of the optimized formula of GLB nanosuspension directly to oral thin film using the PVA polymer by solvent casting method without the need for solidification by freeze dryer. This technique maintains stability of NPs and overcomes the main obstacle of nanoparticle formulation, which is form aggregation upon standing. These results may indicate that GLB NPs released immediately from the oral film give immediate action and enhance hypoglycemic effectiveness in addition to increasing bioavailability of GLB by enhancing solubility and dissolution rate and avoiding first-pass metabolism by hepatic enzymes.

71. Effect of Dostenix and Origanum majorana L. Leaf Extract in Regulating the Prolactin and Sex Hormones in Females Rats Chlorpromazine-induced Hyperprolactinemia
Duha M. Hussein, Bushra A. Alzubaidi
Hyperprolactinemia is associated with many changes in weight and sex, and ovarian hormones. Sixty adult female rats were allotted to six groups consisting of 10 rats each, Group C: control, orally administered Normal Saline 1-mL) for 30 days, Group A1: orally administered aqueous extract of Origanum majorana L leaves at a dose of 540 mg/kg for 30 days, Group A2: orally administered Dostinex 0.5 mg/kg for 30 days). Group R: orally administered chlorpromazine 30 mg/ kg for 30 days, which induced hyperprolactinemia. Group R1: hyperprolactinemia was induced and synergistically orally administered aqueous extract of O. majorana L. 540 mg/kg leaves for 30 days. Group R2: Hyperprolactinemia was induced, and Dostinex was orally administered d 0.5 mg/kg for 30 days). The results showed a significant decrease in the weight in the group treated with aqueous O. majorana L. leaf extract (OM) and the group treated with Dostinex from the treatment. In contrast, a significant increase occurred in the group induced to hyperprolactinemia with chlorpromazine (CPZ), while the body weight decreased from (OM) and the group treated with Dostinex. As for the average weights of the uterus and ovaries, there was a significant decrease in the weight of the uterus and the left and right ovaries when treated with OM, and the group treated with Dostinex, and when induction with CPZ, a significant increase in the weight of the uterus and left and right ovaries compared with the control group, while we noticed the return to the normal weight of the uterus and ovaries. When rats induced to hyperprolactinemia were treated with OM and the group treated with Dostinex. a significant decrease in prolactin in the group treated with OM and the group treated with Dostinex from the treatment, with a significant increase in the levels of LH, FSH, Progesterone, Estrogen. The group inducing hyperprolactinemia with CPZ recorded a significant increase in prolactin, with a decrease in FSH, LH, and progesterone hormones compared to the control group.

72. Loading of Artesunate with MIL100(Fe) Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Anti-cancer Activity in a Human Breast Cancer Cell Line
Murder Al-Haydar, Ahmed Gedawy, Hussein R. Abide, Masoumeh Zargar, Naomi Brook, Crispin Dass, Bruce Sunderland
Artesunate (ART), an anti-malarial drug, is nowadays used for the treatment of several types of cancers. It is sparingly soluble in water; therefore, it requires the development of a modified formulation of this drug to enhance its water solubility and stability. MIL100(Fe) nanoparticles, a metal-organic framework, were selected as the drug carrier. Purpose: This study aimed to employ MIL-100 (Fe) as a carrier for ART to investigate the release profile of ART and evaluate in vitro its anti-cancer activity. Methods: ART loading was achieved by mixing ART with MIL100(Fe) in the proportion of (1:1) and (1:2) to form ART-1MIL100(Fe) and ART-2MIL100(Fe), respectively. Only ART-2MIL100(Fe) was coated with 0.5% chitosan (CH) to form CH-ART-2MIL100(Fe). Free ART, ART-2MIL100(Fe), and CH-ART-2MIL100(Fe) were evaluated for anti-cancer activity in a human breast cancer cell line. Results: The ART loading capacity was 65% ± 1.3 and 75% ± 2.2 for ART-MIL100(Fe) and ART-2MIL100(Fe), respectively. The release profiles showed 50% ± 2.3 and 63% ± 1.5 of cumulative ART percent release for ART-2MIL100(Fe) and CH-ART-2MIL100(Fe), respectively. Although free ART demonstrated inhibition of cell viability (81%), ART-2MIL100(Fe) and CH-ART-2MIL100(Fe) showed cell inhibition viability of 56 and 51%, respectively. Conclusion: ART loading within MIL100(Fe) was effective and in vitro breast anti-cancer effect was significant.

73. The Use of Several Polymers in the Composition of Eye Drops to Improve their Rheological Properties
Bakri A. Ashour, Dawood W. Mahmood, Mohamad N. Hosian, Zhilyakova E. Teodirovna, Boyko N. Nikolaevich, Al-Sahlanee B. J. Ali, Abbas H. Abdulsada
The physical and chemical properties (viscosity, pH measurement, calculation of osmolarity values) of polymeric solutions were studied. Such solutions are proposed to be included in the composition of eye drops to improve their rheological properties: as a solution of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000), polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG-4000), methylcellulose (MC), carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC), Hydroxybromoyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), collidone-25, dextrin, and microcrystalline cellulose). It was found that all polymers have different biological, physical, and chemical properties at different concentrations. Depending on the requirements for specific eye drops, polymeric solutions such as HPMC D 4000 H 2208 (0.4%) solution (pH 7.02; viscosity 12.74 mm2/s), HEC 250 НХ (0.3%) (pH 7.0; viscosity 14.03 mm2/s), HEC 250 НХ (0.3%) (pH 7.0; viscosity 14.03 mm2/s) and PEG-6000 PLURACARE (15%) (pH 7.03; viscosity 1488 mm2/s) can be used as adjuvants to increase and prolong the effect of the efficacy of eye drops, since their pH value is closest to the human eye.

74. Association between IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms in Helicobacter pylori infection and Gastric Illness among Iraq Population
Aqeel M. Salih, Orass M. Shaheed
Objective: Because both variants in the interleukin-10 (IL10) gene and the severe infection of the stomach mucosa produced by Helicobacter pylori are known to influence inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, we looked at the link between IL10 polymorphisms and H. pylori infection. Methods: Baghdad’s Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver Diseases Teaching Hospital was used to collect blood samples from laboratories under monitoring at the time. There were 50 patients with H. pylori infection-related gastritis in the first group, which included (23 males and 27 females). The second group 50 which them negative H. pylori were (40 males and 10females) as controls. Their ages ranged from 12–70 years, in the period from November 2020 to March 2021. All samples were delivered to the lab and stored at -30ºC. Blood was taken immediately into a sterile tube containing EDTA for DNA extraction, then applied to IL-10 polymorphisms using the (ARMS PCR) method for molecular analysis. Result: The current study, IL-10 (rs1800896) SNP Detection, The frequency of genotypes TT was 81(0.81), as opposed to 45(0.09) and 36(0.72) in the control and patient groups, respectively, respectively; the frequency of genotypes TC was 15 (0.15) as 4(0.08), 11(0.22) in control and patients, respectively; and the frequency of genotypes CC was 4 (0.04) as 1(0.02), 3(0.06) in control and patients. The expression of the IL-10 gene has increased. Conclusion: Individuals who have IL10 polymorphisms are more likely to develop stomach cancer, according to the study’s findings, particularly when associated with H. pylori infection.

75. Determinants of Anemia in Pregnant Mothers: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Dyah A. Utari*, Yekti Satriyandari
Introduction: Pregnant women are a group that is vulnerable to problems related to nutrition. One of the problems related to nutrition is anemia. If not treated properly, anemia can have an impact, both on pregnant women and on babies. The impact on pregnant women is the increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. While in infants it can cause premature birth. Purpose of Review: To review the evidence related to the determinants of anemia in pregnant women. Method: This scoping review method uses the Arksey & O’Malley framework, consisting of five stages, namely identifying scoping review questions using the PEO framework. Then identify relevant articles by setting inclusion and exclusion criteria, then search for articles through relevant databases, namely Wiley on Library, PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Selection of articles with Prism Flow Chart, which is used to describe the flow of article search, then do a Critical Appraisal to assess the quality of each article, perform data charting compiling, summarizing, and reporting the results. Results: Based on the search results obtained 9 articles. Which consists of 5 articles with grade A and 4 articles with grade B. and related to the method there are 4 articles with cross-sectional design, 1 cohort article, 1 case study article, 1 person product-moment correlation article, 2 qualitative articles. Obtained 4 themes, namely the factors that affect anemia in pregnant women, signs, and symptoms, handling, and impact of anemia in pregnant women. Out of the 9 obtained articles, most are in developing countries. Conclusion: Based on the scoping review results, anemia in pregnant women is a severe problem because it is one of the causes of the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). Therefore, health workers need to know the factors supporting the occurrence of anemia in pregnant women including age, educational status, gestational age, economic status, adherence to consuming Fe tablets, malaria, hookworms. It is hoped that by knowing these factors, health workers can provide excellent service according to the community’s needs.

76. Medicated Chewing Gum: A Review
Zainab A. Sadeq, Mais F. Mohammed, Najwan K. Fakree
Medicated chewing gum (MCG) consider as a mobile system for drug delivery. It consists of a gum base, active ingredient, and other substances such as sweeteners and plasticizers. It can be taken without water and used for improved patient compliance, especially in children and geriatric patients. It can be utilized for drug administration locally, such as fluoride-containing gum for dental carries prophylaxes or systemically such as silver acetate and nicotine gum for smoking cessation. Many methods are used for chewing gum manufacture, such as fusion method, cooling, grinding and tableting method, and direct compression with a different evaluation method like weight variation, hardness test, surface pH, drug content, and in vitro release study.

77. Orodispersible Tablets: A Review on Recent Trends in Drug Delivery
Nizar A. Jassem
The creation of dosage forms that are easy to manufacture and administer, with rapid release and enhanced bioavailability, was a recent achievement in new drug delivery systems. To get the required result, the drugs should be delivered to the site of action at a speed and concentration that maximizes therapeutic benefit while minimizing adverse effects. The most well-known and favored course of medication organization is through the oral route. Several orodispersible medication formulations have recently been brought to the market. The use of oral lyophilizers and orodispersible granules or films has expanded the therapeutic options. The pediatric and geriatric populations may benefit from advantages such as simplicity of administration and convenience of usage. This study focuses on orodispersible tablets, a novel method in drug delivery systems increasingly emphasized in the formulation industry. Due to super disintegrants in the formulation, an orally disintegrating tablet dissolves in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva and without the need to drink extra water. This study focused on the technologies that are now accessible and the progress that has been achieved in the field of orodispersible tablet manufacturing. Apart from traditional formulation processes, this review delves into the details of certain novel technologies such as freeze-drying, direct compression, tablet molding, sublimation, and fast dissolving films, as well as their benefits and drawbacks. Several scientists have created orodispersible tablets using patented technologies such as Zydis, wow tab, flash tab, Oroquick, and Orosolv technology. They are subjected to hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture absorption, Disintegration, dissolution tests, and all other solid dosage forms.

78. An Oral Organogel – Novel Approach for Controlled Drug Delivery System
Pooja Dave, Dipti Patel, Brahmdutta Raval
Organogels are semi-solid systems in which an organic liquid phase is immobilized by a three-dimensional network of self-assembled, interlaced gelator fibres. In this system, despite having a mostly liquid content, have the appearance in addition to rheological behaviour of solids. The pace of investigation into these systems has only accelerated in the recent few decades. As a result, many pressing problems about organogel systems, for instance the particular molecular requirements for gelation, remain unanswered. Nonetheless, after their findings, numerous organogel systems have been quickly applied to various areas of interest. Unfortunately, the lack of toxicological information on organogelators, as well as the few pharmaceutically acceptable solvents employed in gel systems, limits their application in drug administration. This article aims to offer a complete review of organogels, with a focus on the relationship between the gelator’s structural features and the intermolecular interactions that ensue. The characterization and uses of organogels as drug delivery platforms for active agent administration via the oral route. Oral Organogel requires a smaller number of excipients, less steps in processing and low cost with controlled release effect. However, in vivo studies are limited for oral organogel.

79. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Targeting CTLA-4 in Cutaneous Malignancies: Recent Updates
Sanjay Singh, Rupa Mazumder, Swarupanjali Padhi, Shweta Rani, Abhijit Debnath, Rakhi Mishra
With the gradual rise of the occurrence of cutaneous and other malignancies, and due to lack of an effective-most therapeutic means free of associated adverse effects, target protein inhibition-based immunotherapy has gradually become the need of the day. Among all types of malignancies, skin cancers have been reported to be profoundly sensitive to immunotherapy. As of now, immune checkpoint inhibition, targeting CTLA-4, is a highly specific type of immunotherapeutic technology. Reported research on monoclonal antibodies and other anticancer drugs used as anti-CTLA-4 immune checkpoint inhibitors, prove this novel technology as a means to provide potential therapeutic benefits to patients with severe cutaneous malignancies. These discoveries have fueled the thought that immunotherapy involving immune checkpoint inhibitors like anti-CTLA-4 ligands, would be one of the most effective therapeutic means to combat skin and other cancers. Future advancements in anticancer immunotherapy, with special reference to therapy based on anti-CTLA-4 inhibitors, will depend on the success of the use of a combination of target-specific anticancer drugs targeting various active immune regulatory pathways and thereby alter the immunological responses in the host, in a coordinated and synergistic manner.

80. Nanotechnology and its Applications: A Scientific Boon for Future
Rajni Yadav, Akanksha Dubey, Sandip P. Tiwari, Pranjul Shrivastava, Sudeep Mandal
Nanotechnology is a technique that issued at very small-scale sand has a wide range of real-world applications. Nanostructures are among the smallest organisms that can be formed, but they each have their own set of characteristics. Due to its minute particle size, they are extensively used in different fields of chemistry, physics, biology, and medicines for several useful applications including early disease diagnosis, rapid diagnosis and the advancement of treatment that are difficult to attain with the traditional technologies. Nanomaterials are widely being used in medical diagnosis and selective drug delivery systems. Nanotechnology has the potential to speed up the advancement of proper medicine, in which patient’s treatment is customized to their unique genetic and disease profile. In this review we have tried to highlight all the types of nano technologies that are widely used in various fields and combined the concept of nanosensors which are serving the human in disease identification, monitoring their health, weaving the illness, and decreasing the hospital stay of patient’s. Nano technologies are also playing a key role in medical, construction, engineering, electrical and IT sectors, energy, and environmental sectors. This technology has advanced, and a lot of applications are discussed here and more advancement in future is waiting for using this technology.


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